CTE Timeline

  • Period: 469 BCE to 399 BCE

    👨 Socrates

    Socrates was a Greek philosopher from Athens who is often regarded as the founder of Western philosophy and one of the earliest moral philosophers of the ethical school of thought.
  • Period: 428 BCE to 348 BCE

    👨 Plato

    Plato was a Greek philosopher who established the school of thought and the Academy, Europe's first institution of higher learning.
  • Period: 384 BCE to 322 BCE

    👨 Aristotle

    Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath who lived in Ancient Greece during the Classical period. He was the creator of the Peripatetic school of philosophy within the Lyceum and the larger Aristotelian tradition, having been taught by Plato.
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    📅 📌 Technology Revolution

    Each technology revolution has resulted in new societal perspectives, more access to education, and enhanced learning methods. In my opinion, the digital revolution has had the most significant impact on CTE and education as a whole since internet access to nearly anything puts learning at the tips of our fingers because we can research anything in seconds.
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    👨 Thomas Jefferson

    Only educated persons, according to Thomas Jefferson, could ensure the success of the American experiment in self-government. He envisaged a radical system of wide, free public education for men and women equally, and his foundation of the University of Virginia largely realized his greater aspirations.
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    📅 📌 Industrial Revolution

    Following the First Industrial Revolution, there was a need for more diversified degree options and a wider selection of courses to choose from (for example, The New Education (Eliot, 1869)), as in the German university model for postgraduate study.
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    📜 Publication of Rousseau’s Émilie

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's essay on the essence of education and the character of man. Rousseau's goal in The Social Contract (1762) is to establish a method of education that would allow the natural man he defines to survive in a corrupt society. Some consider it to be the first philosophy of education in Western civilization with a real claim to completion, as well as one of the first Bildungsroman books.
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    👨 Horace Mann

    He was the driving force behind the Common School Movement, which ensured that each student could obtain a basic education paid for by municipal taxes. His impact quickly went beyond Massachusetts as many states adopted the concept of universal education.
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    👨 John Swett

    When Swett became head of San Francisco's Rincon School, he immediately began organizing the city's public schools and was elected California superintendent of public instruction in 1862. He held that position until 1867, during which time he formed teachers' institutes, built a teacher-certification system, obtained legislative support for school taxes, drafted a revised school statute, and mandated standard textbooks for the whole California public school system.
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    📅 📌 Women’s suffrage

    Within five years, women's suffrage had a favorable influence on school enrolment rates and raised municipal education expenditures by 13.9 percent on average.
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    👩 Ellen H. Richards

    Ellen H. Swallow Richards is most known for pioneering the subject of sanitary engineering. She was one of America's first female professional chemists and the first woman to be accepted by a scientific institution. In 1890, Richards conducted an extraordinary study that resulted in the nation's first state water-quality regulations.
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    👨 Booker T. Washington

    👨 Booker T. Washington founded and built the Tuskegee Institute for African-American Education in order to gain practical skills in education. It functioned as a testing ground for Washington's educational concept. He knew that the farmers would want specialized support. To meet this demand, he created two types of schooling that still exist and prosper today. Adult and extended education are the two notions.
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    👨 John Dewey

    John Dewey was a key proponent of the American school of thought known as pragmatism, which rejected contemporary philosophy's dualism epistemology and metaphysics in favor of a naturalistic approach. He is well known for his participation in what is known as progressive education. Progressive education is essentially a school of thought that emphasizes the importance of learning by doing. Dewey thought that humans learn best via 'hands-on' experiences.
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    👩 Alice Peloubet Norton

    Alice Peloubet Norton graduated from Smith College in 1882. In 1883, Norton founded the Sanitary Science Club as part of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. She went on to teach at Brookline High School and then the Chicago Institute. When the Institute became the University of Chicago School of Education, Norton offered seminars on home and family life.
  • 📜 Morrill Act

    The Morrill Land Grant College Act of 1862, first introduced by Morrill while he was a member of the House of Representatives, set aside government property to establish institutions to "benefit the agricultural and mechanical arts."
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    👩 Martha Van rensselaer

    Van Rensselaer was an educator and supporter of using knowledge to improve one's quality of life at home. She referred to her field of study as "domestic science," and she concentrated on the fundamental components of homemaking. Van Rensselaer was exposed to Cornell's tiny agricultural extension program, which aimed to educate farmers on the most recent scientific breakthroughs.
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    👨 David Snedden

