23 Amendment

  • A Constitution Ratified

    A Constitution Ratified
    Though signed in Septermber of 1787, the Constitution had to be ratified by 3/4 of the 13 states. Months of drafting, writing and perfecting came into binding when New Hampshire, the ninth sate, ratified the young document on this date. This set precedence for the process of all future amendments, and the election process of the President and Vice President including the setting up the electoral college.
  • Founding of Washington D.C.

    Founding of Washington D.C.
    On this date, the government's capital was moved from Philadelphia, PA to the Disctrict of Columbia. This was a political and geographical compromise for the North and South heads of government. The land was a combination of land given up by the states Maryland and Virginia. This land was instituted as a federal territory, not a state, and had a population of 5,000 at that time.
  • D.C. Boundaries Chosen

    D.C. Boundaries Chosen
    Alexander Hamilton had suggested the capital be built on federal owned lands, so with the 100 square miles of land provided, and the power that the Resident Act gave George Washington, our first President chose the final location of the city for the seat of the government. He issued a proclamation to set in stone the boundaries of the federal district. He began to design the city with partner Pierre Charles L’Enfant. From scratch, a new city was starting to be built.
  • The Government Moves to DC

    The Government Moves to DC
    The city was completed enough for the government to finally move in. So far, the capital building, the original White House, and the U.S. Treasury building were completed. D.C.'s French designer wanted the layout to look like the cities of his homeland. "Sweeping boulevards and ceremonial spaces" were his desires for D.C. The astronomical calculator for this project was actually an African American man, Benjamin Bannekar, who was a mathematical genius, but surprisingly he had taught himself.
  • 12th Amendment Ratified

    12th Amendment Ratified
    Passed by Congress on December 9th, 1803, but ratified on this date was the 12th Amendment. This amendment states the process that Electors from the Electoral College follow for the election of the Vice President and the President, and states the procedures that Congress and the House should follow should this process proceed past just the votes in the Electoral College.This Amendment replaces part of Article 2, Section 1 in the orignal Constitution.
  • D.C. in 1960 DONE

    D.C. in 1960 DONE
    Washington D.C. had a opulation of about 760,000. The local government was mostly controlled by Congress, with local heads a combination of elected and unelected persons, so the "Home Rule" or local self government is not something that was implemented. The citizens paid federal taxes, and still pay district taxes (equal to state tax) and could get drafted. 13 states had a lower population than D.C. at this time, but they had more voting rights because they were states.
  • Proposal of 23 Amendment

    Proposal of 23 Amendment
    To propose an amendment, 2/3 of both houses had to agree on passing this amendment. It made sense to pass this amendment because the population of D.C. had grown exponentially and even had a greater population than several states. Citzens in D.C. also paid taxes and were able to get drafted. In order for them to have representation in the government, without them becoming a state, a constitutional amendment was needed.
  • States Start Ratifying

    States Start Ratifying
    The very first state to ratify the 23 amendment was Hawaii on this date. Following Hawaii in 1960, was MA on Aug 22 and then NJ on Dec 19. In order of ratification after that are the states NY, CA, OR, MD, ID, ME, NM, NV, MT, SD, CO, WA, WV, AK, WY, DE, UT, WI, PA, IN, ND, TN, MI, CT, AZ, IL, NE, VT, IA, MO, OK, RI, and KS. OH ratified on Mar 29, 1961, making it the 38th state to ratify it. AR rejected it on Jan 24, 1961, and NH first ratified it on Mar 29, then revoked it later.
  • Ratification of 23 Amendment

    Ratification of 23 Amendment
    Washington D.C. citizens now had the right to vote for a President and Vice President, and gained Electors in the Electoral College equivalent to the number the district would have if it were a state. D.C also gained a non-voting delegate in the House of Representatives, but still doesn't have representation in Congress. Some still argue that the district should become a state, but others say that the geography, urban qualities and heavy democratic population would cause political conflictions.
  • D.C. Citizens Invoked the 23

    D.C. Citizens Invoked the 23
    In the 1964 election, D.C. citizens and their Electors were able to invoke their right of the 23 and vote for the President and Vice President. In that election was Democrat candidate Lyndon B. Johnson and Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. Johnson won with 486 electoral votes and was carried by 44 states plus D.C.