Education in Malaysia

  • Four proposals for developing the national education system

    1. Barnes Report (approved by the Malays)
    2. Ordinance Report (alteration to Barnes Report)
    3. Fenn-Wu (approved by Chinese and Indians)
    4. Razak Report (compromise between the Fenn-Wu and Ordinance Report)
  • Protests ignored

    The Barnes Report was implemented through the 1952 Education Ordinance despite Chinese protests.
  • Start of National schools

    The Razak Report was implemented as the education framework for independent Malaya. National schools were introduced. National schools used Malay language as form of communication whereas schools that used other languages would be known as “national-type“.
  • New kind of exam for Form 3 students

    Lower Certificate of Education (LCE)‘ exam for Form 3 students was introduced.
  • Start of Education Act 1961

    Rahman Talib’s Report was the basis of the Education Act 1961. The act allows the national language to be a compulsory subject in primary and secondary school. All schools using English as the medium of instruction were gradually adopting the national language.
  • Graduation of students who used Malay as a mode of communication

    First batch of students that used Malay as a mode of communication graduated from University Malaya.
  • Introduction of various initiatives

    The Malaysian government introduced various initiatives to facilitate the greater adoption of ICT in education.
  • Introduction of SPM

    Malaysian Certificate of Education (MCE) exam was introduced to Form 5 students. Known now as SPM.
  • Halt of UCLES handling Exams

    Examinations that were handled by UCLES were stopped. UCLES still advises the Malaysian Examinations Syndicate on standards.
  • New Primary School Curriculum

    New Primary School Curriculum was introduced.
  • Start of National Philosophy of Education and Integrated Secondary School curriculum

    • The National Philosophy of Education was released.
    • Integrated Secondary School curriculum was implemented.
  • LCE replaced by PMR

    Lower Certificate of Education (LCE) is replaced by Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).
  • Pre-school education part of formal education system. PTS given to Year 3 students. Allowed students to skip a grade.

    • After the enactment of the Education Act, pre-school education became a part of the formal education system.
    • Level One Evaluation (PTS) was given to Year 3 students. Excellence in this test allowed students to skip Year 4 and attend Year 5 instead.
  • Removal of PTS

    Level One Evaluation (PTS) removed.
  • Introduction of English to subjects

    English was introduced as the language of instruction in sciences and mathematics subjects. A new subject, English for Science and Technology (EST) was introduced.
  • Format changes made for Malay exam papers

    Several changes were made to the format of the 2 Malay papers, Pemahaman and Penulisan UPSR.
  • Addition of GCE O Levels. Release of National Education Blueprint

    Students were given a GCE‚ O‘ Level grade for their English paper with the normal English SPM paper. The National Education Blueprint 2006–10 released. The Blueprint set a number of goals, such as establishing a National Pre-School Curriculum, setting up 100 new classes for students with special needs, increasing the percentage of single-session schools to 90% for primary schools and 70% for secondary schools, and decreasing class sizes from 31 to 30 students in primary schools and more.
  • New grading system for SPM

    SPM used a new grading system, the grades ranging from A+ to G previously 1A.
  • Limitation of SPM subjects

    A subject limit of 10 was imposed on every SPM candidate. The minimum of 8 subjects were lowered to 6.
  • PMR abolished, replaced by SBA

    PMR an exam for Form 3 students will be abolished in 2014 and replaced with a School-Based Assessment (SBA) conducted by the schools.
  • Sejarah as compulsory subject

    Sejarah is added as a compulsory pass subject for all students taking SPM to make them eligible to receive the examination certificate in 2013.