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American Studies - H

By dbs96
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions written

    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions written
    The Virginia Resolution was written by James Madison while the Kentucky Resolution was composed by Thomas Jefferson. They both stated that it was the duty of the state governments to nullify laws within their borders that were unconstitutional. This would not be Congress' job. No other states followed suit.
  • Hartford Convention meets during War of 1812

    Hartford Convention meets during War of 1812
    Enraged due to the ongoing war and new foreign policies such as the Embargo Act, the Federalist Party decided to meet and discuss how they could amend the Constitution to protect the interests of New England. The amendments proposed at the meetings were not received well throughout the Union.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    In the early 1800's, Congress wanted to make sure that they had an equal amount of free and slave atates. They also did not know how to handle slavery within new western territories gained from the Louisiana Purchase. The Missouri Compromise solved this. It stated that Missouri would be admitted as a slave stae and Maine would be admitted as a free state. Also, new land north of the Southern boundary of Missouri could not have slaves and the other new lands could.
  • Tariff of Abominations Passed

    Tariff of Abominations Passed
    Congress passed a protective tax known as an import tariff. It increased the price of imported goods and protected Northern industries. The South, who relied on exportation for their economy, opposed the tariff and it became known as the Tariff of Abominations.
  • South Carolina tries to nullify

    South Carolina tries to nullify
    South Carolina, enraged after the passing of the Tariff of Abominations because it reduced their exportation sales, decided they were going to nullify it. President Jackson became infuriated so to avoid confrontation, Congress drafted a compromise bill. Although this somewhat settled the dispute, it became clear that tensions would arise between the North and South.
  • Abolition of Slavery Act

    In 1833, Britain abolished slavery in their country by passing the Abolition of Slavery Act. All British slaves received freedom and Parliament paid British slaveowners compensation.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act Passed

    Kansas-Nebraska Act Passed
    When bringing Kansas and Nebraska into the US as new states, a decision on how they would deal with slavery needed to be made. According to the Missouri Compromise, they both should have had it, but Douglas wanted popular sovreignty instead of a geographical line. The result was heated debate between the North and South which led to Bleeding Kansas.
  • Texas Declares Independence from Mexico

    To settle the issue of what the goal of the Mexican Revoltuion was, a convention was called in Texas. After only one day of deliberation, they deccided to declare independence from Mexico.
  • James Polk Elected

    James Polk Elected
    James K. Polk won the 1844 presidential election and became the eleventh president of the United States as a democratic candidate, beating Henry Clay. Polk was focused on acquiring California, Oregon, and Texas and lowering the Tariff of Abominations,
  • Mexican War

    Mexican War
    Wanting more territory for slaves, the southern US looked southwest towards land controlled by Mexico. They went to war and after two years had gained more than half of Mexico, including California, Texas, and New Mexico.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    Wilmot Proviso was a proposition in Congress that stated that there would never be any slavery in the lands won from the Mexican War. It passed in the House because the North had a higher representation but not in the Senate due to its equal representation.
  • Calfornia Enters the Union

    Calfornia Enters the Union
    After acquiring the California territory during the Mexican War, the US admitted it as a free state in 1850. This was a part of the Compromise of 1850. As the 31st state, this created an unequal representation in the Senate of free and slave states.
  • Fugitive Slave Law Enacted

    Fugitive Slave Law Enacted
    This was part of the Compromise of 1850. It said that escaped slaves who were captured in the North had to be returned to slavery. This enraged the Northernern abolitionists. This helped ignite the spark that drove them to fight for slaves' freedom.
  • Publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin
    After ensuing chaos that followed the passing of the Fugitive Slave Act, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote down pieces for an abolitionist newspaper. They were eventually published as Uncle Tom's Cabin. The book drew praise from abolitionists and fury from pro-slavery citizens. This heated the flame that led to the Civil War.
  • Formation of Republican Party

    Formation of Republican Party
    After the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, Northern abolitionists who wanted geographical distribution were enraged so they decided to form their own party. Abraham Lincoln came out of his political retirement to koin this new Republican Party.
  • "Border Ruffians " attack Lawrence

    "Border Ruffians " attack Lawrence
    A group of 800 Border Ruffians rode into Lawrence to arrest members of the Free-Soil Government. The mob of men inflicted chaos, burning buildings, looting homes and smashing the Free State Hotel to the ground with cannons. This infuriated the anti-slavery advocates.
  • Charles Sumner Attcaked

    Charles Sumner Attcaked
    Three days after Charles Sumner delivered a powerful anti-slavery speech in the Senate, Preston Brooks beat him viciously with a cane. Sumner would not recover for three and a half years. This act not only galvanized anti-slavery advocates, but also brought pro-slavery advocates closer together.
  • Pottawatomie Creek

    Pottawatomie Creek
    Three days after the Lawrence attacks, John Brown took his Free State volunteers into Pottawatomie Creek, dragging five people out of their houses and hacking them to death with broadswords. This enraged the southerners.
  • Dred Scott decision announced

