Civil War

  • Trent Affair

    Trent Affair
    November- December 1861
    Confederate diplomates James Mason and John Slidell were aboard the Trent, a British mail steamer, to Great Britain. They were traveling to Europe to seek support for the South in the Civil War. The captain of the USS San Jacinto ordered the arrest of the two and they were imprisoned at Fort Warren. British officials were angry and claimed the situation a violation of international law. To avoid war with Britain, Abraham Lincoln’s administration released the envoys.
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    Union Naval Blockade

    This was a naval strategy where ships patrolled the coast all the way from Virginia and around Florida to Texas. This helped the Union prevent shipments for the Confederate pass through. This is very significant because it was on of the major factors that helped the North win the war.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    The battle started when General Beauregard of the Confederate told Major Anderson that if his army didn't surrender in one hour his army would start firing. The Union stood their ground and the firing began. The South bombarded Fort Sumter from every side and the North started running out of supplies. Even though no troops were killed the Union surrendered. This battle was when the first shoots were fired thus starting the Civil War.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    The Union strategy was much too complicated for the young soldiers to carry out, and the Confederate army had communication problems. However, the Union's overwhelming numbers began to drive the Confederates further. At Henry House Hill, Confederate Colonel Thomas Jackson and his allies kept Union troops at bay, he was said to have clung to the ridge like a "Stone wall." In the end the Confederates won. It made both sides realize that this would be a long and horrible war.
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    Vicksburg Campaign

    This was a campaign by the Union to take over Vicksburg, Mississippi. The capture of Vicksburg gave the North control of the entire Mississippi river and ability to isolate Confederate states west of the river from others on the east. This was a great victory for the Union.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The Confederate General Albert Johnston decided to surprise attack General Grant at Pittsburg Landing on the banks of the Tennessee River. The Union army was unprepared because they were camped out waiting for reinforcements. A line that held while reinforcements began to arrive became known as the Hornet's Nest. The Confederate army's General Albert Johnston was killed on the battlefield. The Confederates continued to attack and fight until they were outnumbered and forced to retreat.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Confederate army, entered Maryland in hopes of invading all the way up to Pennsylvania. In the morning the battle took place on the cornfields north of the town and later on fierce fighting took place on a sunken road dubbed the "Bloody Lane." In the afternoon, Union General Ambrose Burnside and his army group crossed a bridge that is known as the "Burnside's Bridge." By dark, the Confederates were retreating and neither side was a winner.
  • Issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation

    Issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation
    President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, declaring that as of January 1, 1863, all enslaved citizens in the states still engaging in revolt against the Union “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.” The proclamation redefined the Civil War, shifting it from a fight to maintain the Union to one based on ending slavery, and paved the way for the Civil Rights Act of 1865.
  • Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15, 1862

    Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15, 1862
    General Burnside had a plan to surprise attack confederate forces in Virginia. Burnside planned to use floating pontoon bridges to move his army quickly across the Rappahannock river but they arrived before the pontoon bridges would arrive. the Union eventually assembled the pontoon bridges but the confederates were already prepared for the attack. They suffered many losses, and were forced to retreat. This was a major defeat for the Union Army.
  • Battle of Chancellorsville April 30 to May 6, 1863

    Battle of Chancellorsville April 30 to May 6, 1863
    Lee's army was entrenched in the hills around Fredericksburg. He was defending the route to Richmond. Hooker, a Union general, planned to take a portion of his army and approach Lee from the rear, while the others approach in the front. Instead of retreating, Lee attacked Hooker's army. The Union Army was forced to withdraw. Despite winning the battle, the Confederate Army was significantly weakened. Stonewall Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own men, and died.
  • Battle of Gettysburg July 1, 1863 – July 3, 1863

    Battle of Gettysburg July 1, 1863 – July 3, 1863
    On the second day General Lee sent General Pickett, on a direct charge at the heart of the Union Army. This is called Pickett's Charge. Pickett's men were defeated with over half of them injured or killed. The Confederate Army retreated. The Battle of Gettysburg was the deadliest battle of the Civil War. The Union didn't pursue Lee's Army and Lincoln was disappointed because he felt the entire Confederate army could have been defeated and the war ended.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    , The Soldier's National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was dedicated by President Abraham Lincoln. His remarks were brief, lasting just two minutes. The speech was not well received at the time, but it is now regarded as one of the best ever delivered.
    In it, he referred to the Declaration of Independence's ideals of human dignity, as well as the sacrifices of soldiers.
  • Sherman’s March to the Sea November – December 1864

    Sherman’s March to the Sea November – December 1864
    One of major blows to the South in the American Civil War was General Sherman's march through Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah. He not only conquered Atlanta, a major railroad center, and Savannah, a major seaport, but he also razed the land between the two cities, destroying everything in his way. When Sherman arrived in Savannah, the small Confederate force surrendered with little fight.
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    Overland Campaign

    It was a series of battles throughout Virginia in 1864 initiated by Union Commander Ulysses S. Grant to destroy Lee's Army of Virginia and to eventually take the Confederate capital of Richmond. It was this campaign that majorly helped the Union win the war.
  • Appomattox Campaign March 29- April 9

    Appomattox Campaign March 29- April 9
    The Appomattox Campaign was the final campaign and last series of battles that ended the war. It begins when the Union troops under General Ulysses S. Grant move against the Confederate trenches around Petersburg. General Robert E. Lee’s outnumbered Rebels were soon forced to evacuate the city. It concluded with the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
  • Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox

    Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox
    Robert E. Lee surrenders his 28,000 Confederate troops to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War. Lee had no choice but to flee the Confederate capital of Richmond. He was blocked from joining the surviving Confederate force in North Carolina, and was harassed constantly by Union cavalry The two generals met in the parlor of the Wilmer McLean home at one o’clock in the afternoon.