Cultural Literacy Timeline

  • Jun 15, 1215

    Magna Carta- June 15, 1215

    Magna Carta- June 15, 1215
    • English legal charter
    • Magna Carta =Great Charter
    • Required King John of England to proclaim certain
    • Magna Carta was most significant early influence on the intense historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law
    • Influenced the development of the common law and many constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution
  • May 29, 1451

    Mehmed II (Mehmet II) takes Constantinople 1451 May 29

    Mehmed II (Mehmet II) takes Constantinople 1451 May 29
    • ascended the throne in 1451 devoted himself to strengthening the Ottoman navy
    • made preparations for the taking of Constantinople
    • Mehmet proceeded to levy a toll on ships passing within reach of their cannon. A Venetian vessel refusing signals to stop, was sunk with a single shot.[7]
    In 1453 Mehmed commenced the siege of Constantinople with an army between 80,000 to 200,000 troops and a navy of 320 vessels
    city was now surrounded by se
  • Oct 12, 1451

    Columbus sailing across the Atlantic1451-1506

    Columbus sailing across the Atlantic1451-1506
    -1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue
    -He landed in the Caribbean and discovered the New World.
    -Columbus was convinced that he had landed in the Far East
    -He discovered America!
  • Landing of the MayflowerDecember 21, 1620

    Landing of the MayflowerDecember 21, 1620
    -exploring party went ashore at Plymouth on December 21, 1620. Finding the
    -Of the 102 Mayflower passengers, only half remained alive by spring. -The Mayflower sailed back to England in the spring of 1621.
    -none of the Pilgrims returned with the ship.
    -The Mayflower resumed transporting cargo, never returning to Plymouth. By 1624, the Mayflower’s sailing life was over and the ship was described as being "in ruins." -It was not until April of 162
  • English Bill of Rights December 16,1689

    English Bill of Rights December 16,1689
    act of the Parliament of England
    -An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject
    -Settles the Succession of the Crown
  • Declaration of Independence for the United States-July 4, 1776

    Declaration of Independence for the United States-July 4, 1776
    -Adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4
    -announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and no longer part of the British Empire.
    -Written specifically by Thomas Jefferson
    -The Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain,
    -More than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War
  • Ratification of the US Constitution September 17, 1787

    Ratification of the US Constitution  September 17, 1787
    did not take full effect until it was ratified in 1788
    -replaced the Articles of Confederation
    It remains the basic law of the United States federal government
  • Start of French Revoution (1789–1799) July

    Start of French Revoution (1789–1799) July
    -began in 1789 with the convocation of the Estates-General in May
    -period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history
    -absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years
    French society transformed as feudal, aristocratic, and religious privileges left under a sustained assault from liberal political groups
  • Napoleon Declared Emperor May, 1804

    Napoleon Declared Emperor May, 1804
    -Napoleon proceeded to make himself emperor.
    -convinced the French Senate into adopt a proposal
    declaring that it was in the highest interest of the French people "to entrust the government of the Republic to an hereditary Emperor."
    -put to a vote of the people and accepted by 3,582,329 to 2,579.
  • Napoleon defeated at Battle of Waterloo March 31, 1814

    Napoleon defeated at Battle of Waterloo March 31, 1814
    -Battle of Waterloo marks the last stand for Napoleon Bonaparte.
    - After his defeat by the Duke of Wellington, Napoleon was banished to the remote island of St.
  • US Civil War (1861–1865)

    US Civil War (1861–1865)
    -Crittenden Promise
    -Lincoln’s Inauguration
    -confederate constitution
    -attack on Fort Sumter
    -First Battle of Bull Run
  • Car invented 1866

    Car invented 1866
    -one of the most significant inventions of the 1920s
    - automobile drastically changed the lives of Americans for the better
    -helped America and other countries transportation
    -The first automobile was created much earlier, in 1866 by Richard Dudgeon of New York City. This first car was made with a steam engine.
    -Car became a huge hit-almost every household in America owned one
    -The automobile also helped American companies and industries
  • Man's first powered flight (airplane) December 17, 1903

    Man's first powered flight (airplane) December 17, 1903
    -Wright brothers built a movable track to help launch the Flyer
    - two attempts to fly this machine, one of which resulted in a minor crash
    - Orville Wright took the Flyer for a 12-second, sustained flight on December 17, 1903. This was the first successful, powered, piloted flight in history.
  • Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 November 20

    Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 November 20
    -people of Mexico were getting tired of the dictator rule of President Porfino Diaz
    -all classes were fighting in the revolution
    -men, women, and children all contributed to the fight for freedom from Diaz (Baxman 2).
    -This revolution proved to be the rise and fall of many leaders.
  • China: Republican Revolution (end of Emperor) February 12, 1912

    China: Republican Revolution (end of Emperor) February 12, 1912
    -Qing Dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China put an end to over two thousand years of Imperial rule.
    -Qing Dynasty, ruled from 1644 to 1912.
    -1928, the republic was unified under the Kuomintang
    -political, economic, and military missteps led the Kuomintang to defeat and retreat to Taiwan in 1949
    - 1970s, the Republic of China chnged into a multiparty, representative democracy on Taiwan
  • World War I July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918

