Chapter 29

  • Divorce and Abortion Accessible to Soviet Women

    This demonstrates that women were gaining power in the Soviet Union. However, these specific advances were toned down when Stalin took power.
  • Lenin's New Economic Policy

    The policy allowed limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture. Peasants were allowed to sell their surplus grain. This was seen as a compromise because Lenin realized that the state was not strong enough to take land from the peasants and turn them into state workers, so he made a deal with the only force capable of overturning the government. This is significant because it resulted in economic recovery in the Soviet Union.
  • Soviet Steel Output 4% of 1913 Value

    This lack of steel demonstrates the economic damage the Soviet Union suffered during the Russian Revolution.
  • Socialists, Conservatives and Property Owners Opposed to the Liberal Italian Government

    This is significant because it demonstrates that support for less democratic governments such as fascism were growing in Italy.
  • Hitler Gains Control of the German Worker's Party

    Hitler was a master of propaganda and used mass rallies and attacks on Jews and the Treaty of Versailles to gain popularity.
  • Fascist March on ROme

    A large group of fascists marched on Rome to demand that the king grant Mussolini power. Victor Emmanuel III, himself opposed to the liberal institutions in Italy, appointed Mussolini to a special cabinet. This is significant because it allowed Mussolini to go on to seize dictatorial power “legally”.
  • Death of Lenin

    The death is significant because it resulted in Joseph Stalin gaining power over the Soviet Union.
  • Mussolini's Fascists Gain A Majority in Parliament

    This occurred because Mussolini passed an electoral law giving the party that received the most votes two-thirds of the representative seats in the parliament. This is significant because it allowed Mussolini to dissolve personal freedoms and make Italy fascist. These efforts increased following the murder of Giacomo Matteotti.
  • Mein Kampf

    Hitler wrote the book during his prison sentence (which he received for attempting to overthrow the Weimar Republic). The book described Hitler’s hatred for the Jews, the need for living space for German citizens, and a leader-dictator (Fuhrer) with total power. The book is significant because it outlined his plans for Germany.
  • Start of the Five Year Plans

    The plan had staggering economic objectives and insisted that economic output in the Soviet Union rise by 250%. This is significant because it demonstrates the Soviets fear of capitalism. Specifically, they believed that the peasants, who now owned land, would gradually become capitalistic.
  • Nazi Party has 100,000 Members

    This is significant because it demonstrates how quickly the party was growing.
  • Lateran Agreement

    The Lateran Agreement was a treaty signed by Mussolini and the pope. Mussolini recognized the Vatican as an independent state and gave it financial support. In return, the pope urged Italian Catholics to support Mussolini.
  • Collectivization

    This was an attempt to forcibly consolidate small, peasant-owned farms into giant, state-owned farms. Kulaks, the better off peasants, were liquidated as a class and total food output barely increased. This resulted in the death of ten million people. By 1932, 60% of peasant families lived on collective farms. These were so inefficient that family plots resulted in 22% of the nation’s agricultural output.
  • 40% of Nazi Members are Less Than 30

    This is significant because it demonstrates that the Nazis were often younger than rival political forces such as the Social Democrats (80% of their members were over 30).
  • Trade Unions Lose Their Power in the Soviet Union

    As a result, the Soviet Union could assign workers to any job anywhere in the country. In addition, individuals could not move without the permission of the police.
  • The Nazi Party Gets 6.5 Million Votes

    This is significant because it gave the Nazis control of the Reichstag. The Nazis were able to use this political power to quickly take over the Weimar Republic.
  • Hitler Appointed Chancellor of Germany

    This is significant because it allowed Hitler to take steps to become a dictator. He ordered a new election in order to maintain appearances of legality.
  • Enabling Act

    The Enabling Act was passed in response to the arson of the Reichstag. It gave Hitler dictatorial power for four years. It is significant because it allowed Hitler to eliminate all opposition groups and turn Germany into a one-party state.
  • Hitler Leaves the League of Nations

    This is significant because it demonstrates that Hitler was uninterested in peaceful international cooperation.
  • Night of Long Knives

    German Storm Troopers, who had previously attacked socialists and Jews before the Nazis took power, demanded a crusade against capitalism and key positions in the military. In order to appease the military and big business, Hitler ordered the murder of several thousand S.A. leaders as well as assorted opponents of fascism. This is significant because it resulted in the S.S. taking a new leadership role and joining with the Gestapo to form a network of courts and concentration camps.
  • The Murder of Sergei Kirov

    Jirov was Stalin's right hand man and may have been killed on Stalin's orders. His death is significant because Stalin would use it to launch a wave of terror against supposed enemies of the state.
  • Nuremberg Laws

    The law deprived German Jews of their citizenship. The law is significant because it resulted in 150,000 German Jews emigrating by 1938.
  • General Draft in Germany

    This year, Hitler ordered a general draft in Germany and declared the Treaty of Versailles to be null and void. France, Italy and Great Britain protested, but the coalition quickly collapsed. This demonstrates an emerging sense of appeasement.
  • Anglo-German Naval Agreement

    The agreement, signed between Great Britain and Germany, allowed the Germans to have an increased navy. This is significant because it demonstrates the nature of British appeasement.
  • Italian Invasion of Ethiopia

    On this date, Italy invaded the independent nation of Ethiopia. The League of Nations condemned the invasion, but Hitler supported it. This is significant because it resulted in Mussolini trusting the Nazis.
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland

    On this date, Hitler marched Germany troops into the Rhineland, which had been occupied by French troops. The French retreated despite the fact that Hitler had ordered the soldiers to retreat if fired on. This is significant because it was a psychological defeat for the French and made Hitler believe the Western democracies were unwilling to fight.
  • Unemployment at 1 Million in Germany