    Dred Scott decision announced
    Dred Scott was a slave who sued for his freedom. He had been to free states and thought that he should be free because of it. This type of lawsuit had been successful in previous years. It took the case ten years to reach the Supreme Court and by that time, the poltical views of people were stronger, so they failed to convince the judges and win the case. The judges ruled that because Soctt was not a citizen, they could not let him be free.
  • Lecompton Constitution Passed

    Lecompton Constitution Passed
    The Lecompton Constituion was the second Constituion written for the Kansas territory. It allowed slavery, excluded free blacks, and only permitted males to vote. It was rejected twice. However, it also added to the conflict between proslavery and antislavery.
  • Lincol-Douglas Debates

    Lincol-Douglas Debates
    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas were the two candidates for the US Senate seat for Illinois in 1858. They held one debate in eack of Illinos' seven Congressional Districts. Douglas was an advocate of popular sovreignty. Lincoln argued that the nation could not survive half-slave and half-free. Lincoln lost but would later beat Douglas for presidency.
  • Raid at Harper's Ferry

    Raid at Harper's Ferry
    John Brown took 22 recruits into Harper's Ferry. They planned to take weapons from an arsenal and believed slaves would rise up and escape. However, after Brown killed men and took prisoners, the slaves did not, and eventually local militas fought back. Robert E. Lee brought Marines in and captured Brown who was sentenced to death.
  • Democrats Split in 1860

    Many Southerners were Democrats and supported slavery. However, many Northerners were Democrats as well. Because of this, they split into the Northern Democrats who wanted popular sovreignty and Southern Democrats who supported the spread of slavery.
  • Formation of Constitutional Union Party

    The Constitutional Union was a party formed on the basis that the best way to handle the slavery issue was to ignore it. They dealt with other national issues and paid no attention to slavery. John Bell was their candidate in the 1860 election.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The 1860 election featured Abraham Lincol of the Republican Party who was against slavery and opposed to its spread, Stephen Douglas of the Northern Democrats who supported popular sovreignty, John C. Breckenridge of the Southern Democrats who wanted slavery to spread, and John Bell of the Constitutional Union Party which chose to ignore slavery. Although Lincoln only received 40% of the vote and did not appear on the ballot of ten states, he got 59% of the elctoral votes and won presidency.
  • South Carolina Secedes

    South Carolina Secedes
    South Carolina SecedesAfter Abraham Lincoln was elected President, South Carolina felt they were no longer represented in their government. They felt that they were in a mutual agreement with North and the north had failed to protect their constitutional rights, so it was their right to secede.
  • Abraham Lincoln Inaugurated

    Abraham Lincoln Inaugurated
    Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
    In Lincoln's Inaugural Address, he explained that the Union is Perpetual. He said that South Carolina had no right to recede because everyone had to agree, so he would still treat them as a state. In addition, he announced that it was his duty to preserve, defend, follow, and protect the Constitution
  • Virginia Secedes

    Virginia Secedes
    Virginia Secedes
    Following the Attack on Fort Sumter, Virginia had a decision to make. Being a far north southern state, they had to decide whether or not to secede. They had thought about it before, but Fort Sumter became the final straw and pushed them into secession.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    Battle of Fort Sumter
    The Battle of Fort Sumter began the Civil War. The Confederates forced a Union surrender without any casualties save a horse. This caused Lincoln to ask for volunteer soldiers and Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennesse to join the Confederacy.
  • Robert E. Lee Surrenders Commission

    Robert E. Lee Surrenders Commission
    Robert E. LeeAfter Virginia seceded from the Union, Lee did not want to be involved with the insurrection, so he surrendered his high military office. Later, however, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Confederate Army.
  • 1st Battle of Bull Run

    1st Battle of Bull Run
    1st Bull Run
    This battle took place at Manassas in Virginia. Patriotic spectators came to watch. The Union wanted to take the Manassas Railroad Junction and move on to Richmond. At first, they seemed to have the upperhand in the battle until Confederate "Stonewall" Jackson stood his ground and led the push back. Soon, the Confederates were running all over the Union soldiers, brutalizing them and winning the battle.
  • Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac

    Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac
    Monitor and Merrimac
    This battle was a two day naval battle between the USS Monitor of the Union navy and the CSS Virgina (made from the USS Merrimac) of the Confederate navy. Alhough no side won, it paved the way for ironclad naval warfare in the future.
  • McClellan Returns to Washington after Peninsula Campaign

    McClellan Returns to Washington after Peninsula Campaign
    During the Peninsula campaign, McClellan transported about 100,000 Union soldiers towards the peninsula east of Richmond, the Confederate Capital. Although he came close, he moved too slowly and was held up by Confederate Forces. This enraged Lincoln who fired him upon his turn to Washington.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    Battle of Shiloh
    This tragic battle took place around a church in Shiloh, Tennesse. Grant's army could do little to hold back the Union surge. The battle produced 3,482 deaths with more than 20,000 casualties, demoralizing Grant's career with the Confederate Army.
  • 2nd Battle of Bull Run

