20th Century Timeline

  • Claude Debussy

    Claude Debussy
    He died in 1918. Was born in France and was a French composer. Composed Prelude to the afternoon of a faun, written in 1894. Composed Lamerc ( The sea1905) He used the whole-tone scale and not western music. His music displayed moods and expressions.
  • Gustav Klimt

    Gustav Klimt
    Gustav Klimt lived from 1862-1918. Klimt is most well remembered for his erotic art depicting women. Some of his more famous paintings were of his "allegorical works" such as "Adam and Eve" and "The Bride".
  • Ralph Vaughan Williams

    Ralph Vaughan Williams
    He died in 1958. He was an english Composer. He composed The Fen Country, was written in 1904 and uses folk idiom. He also composed song cycles on Wenlock edge, was written in 1909. Music changed before him as he lived through different times, also was very versatile
  • John Cage

    John Cage
    He died in 1992. He was born in Los Angeles. Invented the prepared piano, objects like wood or rubber were part of the piano strings to change pitches, Bacchanale, was written in 1938 and made specifically for the prepared piano. He composed, 4’33 was written in 1952 and has 4 minutes and 33 seconds of complete silence. The silence gives the audience there own music in a way, and lets the audience decide the sounds.
  • Charles Ives

    Charles Ives
    He died in 1954. Born in Danbury. Composed ,Piano Sonata, Concord, written from 1911-1915. Also wrote, Third Symphony written in 1947 won the pulitzer prize. He uses elements of music like dances and marches to show parts of American life. Anticipated some of the music from Schoenberg and Stravinsky, shows how original and talented he was for his time
  • Arnold Schoenberg

    Arnold Schoenberg
    He died in 1951. He is a Austrian composer. He was born in Vienna. Founded the society for private musical performances were no one could applause. He loved to teach music and taught Alban Berg and Anton Von Webern. He composed, String Quartet in D major ,was written in 1914. He also composed, Moses und Aron was written in 1930 as an opera. Thought it was his duty and goal to have new music that would be remembered, like Beethoven.
  • Maurice Ravel

    Maurice Ravel
    He died in 1937. Was born in France and was a French composer.Bolero was composed in 1928. He Composed Concerto in D major for left handed, written in 1931. His work is compared to Claude Debussy. Was tragically in a car accident in 1932 and after was not able to compose.
  • Bela Bartok

    Bela Bartok
    He died in 1945. Born in Hungarian. Most of his works are folk music from different origins. He composed,Concerto for orchestra written in 1943. He also Composed, Mikrokosmos written from 1926-1939, were studies of piano works. Overall acheived his own original style and helped influence other composers in the 20th century
  • Pablo Picasso

    Pablo Picasso
    Pablo Picasso lived from 1881-1973. His famous works include "Self-Portrait" which was created in his blue period and "Family of Saltimbanques" which he created during his rose period. This painting was a depiction of various versions of Picasso and his close circle.
  • Igor stravinsky

    Igor stravinsky
    died 1971.He is a russian american composer, from Russia. He wrote Le Sacre du Printemps which means rite of spring was written in 1913, at first not liked by audiences, but is now seen as a masterpiece of modern music. He also composed, Cantata, which was written in 1952. He used new serial techniques which changed his style to seralism and had a huge influence on 20th century music and was very fresh in his works. Firebird song we listened to in class.
  • Alban Berg

    Alban Berg
    He died in 1935. He was an Austrain composer. He composed Wozzeck in 1925 and is a opera. Composed Lulu in 1937. Was a pupil of arnold Schoenberg. He composed Piano Sonata in 1908 and is one ofn the most expressive instrumental compossions of early 20th century
  • Marc Chagall

    Marc Chagall
    Marc Chagall lived from 1887-1985. Chagall was a french painter. His marriage in 1915 and the birth of his daughter lead to a series of paintings of lovers. An example of this would be his painting "magical birthday". He is best remembered for how relatable his images were to his Jewish and Russian heritage. His painting "Snow, Winter in Vitebsk" best exemplifies these characteristics.
  • Marcel Duchamp

    Marcel Duchamp
    Marcel Duchamp lived from 1887-1968. He was a French painter who was most well-known for his contributions to the cubism style of painting. One of his most famous pieces of art is "Nude Descending a Staircase". Another one of his paintings include "Church at Blainville" which was created during his impressionistic period; and he said that it was inspired by Monet's works.
  • Georgia O'keeffe