    Three years earlier, it had been at 6 million. This is significant because it demonstrates that Hitler’s spending on war was improving the economy.
  • Spanish Civil War

    During the war, Francisco Franco’s fascists (aided by Italy and Germany) defeated Spanish Republicans. The British and French, already divided on the issue, did not offer any aid.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis

    The Axis was an alliance between Germany and Italy. Japan (which had been waging war in Manchuria since 1931) later joined the Axis. This is significant because this side would make up the Axis Powers during World War II.
  • Annexation of Austria

    On this date, the Germans annexed Austria and made the nation into two German provinces. The event is significant because the Western Democracies did not object.
  • Czecholslovakia Last Liberal State in Eastern Europe

    This is significant because it demonstrates that authoritarian leaders were coming to power across Europe.
  • Women are Limited to 10% of the Better Paying Jobs in Industry and Government in Italy

    This is significant because it demonstrates Mussolini’s unwillingness to harness women for political purposes.
  • The Munich Conference

    During the conference, British Prime Minister Chamberlain allowed Germany to annex the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia. Later, the Germans would invade the entire nation. This is significant because it caused Hitler to believe that the Western democracies were weak and degenerate.
  • Kristallnacht

    On this night, Nazi groups smashed Jewish shop windows, looted the shops and destroyed homes and synagogues. German Jews were then rounded up and made to pay for the damages. Another 150,000 Jews fled Germany. The event is significant because the inaction by the German people demonstrates their popular support (or at least apathy towards) Hitler’s government.
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pact

    The pact promised that each nation would remain independent if the other became involved in war. It also contained plans for the partition of Eastern Europe. The event is significant because it made the Western world believe that Nazi Germany was engaged in treachery.
  • Invasion of Poland

    On this date, Germany invaded Poland using Blitzkrieg tactics. The Polish defenders were defeated after four weeks of fighting (although they never formally surrendered and continued resisting Nazi rule throughout the war). The Soviets also invaded Eastern Poland. The event is significant because it resulted France and Britain declaring war on Germany two days later.
  • Period: to

    World War II

    World War II was the largest war in human history. It saw the Grand Alliance of America, the Soviet Union and Great Britian defeat the Axis Powers.
  • Four Soviets Per Room

    This is significant because it demonstrates that housing conditions were often poor in the Soviet Union. In fact, there were 2.7 people per room in 1926, which demonstrates that conditions were deteriorating.
  • Fall of Many Western Democracies

    In the spring of 1940, Nazi Germany successfully invaded Denmark, Holland and Norway. This is significant because it demonstrates the effectiveness of the Blitzkrieg.
  • Battle of Britain Starts

    Hitler, in an attempt to prepare Britain for invasion, launched an air campaign against the British. The German air force bombed British air bases and later population centers. The Royal Air Force, aided by radar, fought against the German air force and destroyed three German airplanes for every airplane they lost. This effectively eliminated the possibility of a German invasion of Britain.
  • Fall of France

    France was soundly defeated during the Battle of France. Petain reorganized the French government into Vichy France and accepted surrender. This is significant because it eliminated the Western front from World War II until the Normandy landings and ensured that Hitler had control over most of continental Europe.
  • Invasion of the Soviet Union

    The Nazis invaded the Soviet Union in an attempt to take over the nation. Leningrad was surrounded, but the Soviets emerged successful when the winter struck. The Germans were generally unprepared for the winter, so many froze to death. The invaders were stopped and would be put on the defensive.
  • The Final Solution

    Around this date, the mass murder of Jews and other so-called “undesirables” started. Jews were forced into ghettos and then shipped into Nazi death amps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, were over 12,000 people were killed daily by gassing or other means. The event is significant because it resulted in the death of six million Jews and several million other people.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    On this date, the Japanese launched an air raid against American naval facilities at Pearl Harbor. The raid killed over a thousand Americans and destroyed many ships. It is significant because it resulted in America entering World War II on the side of the Allies.
  • Battle of the Coral Sea

    The battle is significant because the Japanese advance into the Southern Pacific was stopped and Australia was saved from continued Japanese attacks.
  • Battle of El Alamein

    The battle is significant because British forces defeated German and Italian forces only seventy miles from Alexandria. This battle led to the eventually elimination of the Axis presence in Africa by 1943 when an Anglo-American force removed the Axis powers from Morocco and Algeria.
  • Battle of Guadacanal

    The battle is significant because American marines captured the Solomon Islands from Japan. This demonstrates the effectiveness of the island hopping campaign.
  • Soviet Counter-Attack

    On this date, the Soviets rolled over Italian and Romanian soldiers and surrounded the entire German Sixth Army, killing nearly 200,000. The German invading force was then systematically destroyed.
  • Invasion of Italy

    During the battle, Allied forces invaded Sicily and Mussolini was arrested. However, Nazi special forces freed Mussolini and put him in charge of a Nazi puppet state in Northern Italy.
  • Nomandy Landings

    On this date, American, British, Canadian and other Allied forces under the command of Dwight Eisenhower landed in Normandy. More than two million men would go on to march through a liberated France. Eisenhower rejected proposals to strike directly at Berlin and advanced on a broad front.
  • Soviets Reach the Elbe River

    This demonstrates the success of the Soviet advance. The Soviets had cut through Poland and Eastern Europe and were able to meet up with American forces that had fought through Western Europe.
  • Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    In August, American forces dropped two atomic bombs on the cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The attack killed hundreds of thousands of people, mainly civilians. It is significant because it resulted in the Japanese surrender on August 14, 1945. This officially ended World War II.
  • 75% of Soviet Doctors are Women

    This demonstrates that women often had the same economic and educational opportunities as men within the Soviet Union.