    2nd Battle of Bull Run
    2nd Bull RunOn August 28th, Jackson drew Pope's army into battle by attacking him at the Warrenton Turnpike. After the fighting reached a draw, Pope began to attack more. Eventually, Jackson received reinforcements from Longstreet and when Pope attacked again, the Confederates devastated the Union army. Only a quick retreat prevented a repeat of the 1st Bull Run. This proved to be a great victory for the South for they had forced the Union out of Virginia.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    McClellan and Lee met at Sharpsburg, MD for a battle. When the Union attacked, they initiated what would become one of the bloodiest days in American history. After much back-and-forth, the Confederates retreated without a Union pursuit. This had given Lincoln a key victory before his announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Battle of Fredericksburg

    Battle of Fredericksburg
    This was one of the largest battles of the Civil War, with over 200,000 fighters. Despite early victories, the Union army eventually was held by Stonewall Jackson and their casualties more than doubled those of the Confederates.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Takes Effect

    Emancipation Proclamation Takes Effect
    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation stated that all slaves held in the Confederate states would be free. However, it could not truly be enforced until Union armies became victorious. It also made it possible for black soldiers to fight in the Union army for their freedom.
  • Battle of Chancellorsville

    Battle of Chancellorsville
    The Battle of Chancellorsville, fought in Virginia, proved to be an impressive victory for Lee and the Confederates. However, 30,000 people were killed, including Stonewall Jackson. This was a big loss for the Confederates.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    This three day battle in Gettysburg, PA was one of the most important battles of the war. Lee knew the Confederates needed a victory in order for the war to end soon, so he moved into the North but ran into a Union cavalry in Gettysburg. In three days of fighting, they could not break through the fish hook defensive line of the Union. They lost brutally, setting the tone for the rest of the war.
  • Surrender of Vicksburg

    Surrender of Vicksburg
    This battle which took place in Waren County, Mississippi ended in a Confederate surrender to the Union forces. After a 47 day seige, Confederate General Pemberton decided to surrender to Union General Grant. Eventually the South was cut in half which was hard for the confederates especially after their brutalization at Gettysburg the day before.
  • Battle at Fort Wagner

    Battle at Fort Wagner
    Fort Wagner
    The Union soldiers were never able to capture fort Wagner, so it ended in a Confederate victory. however, this was the first battle in which the 54th Massachusetts Regiment fought, making it acceptable for black soldiers to fight for their own freedom.
  • Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address

    Lincoln Delivers Gettysburg Address
    Gettysburg Address
    Abraham Lincoln was the second speaker at Gettysburg after Edward Emmett. His speech was less than two minutes, surprising after a two hour monologue by Emmett. However, he still was full of meaning, using the deaths of the soldiers who fought for the Union as a symbol of why the nation needs to stay together.
  • Grant Displays Fighting Style at Cold Harbor

    Grant Displays Fighting Style at Cold Harbor
    Cold HarborThe battle of Cold Harbor was fought between the armies of Grant and Lee. Although the Union built a 7 mile front, the confederates prevailed. Grant later said this was his one regret in the war.
  • Atlanta Burns to the Ground

    Atlanta Burns to the Ground
    Atlanta Burns
    During Sherman's March to the Sea, he ordered his troops to burn the city of Atlanta, Georgia. They took property they could use and then burned the city to the ground. This became a controversy because they were attacking the innocent.
  • Sherman Sets out for Sea

    Sherman Sets out for Sea
    Sherman's March to the Sea
    Union General Sherman took troops on a march to the sea in an attempt to surround the Confederate troops. This was part of the Anaconda Plan, thusly named because it aimed for a Confederate "suffocation". At first, the Union did not wish to use this plan because it would take awhile, but by this point the war had been going on for several years, so they decided it was essential.
  • Sherman Reaches Savannah

    Sherman Reaches Savannah
    At the Conclusion of his March to the Sea, Sherman reached Savannah, Georgia and forced the town's mayor, Richard Arnold, to surrender. Sherman then telegraphed President Lincoln, offering him the city and its 25000 bales of cotton as an early christmas present. Sherman's successful march had almost completely demoralized the Southerners.
  • Lincoln Delivers 2nd Inaugural Address

    Lincoln Delivers 2nd Inaugural Address
    Lincoln's Address
    When Lincoln was sworn in for a second term, the war was nearing a close. In his speech, he tried to explain the meaning of the war and find a way to resotre the Union. He used the Bible to explain the sinfulness of slavery.
  • Richmond, the Confederate Capital, Falls

    Richmond, the Confederate Capital, Falls
    Lee's Surrenders
    After 10 months of fighting at Petersburg, Lee was short on supplies and had to surrender. This included the capital, Richmond. This proved to be a tough defeat for the Confederates, losing their own capital. It became evident that the North was taking control of the war.
  • Surrender at Appomattox

    Surrender at Appomattox
    Grant had Lee surrounded in Appomattox. Lee made one last attempt at escape, but it was thwarted. On the morning of April 9, they agreed to meet in the Appomattox Court House and discuss the terms of Lee's surrender.