Between the Wars

  • Frances Willard

    Frances Willard
    Frances Willard was an American educator, temperance reformer and women's suffragist. She was the founder of the World Woman's Christian Temperance Union and in 1882, she helped found the Prohibition party. Willard also wrote "Women and Temperance"
  • Tin Pan Alley

    Tin Pan Alley
    Tin Pan Alley is a collection of music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. It got its name from a specific place in New York: West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenue in Manhattan. The start of Tin Pan Alley was in 1885
  • Marcus Garvey

    Marcus Garvey
    Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican political leader, publisher and journalist. He became a leader in the black nationalist movement, and in 1916, he founded the Negro World newspaper, an international shipping company and the Negro Factories Corporation. During the 1920's, Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association was the largest civil organization in African-American history.
  • 1st Red Scare

    1st Red Scare
    The Red Scare begun by Russia's Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. The United States feared a communist revolution in the country, and it heightened by the 1919 anarchist bombings. Several sedition laws were passed because of this.
  • Warren G. Harding's "Return to Normalcy"

    Warren G. Harding's "Return to Normalcy"
    The "Return to Normalcy" was what Warren Harding's campaign would be called when he ran for president in the 1920 presidential election. This was a speech where he promised to bring normalcy back to the country. Warren ended up winning the election and became the president of the United States.
  • Social Darwinism

    Social Darwinism
    A good explanation of Social Darwinism is the saying "survival of the fittest". It's the theory that people that are weak should be weak and poor, while the stronger people should be given more wealth. Social Darwinism was a popular term in the 1920's.
  • Prohibition

    Prohibition was a time in the American history (1920-1933) were alcohol was illegal. The 18th amendment banned the manufacture, transportation and sale of intoxicating liquors. This prohibition wasn't popular for all Americans, and it lead to a lot of illegal production and sale of liquor. It also lead to a lot of protests and crimes.
  • Jazz Music

    Jazz Music
    The jazz music in the 1920's created social change, and it brought people together. Jazz music was played at illegal clubs where they were selling banned alcohol, and because of this, many people believed that jazz music was a problem. This music came from the lower class of society.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    The Great Migration was a period between 1910 and 1970 when African-Americans migrated out of the rural southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest and West. In the 1920's, 800.000 blacks left the south. So many people wanted to leave because of the discrimination, segregation, Jim Crow laws, and also the desire to escape oppressive economic conditions.
  • Henry Ford

    Henry Ford
    Henry Ford was an American businessman and the founder of Ford Motor Company. He was one of the people responsible for the mass-consumption and the mass-production in the American economy in the 1920's. Ford was also passionate about politics. He got a lot of attention and criticism for his controversial pacifist stance during the early years of World War I.
  • Tea Pot Dome Scandal

    Tea Pot Dome Scandal
    The Teapot Dome scandal involved national security, big oil companies and bribery and corruption. The secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, secretly leased out land to drill for oil reserves to oilman Harry F. Sinclair at Teapot Dome, Wyoming in 1922. Fall received over $400.000 from oil companies in illegal payments. In 1923, an investigation opened, and Fall was found guilty of conspiracy and accepting bribes. He was fined $100.000 and sent to prison for 1 year.
  • Langston Hughes

    Langston Hughes
    Langston Hughes was an American poet and novelist. In 1925, he was working as a busboy in a hotel in Washington D.C. There he met the American poet Vachel Lindsay who he showed some of his poems to. Lindsay was so impressed that he used his connections to promote Hughes' poetry. He won first prize in the Opportunity magazine literary competition and received a scholarship because of this.
  • Clarence Darrow

    Clarence Darrow
    Clarence Darrow was an American lawyer in the 1920's. In 1925, he volunteered to defend John Scopes' right to teach evolution. The year before that, he had a huge win on a trial in Chicago when he saved two child-killers from getting the death penalty. The Scopes trial brought him even more fame.
  • William Jennings Bryan

    William Jennings Bryan
    William Jennings Bryan worked for peace, prohibition and woman suffrage. He also criticized the teaching of evolution. In 1925, Bryan joined the prosecution in the trial of John Scopes.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    In March that same year, a law was passed called the Tennessee Butler Act. It prohibited teaching Darwinian evolution. The ACLU said they would defend any teacher who violated the law. John Scopes, a biology teacher, decided to test the law. He tried teaching evolution in class, and he got arrested. The trial lasted for 8 days, and the Jury found Scopes guilty in nine minutes. John Scopes fined $100.
  • Charles A. Lindbergh