    Georgia O'keeffe
    Georgia O'keeffe lived from 1887-1986. She was an American painter who included Southwestern motifs in many of her paintings, due to the fact that most of her life was spent in New Mexico. O'keeffe developed her own style which mixed symbolism, abstraction, and photography. These qualities can best be seen in her paintings "Black Iris III" and "Ranchos Church".
  • Sergei Prokofiev

    Sergei Prokofiev
    He died in 1953. rom Russia and a russian composer. He composed Peter and the Wolf ,was written in 1936. Which was Fairy tale for children in Peter and the Wolf. He also composed The Buffoon, was written in 1921. Had very lively music and thus helped gain him more popularity
  • Grant Wood

    Grant Wood
    Grant Wood lived from 1891-1942. He was an American printer and printmaker. His most famous painting was "American Gothic" which depicted a farmer and his daughter standing infront of a carpenter gothic farmhouse. His early paintings were of landscapes and architectural views. "His first Netherlandish-inspired canvas was "Woman with Plants".
  • Joan Miro

    Joan Miro
    Joan Miro lived from 1893-1983. Miro was influenced by surrealism, and his paintings later had a big influence on the development of abstract art form. Paintings which had the most impact on this later development were "Painting" and "Animated Landscape".
  • Norman Rockwell

    Norman Rockwell
    Born from 1894-1978, Norman Rockwell was an American Illustrator. He was most well-known for his magazine cover designs. He is remembered for his cover for the Saturday Evening Post "Working Women in Wartime", and his Four Freedoms poster series.
  • George Gershwin

    George Gershwin
    He died in 1937, born in Brooklyn, New York. He composed Rhapsody in blue, written in 1924. Another piece he composed was An american in paris, written in 1928. He used Jazz and sound effects in his music. His works were very popluar and catchy. Besides songs he composed, he wrote for many musicals.
  • Aaron Copland

    Aaron Copland
    he died in 1990 and was born in Brooklyn ,New York. He composed, Third Symphony, written in 1946. He also composed,Piano quartet, written in 1950 was Coplands first piece using the 12 tone technique. Many people thought some of his causes were Communist, and to distance himself from Soviet music he changed his music using the 12 tone technique.
  • Air Conditioning

    Air Conditioning
    Invented by Willis Haviland Carrier. He wanted to not only remove air but to also cool it and that is what air conditioning does. Today air conditioning is essential for hot days, and most people use it. Without air conditioning hot weather be miserable.
  • Ansel Adams

    Ansel Adams
    Ansel Adams lived from 1902-1984. Adams most famous achievements include writing various technical manuals including the Basic Photo-Books series. “He also helped found New York City’s Museum of Modern Art and SanFransisco’s Museum of Modern Art’s photographic art departments." ("Ansel Adams") His first illustrated book was "Taos Pueblo", and his black and white photos were of landscapes and objects. A primary example of this would be "Surf Sequence No. 5."
  • Mark Rothko

    Mark Rothko
    Mark Rothko lived from 1903-1970. He was famous for his black and white photos. "His earlier pictures were of expressionist landscapes, genera scenes, still-lifes, and bathers." His more abstract works include "White, Red, on Yellow" and "No. 14".
  • Airplane

    The Wright Brothers invented the first controlled air flying machine. The first flight was at Kitty Hawk, NC. They impacted society by creating the first flying airplane and it has changed travel to make it a more efficient way to get to far places in a faster amount of time.
  • Tractor

    The tractor was invented by Benjamin Holt. It was first tested in Stockton, California in 1904. The first "caterpillar" tractor was sold in 1906. Many people farm so having tractors has made farmers lives easier by making farming more efficient.
  • Salvador Dali

    Salvador Dali
    Salvador Dali lived from 1904-1989. He was a spanish painter who became a leader of surrealism. One of his most well known works is Persistence of Memory.He was found in a state of histeria when working on his painting "Dismal Sport". That painting officially got him accepted into the surrealist movement.
  • Wassily Kandinsky

    Wassily Kandinsky
    Wassily Kandinsky lived from 1904-1999. His early work consisted of figure studies. His paintings were of knights and romantic fairy tale subjects. "Twilight" was one of his paintings that resembled these characteristics. During the laterperiod of his life Kandinsky became a French citizen and he created one of his more famous canvases "Reciprocal Accord" which " emphasized the elegance and grandure of his art." ("Wassily Kandinsky")
  • Paul Cadmus