    World War I July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918
    o Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 1914
    o Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
    o wife Sophie also in the Bosnian city
    o couple was returning from an official visit to City Hall
    o assassin, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip burned with the fire of Slavic nationalism.
    o US enters war-April 6, 1917
    o armed forces were not fully engaged in France till the Spring offensive of 1918.
    o Armistice
    o Turkey sign
  • Bolshevik Revolution 1917 October

    Bolshevik Revolution 1917 October
    -1917 Czar Nicholas II dragged 11 million peasants into World War I
    - Russian people became discouraged with their injuries and the loss of life they sustained
    -country of Russia was in ruins, ripe for revolution
    -Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, announced his attempt to construct the socialist order in Russia
    -new government made up of Soviets-led by Bolsheviks.
    -Bolshevik motto: "All power to the soviets!"
  • • World War II - 1939 to 1945

    •  World War II -  1939 to 1945
    • World War II - 1939 to 1945
    • Global military conflict lasting
    • Involved most of the world's nations: all of the great powers
    • Had 2 opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
  • • Germany invades Poland – 1939

    o An invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent
    o Marked the start of World War II
    o Ended with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland
  • • Pearl Harbor – December 7, 1941

    o An unannounced military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
    o Contributed to the start of World War II
    o intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from influencing the war
  • • Germany surrenders - 1945

  • Atomic bombs dropped - August 6 and 9, 1945

    o Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by the first atomic bombs used in warfare
  • • Japan surrenders - August 1945

    o They surrendered before the first atomic bombs were dropped
    o Japan had no capacity to conduct operations
  • • Churchill delivers "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, MO at Westminster College - March 5, 1946

    • The speech was named by Churchill, “The Sinews of Peace”
    • Changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East
    • “The Iron Curtain” was based on the war economics between the United States and Britain
  • • Berlin Airlift – June 27, 1948 – May 12, 1949

    • Was a result of the Berlin Blockade
    • Organized by the Western Allies
    • Carry supplies to people in West Berlin
    • By 1949 the effort had succeeded
  • • Communist's takeover China – 1949

    • Mao Zedong helped takeover China
    • Mao proclaimed the birth of the People's Republic of China
    • Happened after decades of civil war and Japanese occupation
  • • Korean War {rage - from when to when} -1950-1953

    • a military conflict between the Republic of Korea (supported by the United Nations) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and People's Republic of China who had air support from the Soviet Union
    • The war was a result of the political division of Korea by agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War
  • Vietnam War - November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975

    • was a Cold War military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
    • fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist nations
    • The Viet Cong was a lightly-armed South Vietnamese communist-controlled common front
    • Viet Cong largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region
    • U.S. and
  • • War begins - November 1, 1955

  • • Berlin Wall constructed 1961

    • a concrete barrier built by the German Democratic Republic
    • completely enclosed the city of West Berlin
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - October 1962

    • confrontation between the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States
    • during the Cold War
    • the Cuban and Soviet governments began to build bases in Cuba for nuclear missiles with the ability to strike most of the United States
    • On October a United States U-2 photoreconnaissance plane captured photographic proof of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba
  •  Kennedy assassinated - Friday, November 22, 1963

    • Kennedy was fatally shot while riding with his wife Jacqueline in a Presidential motorcade.
  • • Tet offensive - January 31, 1968

    o a military campaign during the Vietnam War
    o The National Liberation Front for South Vietnam, and the People's Army of Vietnam, fought against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States, and their allies.
    o Purpose of the offensive was to strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam
    o and to spark a general uprising among the population that would then topple the Saigon government, thus ending the war in a
  • Man walks on the moon – July 20, 1969

    o Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent 2½ hours exploring while Michael Collins remained in orbit in the Command Module.
    o Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 when he landed on the moon.
  • Woodstock - August 15 to August 18, 1969

    • celebration of peace and music
    • 500,000 individuals gathered at Woodstock 1969 creating the largest gathering of human beings in one place in history
  • Watergate scandal –Scandals between 1972 and 1974

    • A political scandal
    • Happened after the break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C
    • Effects of the scandal ultimately led to the resignation of the United States President Richard Nixon
  • • Last American's leave Vietnam – 1975

    o The Fall of Saigon was the capture of the capital of South Vietnam, by the North Vietnamese Army
    o The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam under communist rule.
  • Tiananmen Square Protest – 1989

    • referred to in much of the world as the Tiananmen Square massacre
    • a series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing
    • Led mainly by students and intellectuals
    • The protests happened in a year during a collapse of a number of communist governments around the world
  • Re-Unification of Germany - March 1990

    • was the process in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined theFederal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany)
    • Berlin was united into a single city
    • The end of the unification process is officially referred to as the German unity
  • End of Apartheid and Nelson Mandela's Release – 1990

    • Nelson Mandela, a leader of the ANC, had been arrested in 1964 and sentenced to life imprisonment
    • Behind bars on Robben Island he became the symbol of the resistance to apartheid
  •  USSR ends (communist control ends in Russia) – 1991