    Charles A. Lindbergh
    Lindbergh was an American pilot. He was the first person to fly across the Atlantic Ocean alone. Other pilots had crossed the Atlantic before him, but not alone like Lindbergh did. The press called him "Lucky Lindy" and the "Lone Eagle"
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    The Great Depression started after the stock market crashed in October 1929. It was a massively uneven distribution of income, and people started buying a lot of stuff using only credit. Banks invested heavily in the market , and when the market collapsed, it led to banks failures.
  • Stock Market Crash "Black Tuesday"

    Stock Market Crash "Black Tuesday"
    The stock market crash started on October 24th 1929, but had its biggest decline on October 29th. That day $14 billion was lost and $30 billion was lost that week. Businesses started to lay off workers, and many banks failed.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    The Harlem Renaissance was a flourishing of African American musical literary and artistic talent. This was in the black districts of New York City spanning the 1920s to the mid-1930s. Some members of the Renaissance were Hughes, Johnson, Hurston, Cullen and McKay.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    The dust bowl was a big dust cloud. It started because of an over-cultivation of land in the Great Plains. High winds blew away loose topsoil, and it sustained drought throughout region. This happened in 1930.
  • Federal Reserve System

    Federal Reserve System
    The Federal Reserve System is a central banking system with major banks. The financial services provided by the Federal Reserve System are holding cash reserves, processing checks and providing electronic payments. In the 1930's congress responded to the Great Depression by reforming the Federal Reserve and the entire financial system.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    The New Deal was created to try and fix the depression in the United States at the time. It was named after a phrase in Franklin D. Roosevelt's nomination speech in 1932. This new deal was divided into 3 parts: relief, recovery and reform.
  • "Relief, Recovery, Reform"

    "Relief, Recovery, Reform"
    Relief, Recovery and Reform were all a part of the New Deal that Franklin D. Roosevelt came up with. This was presented in 1932.
    Relief: Giving aid to reduce the struggle for the poor and the unemployed
    Recovery: Recovery of the economy. The plan was to create new jobs and help businesses grow
    Reform: Reform of the financial system to ease the economic crisis. Also introduce permanent programs to avoid another depression.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only U.S. president to be elected four times in a row. In 1933, he became the 32nd president. He led the United States through the Great Depression and also World War II. Before Roosevelt became the president, in 1921, he was stricken with polio. This forced him to sit in a wheelchair.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    Eleanor Roosevelt was the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. When he got polio, Eleanor really helped Franklin with his political career. She totally changed the role of the first lady when her husband became the president in 1933. Eleanor gave press conferences and wrote a newspaper column. After Franklin's death, she served at the United Nations. There she focused on human rights and women's issues.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    The 20th Amendment decides when the government and the president's time in office end. It also defines who becomes the president if the president dies. This amendment was ratified on January 23, 1933.
  • Tennessee Valley Authority

    Tennessee Valley Authority
    On May 18th, 1933, president Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the TVA act. He needed resourceful solutions if the New Deal was going to work, and the Tennessee Valley Authority was one of his most innovative ideas. The TVA established a problem-solving approach to fulfill its mission. It weighed each issue in relation to the whole picture.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    The FDIC insures funds for depositors and removes reason for bank runs. This corporation was created in 1933 due to all of the bank failures that occurred in the 1920's. Since the start of FDIC, no depositor has lost a single cent of insured funds as a result of failure.
  • 21st Amendment

    21st Amendment
    After the 18th Amendment was passed, there was a lot of organized crime and illegal selling of liquor. Because it caused so many problems in the society and a lot of people weren't happy with the 18th Amendment, Congress ratified the 21st Amendment in 1933. This meant that the prohibition of alcohol was repealed.
  • Dorothea Lange

    Dorothea Lange
    Dorothea Lange was a photographer during the Great Depression. She photographed unemployed men that wandered the streets. The pictures often presented the words of the workers as well. Lange's first exhibition made her known as a skilled documentary photographer. This was in 1934.
  • Securities & Exchange Commission

    Securities & Exchange Commission
    The purpose of this commission is to enforce and administer the Federal securities laws. In 1934, the Securities Exchange Act was passed, which created the SEC. This legislation was designed to help investors feel more comfortable putting their money back into the stock market.
  • Social Security Administration

    Social Security Administration
    During the Great Depression in the 1930's, a larger proportion of the American people were dependent on cash wages for their support. By the mid-1930's, the lifetime saving of millions of people were gone. In August 1935, the Social Security Act was executed. It provided a new federally administered system of social insurance for the aged financed through payroll taxes paid by employees and their employers.