    He served as the first Commissioner of Education in Massachusetts before leaving to join the faculty of Teachers College, Columbia University (1916-1935). He believed in "social efficiency," the idea that education might prepare children for the specific roles they would play as adults. To that purpose, he proposed that some high school students obtain vocational education while others receive a general education.
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    👨 Rufus Stimson

    Rufus Stimson was the third president of Connecticut Agricultural College in the United States. Stimson, who was skilled at handling public relations, immediately mended relationships with the state's agricultural communities, which had frayed during Flint's (the previous president's) tenure. In contrast to Flint's controversial emphasis on classical education, Stimson maintained that "the main goal of the College is to prepare students for practical farming."
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    👨 W.E.B, DuBois

    Du Bois is perhaps most known for coining the phrase "talented tenth." He felt that full citizenship and equal rights for African Americans would be achieved via the efforts of an intellectual elite, which is why he advocated for a wide liberal arts education at the college level. This ran counter to Washington's emphasis on industrial education.
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    👨 Charles Allen Prosser

    Charles Allen Prosser was an essential figure in the vocational education movement, best remembered as the creator of the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the face of the 1945 push for life adjustment education.
  • 📜Hatch Act

    The Hatch Act, approved by Congress in 1887, provides for required fundamental and applied agricultural research to be done by state schools of agriculture in collaboration with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  • 📜Second Morrill Act

    The Second Morrill Act of 1890, directed at former Confederate states, attempted to correct this injustice. States were compelled to construct separate land-grant universities for Black students or demonstrate that admission was not based on race.
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    👨 Major Dennis Mobley

    Major Dennis Mobley was the ACTE's Executive Secretary for 15 years and believed that Vocational Education should be provided to ALL people.
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    📅📌 World War I

    After World War I, the first widespread adoption of career and technical education occurred, and the trend flourished in the years that followed. Adult education and retraining residents to re-enter the workforce were added to career and technical education.
  • 📜Smith-Lever Act

    The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 is a federal law in the United States that established a network of cooperative extension services linked to land-grant universities to inform citizens about current developments in agriculture, home economics, public policy/government, leadership, 4-H, economic development, coastal issues (National Sea Grant College Program), and related subjects. The provision of home teaching under the Act aided farmers in learning new agricultural practices.
  • 📜Smith-Hughes Act

    The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 established government support for secondary vocational and technical education (CTE) programs for the first time. For the first year, the statute allocated $1.7 million in financing. The act created collaboration between the federal government and the states. It also laid the groundwork for secondary and postsecondary CTE programs.
  • 📅📌 American Vocational Association Developed

    The American Vocational Association is an organization that seeks to crystallize vocational educators' thinking in the field of vocational education and to interpret to the public the aims, objectives, and significance of a national program of vocational education. The organization was renamed the Association of Career and Technical Education in 1934.
  • 📜George Reed Act

    The George-Reed Act was solely concerned with agriculture and home economics. It withdrew home economics from the Smith Hughes Act's trade and industrial parts. It had a five-year term restriction and no financing. However, it did authorize yearly appropriations.
  • 📅📌 American Vocational Association becomes Association of Career and Technical Education

    In 1934, the American Vocational Association changed its name to the Association of Career and Technical Education. The objective of ACTE is to provide educational leadership in the development of a competitive workforce. ACTE works to equip educators to conduct high-quality CTE programs that prepare all students for professional success.
  • 📜George-Dean Act

    Agriculture, home economics, and trade and industrial education received $12 million under the George Deen Act. It included distribution occupations, which are now known as marketing programs. $1.2 million of the $12 million was set up for vocational coaching and occupational information. It included support for supervisor travel for the first time. It was the start of a movement toward more flexible vocational education.
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    📅📌 Civil Rights Movement

    The Civil Rights Act was the result of the Civil Rights Movement. The Act resulted in increased equality for women, LGBTQ people, people with disabilities, and immigrants. The Civil Rights Act also inspired the establishment of educational policies that stressed fairness in education, such as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 and, subsequently, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) reauthorization in 2015.
  • 📅📌 Sputnik

    The launch of Sputnik triggered the Space Race, a Cold War rivalry between America and Russia to lead space research. STEM Education was given additional finances and became an emphasis in schools as part of the Space Race, beginning with the 1958 National Defense Education Act, or NDEA.
  • 📜National Defense Education Act

    A $1 billion expenditure plan to improve high-quality teaching and learning in science, mathematics, and foreign languages.
  • 📜Manpower Development and Training Act

    The Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 aimed to teach and retrain thousands of individuals who had lost their jobs due to automation and technical advancement.
  • 📜Vocational Education Act and Amendments

