American Public Schools

  • PRIMER-New England

    PRIMER-New England
    First reading text designed for the American Colonies.
  • Period: to

    The Common School

  • Less than 82 school days in 1776

    Less than 82 school days in 1776
    In 1776, the average amount of school days was less than 82 days.
  • Jefferson drafted 3 yrs of public education

    Jefferson drafted 3 yrs of public education
    Thomas Jefferson wanted to "bridge a crusade against ignorance" and thought that public education is essential to domacracy.
  • Blue Back Speller by Noah Webster

    Blue Back Speller by Noah Webster
    This was "America's Textbook"
  • $2.81 avg. expenditure per pupil in 1837

    $2.81 avg. expenditure per pupil in 1837
  • Horace Mann found a school system built on inequality

    Horace Mann found a school system built on inequality
    Horace Mann was part of Massachusetts State Senate. He found that the poor could not go to school while the wealthier attended and could stay longer. The physical conditions of the school building where in poor shape. Mann made sure that each school house was equipped with a blackboard, seats with a back, and books.
  • Massachusetts Average Attendnce is 4 months

    Massachusetts Average Attendnce is 4 months
  • The great school debate

  • 1/2 NYC pop. is foreign born

    1/2 NYC pop. is foreign born
    They are poor and desperate for education. Public schools are mostly protestants.
  • 1843 Bible Riots

    1843 Bible Riots
  • Massachusetts Average Attandance was 7 months

    Massachusetts Average Attandance was 7 months
  • $4.80 avg. expenditure per pupil in 1848

    $4.80 avg. expenditure per pupil in 1848
  • Roberts v. Boston 1849

    Roberts v. Boston 1849
    Sarah Roberts is denied of attending local school b/c of her race. Her father Benjimen sues the city of Boston. The case reached the supreme court in 1849 and b/c of this case segration was abolished in the state.
  • Civil War Ended 1865

    Civil War Ended 1865
  • Public School Enrollment 7.6 million

  • Catherine Beecher lauds women as teachers.

    Catherine Beecher lauds women as teachers.
  • Public School Enrollment 12.7 million in 1890

  • 1890 U.S. is providing more schooling than any other country.

    1890 U.S. is providing more schooling than any other country.
  • 1899 Progressive Reform

    1899  Progressive Reform
    John Dewey known as the "Father of Education" wrote The School and Society
  • 6% of America's children graduated from high school

    6% of America's children graduated from high school
  • 1900's 50% of kids in school & avg schooling is 5 yrs

    Thousands attended school part time
  • World Fair in Paris brings idea of Progressive Curriculum

    World Fair in Paris brings idea of Progressive Curriculum
    Learning by doing. Child Center Education
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    As America as Public School

  • 1906 Steel Company brings many students to Gary, Indiana

    1906 Steel Company brings many students to Gary, Indiana
    The Gary, Indiana educational plan is attacked. Work/study/play. Many children learn different ways. John Hiland won and said plan must go.
  • 1910: 2 million children working across America

    1910: 2 million children working across America
    80% want to work instead of attending cold, dark, drafty, crowded schools
  • IQ test was invented

    IQ test was invented
  • Instruction was in ENGLISH ONLY.

    Instruction was in ENGLISH ONLY.
    Theodore Roosevelt insisted that instruction must be taught in English in public schools. German's started their own schools in order to keep their language alive.
  • Public school expenditures = $1 Billion

    Public school expenditures = $1 Billion
    Schools were opening at the rate of one per day. Going to school was a way to get a good job. Career Tracking was started.
  • 1930's End of child labor

    1930's End of child labor
    All states require school until the age of 16.
  • 1945: 51% graduate and 40% go onto college

    1945: 51% graduate and 40% go onto college
  • 1950: Avg. school attendance = 9yrs

    1950: Avg. school attendance = 9yrs
  • 1950's 72% of disabled children NOT enrolled in school

    1950's 72% of disabled children NOT enrolled in school
  • 1950: 13.7 % African American High School Diploma

    1950: 13.7 % African American High School Diploma
  • 1950: .095 % Medical/Law Degrees Awarded to Women

    1950: .095 % Medical/Law Degrees Awarded to Women
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    A Struggle for Educational Equality

  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    It was found unconstitutional to segragate blacks and whites in public schools.
  • 1958 National Defensive Education Act was signed into law

    1958 National Defensive Education Act was signed into law
  • Sputnik was launched into space during the Cold War.

    Sputnik was launched into space during the Cold War.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act in 1964.

     Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act in 1964.
  • 1970 Gender Bias

    1970 Gender Bias
    Only 1 % of women had medical or law degrees. High school athletics only involved 7.4% of women
  • Title IX passed

    Title IX passed
    No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
  • 1974 Choice Experience

    1974 Choice Experience
  • 1975 Education for ALL Handicapped Children Act passed

    1975 Education for ALL Handicapped Children Act passed
  • 1980: Avg. Attendance is 12.5 years

    1980: Avg. Attendance is 12.5 years
  • 1980: 51:4% African Americans had a High School Diploma

    1980: 51:4% African Americans had a High School Diploma
  • 1980: 30% Medical/Law Degrees Awarded to Women

    1980: 30% Medical/Law Degrees Awarded to Women
  • Period: to

    The Bottom Line in Education

  • 1983: 35 states have higher grade requirements

  • Ronald Reagan Administration reports that we have a "Nation at Risk"

    Ronald Reagan Administration reports that we have a "Nation at Risk"
    Shatters America's confidence in the school system
  • 1990's 200 Shooting Deaths take place at school

    1990's 200 Shooting Deaths take place at school
  • 1990 Miwaukee voucher bill

    1990 Miwaukee voucher bill
  • E.D. Hirsch founded Core Knowledge

    E.D. Hirsch founded Core Knowledge
    Hirsch thought that everyone should have the same general core knowledge.
  • 2.5 % Home Schooled

    2.5 % Home Schooled
    Limited Vocher Plan in Milkwakee, Cleveland, and Flordia. Students Using Publicly Funded Vouchers .03%
  • Charter/Public Schools

    Charter/Public Schools
    Charter Schools: 2,100
    Public Schools: greater than 90,000 Charter Schools usually had higher Academic Standards & higher test scores.
  • 2002: 90% of children are enrolled in public schools

    2002: 90% of children are enrolled in public schools
    Public School Enrollment: 47.8 Million