Mondale book

Summary of "Story of American Public Education" Mondale

  • Eighteenth century schooling.

    Protestantism and cash economy encouraged popular literacy for students. Literature like English and continental theorists on nature of republics and a balanced government. Of course, white boys were among the most literate, usually measured by how well you could sign your name. Parents hired tutors and toddlers attended dame school, or they sent their children off to charity or mission schools.
  • Late Eighteenth century

    Schooling took place mostly in the Northern British Colonies and favored boys over girls, the schools weren't governed by the government, but by independent boards and were supported by the towns. They charged parental fees and so mostly white wealthy protestant men with sons benefitted. Mission and presidio towns of the southwest had free schooling. Agriculture was seen as more important than educating children.
  • Charity schools in the late eighteenth century

    East coast cities were using charity schools which focused on the poor , they took place in larger cities (NY, PA), they were controlled by independent boards. Charity schools set the backbone for Public schools in the mid nineteenth century. They treated poverty as a defect of character and not a defect of the system.
  • Thomas Jefferson's impact on education

    Jefferson had proposed three years of education, and that they teach democratic basics. He suggested that they choose the successful few (aristocrats) and send them onto universities and then to serve the country. A Meritocracy.
  • Jefferson Continued

    He disliked the thought of predetermined education because a child's parent couldn't afford schooling. He thought women only needed three years of schooling to prepare them for marriage and motherhood, and slaves didn't need schooling at all. His final battle was the first state supported university, University of Virginia.
  • Schools during the American Revolution 1775-1783

    The traditional way of depending on locas and primarily familial initiatives proved to people that they could improve education.
  • Noah Webster

    Webster's American Dictionary for the English Language came from Noah Webster, but it started from the textbok he wrote to replace British text books in our American classrooms, the Blueback Speller. It taught different pronunciations and spellings of British words.
  • Horace Mann "Education's Lone Ranger"

    Mann was the man going around to ALL the schools on horse back to inspect their conditions. He noticed the varying degree of poor conditions. "The state took better care of its livestock than of its children." He started Common schools "Equalizer of the conditions of men." Schools were enforced by the state supported by taxes. He started teacher training. He thought we should all be protestant (no sectarian schools). Shared Jefferson's thoughts.
  • First law to integrated schools

    In Massachusetts the schools were bound by law to integrate. But would the black children face violent treatment from other students and walk long distances to school?
  • Catherine Beecher Post Civil War

    Beecher was the woman who said it's ok for women to go off and teach instead of get married and have kids. Women taught literature, standards of behavior, and national ideas. Children then also had textbooks of their own calledMcGuffey Readers.
  • After the Civil War, time of transportation and industrial revolutions.

    Settlers were moving west, taking with them Eastern traditionas of education. Immigrants who arrived had their religion and traditions threatened by the protestant schools. Bishop John Hughes strived for catholic schools and became archbishop in NY. The Public School Society was replaced with New York City Board of Education. Congress also required states to offer free nnsectarian schooling to all children. Towns also used schools to attract more settlers.
  • Post Civil War Minority education.

    Before the Civil War, black would be punished if they sought an education, after the civil war. If they could find a school that was near and not rotting and falling apart, they could seek knowledge. After the civil war and Beecher, women were the brains now.
  • John Dewey (Philosopher)

    Dewey is the father of Progressive education. He changed the teaching methods and made schools far more hospitable.
  • Progressive Reformers

    The reformers pushed for state laws to make school attendance required. They banned child labor, and tried to improve teaching methods. America proudly put its schools on display at the World's Fair in Paris.
    125 children were arriving on steam boats over night in NY and applying for school, but most of them preferred factory work.
  • Gary Indiana (new industrail city) Most Progressive school system.

    Willam A. Wirt became the superintendent of Gary Schools. These schools were lavish buildings that served all grades, moving from class to class (periods) and taught manners, hygiene and the American way. The schools were open at night served whole community. NY Mayor John Mitchel adopted Gary plan in 30 schools.
  • Controversy of Gary Schools

    (1900) The schools were turning out cheap labor for large corporations. John Hylan, a Dem. opponent, thought that children were meant to be more than worker bees. The Gary Plan ended when Hylan won his nomination and more traditional schools came back. A return to English, patriotism, and American citizenship.
  • WWI

    The time of Theodore Roosevelt.
    "Oh no, what are we doing teaching in different languages, these people are our enemies, we should be teaching in English!" There were now Christian and American only themes and holidays at schools, even foriegn children found them fun.
  • Quick turn out & Testing

    Ford's automobiles were multiplying just as quickly as schools themselves. One per day. Kindergarten and junior was now available.
  • IQ Tests

    Teacher Ellwood P.Cubberly (progressive) became head of Department of Education at Standford University. He encouraged tracking students into educational paths and IQ tests. IQ tests popularized by Lewis Terman, they were picture and word problems (antonyms, synonyms, and analogies. They were used to spot future leaders, They determined that ethnicity DID effect intelligence and were highly subjective.
  • The Great Depression

    The unemployment kept children in school. All states required school attendance until age 16. IQ testing to find higher intelligence and was only given in English.
  • Minorities

    Mex. Given English tests and textbooks.
    Nat. Am. Placed in boarding schools to replace their culture with Anglo-saxon American Culture.
    Blacks Schools in the south were still segregated, girls learned domestic science (home eq) and boys learned to work with their hands.
  • Cold War education

    Progressives discussed socialism and cummunism, very unamerican Conservatives felt. In fear of nuclear war, schools held civil defense drills to prepare children for enemy attack.
  • Mid twentieth century schooling.