    President John F. Kennedy signed the Vocational Education Act into law. It replaced the Smith Hughes Act and established an advisory body to assess present vocational educational programs and make suggestions for substantial improvements. It also expanded financing to $225 million, implemented work-study programs, decentralized federal management, and promoted gender parity. Agriculture was no longer restricted to farming.
  • 📜Educational Amendments (Title IX)

    Title IX outlaws sex discrimination (including pregnancy, sexual orientation, and gender identity) in any federally funded educational program or activity.
  • 📜Comprehensive Employment and Training Act

    The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, or CETA, consolidated federal job training programs and offered state and local block grants. It was created to help those who were jobless, underemployed, or considered "economically disadvantaged." For the first time, employment training was delegated to states and municipalities. This act promoted summer employment for adolescents and job corps programs, as well as public and private job training.
  • 📜Job Training Partnership Act

    The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) superseded the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. It built even more programs for youngsters and extended to include unskilled adult employees. State and municipal governments were once again in charge of workforce development. The corporate cooperation grew, and additional initiatives for displaced and disadvantaged employees were created as a result of America's decreased manufacturing.
  • 📅📌 A Nation at Risk Report

    The Ronald Reagan administration released the study A Nation at Risk in 1983. The research detailed how America's education system was failing to teach its children adequately. According to the research, education should be more demanding and adapt to new norms. It also suggested that teachers' preparation and talents be more closely checked and that their remuneration be based on their own education and efforts.
  • 📜Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act (Perkins 1)

    The Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act, often known as the Perkins I Act, allocated $950 million to finance vocational education over a four-year period. 57% of it was allocated to particular groups, such as disabled and underprivileged people, adults in need of training or retraining, single parents and homemakers, and offenders. It also set aside 3.5% of the budget for the removal of sex prejudice and stereotyping.
  • 📅New Directions Report (Ag Ed)

    The New Directions Report outlines the new path for CTE in high schools. It discusses how changing economics, cultural expectations, research, and understanding of how humans learn may all be leveraged to improve high school CTE programs. The report's purpose was to improve CTE training so that students may explore and plan for many vocations, raise academic achievement, inspire students to succeed and develop skills for successful employment.
  • 📜Perkins Act (Perkins 2)

    Perkins 2 reauthorized Perkins 1 by increasing funding by $600 million and defining vocational education as "organized educational programs offering a sequence of courses directly related to the preparation of individuals in paid or unpaid employment in current or emerging occupations requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree." Perkins 2 mandated that vocational programs have standards and be evaluated.
  • 📅📌 The Secretary’s Commission of Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) Report

    In 1990, the Secretary of Labor established a panel to assess the skills that our young people require to thrive in the workplace. The primary goal of the commission was to promote a high-performance economy typified by high-skill, high-wage jobs. Although the commission's work was concluded in 1992, its findings and recommendations remain an important resource for individuals and organizations interested in education and workforce development.
  • 📜School to work Opportunities Act

    The Clinton Administration sponsored the School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA), which granted funding to states. Some of this money came from venture capital and federal government seed money. It was created as a financial incentive for governments and municipalities to construct an education system that prepared pupils for the transition from school to job, advanced training, or post-secondary education.
  • 📜Land-grant to Tribal Colleges

    The USDA 1994 Tribal Land-Grant Colleges and Universities Program ensures that tribally controlled colleges and universities, 1994 land-grant institutions, and the Native American communities served by these schools have equal access to USDA programs, services, and resources. Each of the 35 1994 institutions supports research, education, and extension activities that improve local agricultural and food production.
  • 📜Education Amendment Act (Perkins 3)

    The Education Amendment Act of 1990 revised the Perkins Act of 1990. It presented a highly specified concept of vocational education and was funded independently of Tech-Prep. The purpose of this act was to "improve student achievement and prepare students for postsecondary education, further learning, and careers."
  • 📜No Child Left Behind Act

    NCLB was the result of a collaboration between civil rights and business organizations, as well as Democrats and Republicans on Capitol Hill and the Bush administration, with the goal of advancing American competitiveness and closing the achievement gap between poor and minority students and their more privileged peers. Since 2002, it has had a disproportionate influence on teaching, learning, and school improvement—and has grown increasingly divisive among educators and the broader public.
  • 📜Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act (Perkins 5)

    The Carl D. Perkins Career and technological Education Improvement Act also changed the government's definition of vocational education to career and technological education. It requires that technical education be funded and evaluated independently from postsecondary programs. Both technical preparation and postsecondary programs must achieve performance goals. Local programs must reach a 90% objective, and if they do not, an improvement plan must be implemented.