Influences of U.S. Government

  • Jan 1, 1200

    Roman Republic/Cincinnatus (753-509 B.C.)

    Roman Republic/Cincinnatus (753-509 B.C.)
    Roman Republic was first type of Republic. Government for the common welfare/good.
    Cincinnatus, farmer who went into war for Rome. Stepped down for Republic to continue Republic. Showed virtue of citizens by not thinking just for himself but for the good of all citizens.
    The Roman Republic is most closely related to the key principle of Republicanism and Rule of Law (Constitutional Governments)
  • John Locke (1632-1704)

    John Locke (1632-1704)
    Contributed major influences on Natural/individual Rights. Believed that all people are born with these rights. Supported a social contract for government to control citizens' protection. Believed that government is needed to enforce laws to prevent a state of nature or uncivilized life. This is shown as a form of limited government for everyone to obey the law.
    John Locke was closely related to key values like limited government and individual rights.
  • Montesquieu (1689-1755)

    Montesquieu (1689-1755)
    Important French writer who strongly believed in Republican Government.Thought that people have power to elect officials to represent them. He also believed that power should be seperated and balanced between branches of a government to prevent over/complete power. This also involves branches being able to check each other's power. This is known as a system known as checks and balances. Montesquieu was closely related to Republican form of government and checks and balances.
  • Constitutional Interpretation

    More debate over understanding of constitution: Lead by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson believed in strict interpretation of c onstitution and limited national government.
    Alexander Hamilton believed in loose interpretation of constitution and a strong national government. All this led to political parties.
  • Articles of Confederation (1781-1788)

    Articles of Confederation (1781-1788)
    This document was the first written form of government of The United States of America. This gave most of the power to the state governments rather than the central government. States had the power to tax citizens and enforce laws. The central government was limited to making treaties, money, laws and declaring war. The citizens of the U.S. didn't want too much power given to the central government since they believed they may take away their rights.
  • Problems with the Articles (1787-1788)

    Articles of Confederation had problems to keep America united as official government document. These articles lacked power to levy taxes and regulate trade in a growing U.S. debt. Later a Constitutional Convention is called to amend Articles of Confederation.
  • Philadelphia Convention (1787)

    Philadelphia Convention (1787)
    Convention was called to amend/change Articles of Confederation. The 29 delegates came together to agree on what should happen. Edmund Randolph came up with idea to start a new government known as the Virginia Plan. This plan proposed three branches of government and a legislator with two houses. In both houses number of legislators would depend on size (proportional representation) or wealth of state and its population.
  • New Jersey Plan/Great Compromise

    Later on William Patterson opposed a new plan. This plan proposed for a legislator with one house. Each state would get one vote (equal representation) in house. This became known as the New Jersey Plan. After a period of debate, the Great Compromise was formed. This Legislative Branch was split into two houses. The senate had members based on Equal Representation. The House of Representatives would be split by size of state. (proportional Representation)
  • Constitution (1788-present)

    Constitution (1788-present)
    Constitution gave more power to the central government rather than the states. This document also split the government into three branches. These include the Legislative Branch to make laws. This includes the senate and House of Representatives. The Executive Branch enforced laws like the president. Also the Judicial Branch interprets the law, like the supreme court.
  • Ratification of Constitution (1787-1791)

    Constitution gave more power to central government than states. Federalists- Believed in more power to central government, John Jay and Alexander Hamilton
    Antifederalists- Believed in less power to central government; more to states, George Mason To get Anti-federalists to agree on constitution, a bill of rights was added to it
  • Washington's Presidency (1789-1797)

    During Washington's presidency, he was required to hire cabnet members to assist him. This included Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
    Washington also had to set up the courts by hiring a chief justice.
    Economic problems included major debt from American Revolutiion. This was taken care of by Hamilton coming up with a three step plan.
    Washington was also involved in the French Revolution. Britain and France both wanted America's aid but stayed n
  • Foreign Issues

    Securing Northwest Territory: Spain owned west of Mississippi and port of New Orleans (Pinkney Treaty gave U.S freedom to travel)
    English owned forts north of Ohio River French Revolution: France rebeled against their government. Britain got in on fight, both want U.S. help. US stays neutral in order to keep peaceful relations between them
  • Political Parties

    Democratic Republicans- limited national government, Strict constitution and economy based on farming
    Federalists- Strong national government, loose constitution and economy based on manufacturing and shipping. Split because of different beliefs
  • Domestic Issues

    Securing Northwest Territory: Native Americans who wanted to form nation in this land. America won land at Battle of Fallen Timbers,(Treaty of Greenville) this helped for new nation to grow.
    Whiskey Rebellion: Western Pennsylvanian farmers rebel against tax on whiskey. U.S. Government stops the rebellion to prove that they should control the power.