    3 out of 5 students graduated and of that onl yhalf went on to college. There was still segregation in the schools, 17 states were segregated by law. 72% of disabled students were not enrolled.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    "Separate educational facilities were inherently unequal." 30,000 African American teachers in the south were displaced when black students were allowed to go to any school. After all, who wanted a black teacher? (Not the students thoughts, but what eneded up happening to the teachers)
  • Sputnik

    The first Soviet Union space craft launched into outerspace to orbit the earth. America lost the race to space... Oh no.
  • National Guard vs. Federal Troops. XD

    Governor Faubus of Arkansas called the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering ittle Rock High School (white). Pres. Eisenhower called in Federal troops to escort the nine in and even chaperone them all year long. Keep in mind there was a law already against segregation.
  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower

    Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act. There was a need for more science and math courses. The advanced students trained to become future engineers and astronauts.
  • Lyndon Johnson (school teacher) Elected President

    Johnson taught poor Mexican kids in Texas. He believed an equal chance at education meant an equal chance at life. He created federal programs from Head Start to low cost college loans. Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided $4 bill. in aid to disadvantaged students.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Banned discrimination on the basis of race in all federally funded programs, including schools, who could lose federal funding if they didn't integrate.
  • Crystal City, Texas

    Two thirds of the students went on strike to protest the lack of Mexican American voice in the schools and discrimination. They gained 4 out of the 7 school board seats. Jose Angel Gutierrez became school board president.
  • Title IX

    Prohibits federal grants to schools/programs that discriminate based upon gender.
  • Bilingual Education Act

    Federal money given to meet needs of ESL students (English as a Second Language) $88 bill. given for bilingual programs.
  • The start of Smaller schools

    NY East Harlem asked teachers to start smaller alternative public schools and by 1982 Educators required students to choose which school they went to and any schol that was failing would be shut down.
  • Economy ruined it all (quote)

    "... our schools were doing a better job in important areas than they had ever done historically, and yet all of that was lost because of our concern over the economy, which we blamed on the schools."
    -- Historian James Anderson
  • Mexican story

    In the 1930's, Henry Nava was determined to see his younger brother Julian go to prep college and pass. Julian earned his doctorate in history and went on to become the Ambassador to Mexico.
  • Life was good

    Scores and students were turning out well and life couldn't be better. More than 71% of 17 year olds graduated high school and most of that went on to college.
  • A Nation At Risk (ANAR) vs. National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP)

    Was sent to Reagan by the US. Department of Education saying that "Poor quality of America's schools posed a threat to the welfare of the country." Even though we were doing fine.
    National Assessment of Education Progress argued that there had been in fact a steady rise in stead of a fall in education. NAEP was around for decades longer than ANAR
  • What ANAR required

    Four years of English.
    Three years of math, science, and social studies.
    Half a year of computer.
    Two years of foreign language.
  • Last School Reform

    In the 1970's Japan's auto manufacturers gave America another scare (like the USSR). ANAR called for higher standards for graduation, longer school days and years (which they never actually got), and more homework and focus in traditional subjects. Gov. didn't want to dirty its hands so it left the reforming up to state and local authorities. Era of High stakes testing was born.
  • Private schools and competition

    Vouchers allow students to use public school funds to go to private schools. Supporters believe that the competition between the higher quality private school and low quality public school will encourage the public schools to improve. Since the tuition is pricey mostly wealthy families were the only ones who could attend.
  • Wisconsin's private schools

    Wisconsin passed the country's first voucher legislation. It sent cose to 400 low income students in Milwaukee to private non-religious schools with taxer payer money intended for public schooling. The schools got $2,500from the state for each student. This was something that Bush Sr. promoted in 1992....... ? XD
  • Home Schooling

    The Christian Right made homeschooling legal in all 50 states.
  • Magnet Schools

    These aimed to attract high-caliber students of diverse backgrounds and often received extra funding in order to offer high quality programs in the arts, sciences, and mathematics.
  • Education Alternatives Inc. (EAI)

    EAI is a private company. It hired cheap contractors to fix up the schools and still managed to make a profit. It took Allocated funding and kept it. It didn't change the curriculum or test scores like it promised, but it taught schools that they could shop around for better prices.
  • Channel One

    Whittle Communications offered free media equipment to schools if they had their students watch 12 minutes a day at school of Channel one. 9 minutes of News and 3 minutes of advertisements.
  • EAI Failed, takes over Charter Schools

    EAI Managed to work externally through Charter Schools, new public schools. Anyone can go to Charter Schools. They use a lottery system to let students in. Unless you're the child of a founder or sibling who went there before.
  • Private Religious Schools

    In 1994 once private schools started to gain notice, religious schools tried to pop up here and there. Two years later this worked in Cleveland Ohio.
  • Wisconsin's voucher experiment a success

    The program served 1,500 students, most of whom went on to graduate from high school at double the normal rate of other schools.
  • Chart and Public schools.

    Charter: Free of rules and funded by state.
    Public: MANY rules!
  • No Child Left Behind

    *Accountability
    *Teacher Quality (measured by tests)
    *Parental Choice
    *Flexibility
    The goal was to close the acheivement gap.