    Paul Cadmus
    Paul Cadmus lived from 1904-1999. He strongly ademired Italian Renaissance paintings, and his works such as "Sailors and Floosies" and "Bar Italiana" portrayed sexually ambiguous themes.
  • Jackson Pollock

    Jackson Pollock
    Jackson Pollock lived from 1912-1956. One of his earlier paintings "Going West" contains many of the characteristics of his later abstract expressionest style. In 1938 he spent four months in the hospital for alchohalism which began in his adolesence. 1947-1952 were his most famous periods and in 1951 he started drinking again. As a result he returned to his symbol imagery style in his painting No. 23.
  • Benjamin Britten

    Benjamin Britten
    He died in 1976.He was an english composer.He composed War Requiem, written in 1962. Also wrote Peter Grimes, written in 1945. War Requiem was a way to show World War II and showed how Britten opposed war/violence. He used different themes in his music like Chinese and others.
  • World War I

    World War I
    The war began after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist. There were two opposing alliances: the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance. The U.S. entered the war on Apr. 6, 1917 after the sinking of the Lusitania, the Zimmermen telegram to Mexico, and Germany's announcement of unrestricted submarine warfare. On Nov. 11, 1918, Germany surrendered due to the German Revolution, putting an end to World War I.
  • Russian Revolution

    Russian Revolution
    It is a series of revolutions that occured in Rissia in 1917. The first is the February Revolution, the Tsarist autocracy was destroyed and replaced by the Provisional Government. The second is the October Revolution, the Provisional Government was destroyed and replaced by the Bolshevik (communist) government. The following year in 1918, a civil war broke out between the Bolsheviks and the Anti-Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks won in 1920 and it led to the formation of the Soviet Union or USSR.
  • Traffic Light Signal

    Traffic Light Signal
    Invented by Garrett Morgan (1875-1963). He wanted to make driving easier and the roads safer. With this invention it has increased road safety, and helps regulate travel. Without the traffic light driving on a road would be extremely dangerous, and its hard to imagine what life would be like without it.
  • Luciano Berio

    Luciano Berio
    He died in in 2003. He was a Italian. In 1954 began working with Electronic muisc. Was one of the first composers to use Electronic music. he distanced himslef from serialism. He liked to complete unfinished work by famous composers. He composed Zaide in 1995. He composed Allelujah I in 1956.
  • Television

    Farnsworth invented the first television in 1928. He wanted to create a system that would break an image into lines and reassemble them into a picture at the other end. With his invention starting as blurry images on a tiny screen, we are now able to broadcast news and tv shows in color and clearly on a screen.
  • Andy Warhol

    Andy Warhol
    Andy Worhal lived from 1928-1987, and was an American artist and filmmaker. He was most memorable for his paintings of soupcans and movie stars. Examples of such are his paintings "Cambell's Soup Cans" and "Gold Marilyn Monroe".
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    The Great Depression started with the collapse of U.S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, also known as Black Tuesday. The eonomic downfall had quickly spread around the world. In the U.S., there were 16 million unemployed and more than 5,000 banks had failed. The depression lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s, with the start of World War II. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=105&sid=55a38efd-b20d-4160-b44d-b8d73473b6b1@sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2Z
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    US President. Only president to serve three terms in office. In office during the Great depression and WW II. Attempted to resolve the Depression with his “New Deal” diagnosed with polio serving his presidency in a wheel chair. “ You have awaken a sleeping giant”
  • FM radio

    FM radio
    Invented by Edwin H. Armstrong. It is also called noise-reducing wide deviation or wideband frequency modulation (FM). This invention is very important because it is used everyday now by people. It has created an easy way to listen to music and has made composers become well known.
  • Adolf Hitler

    Adolf Hitler
    Great Dictator of Germany, took over Germany following the end of WWI. Brought Germany out of a depression. Become international public enemy number one, as he would invade Poland in September of 1939, commencing WWI. Would commit suicide when the allies made their way into Berlin.
  • Radar

    Invented by Sir Robert Watson-Watt. The radar lets people know the location of airplanes. It has changed the outcomes of wars by giving people vision of enemy bomers.
  • World War II

    World War II
    The war began with the German invasion of Poland. Two opposing military alliances were formed: the Allies and the Axis Powers. Nazi Germany invaded and took control of several European countries and established concentration camps that killed around 6 million people that were considered "unworthy of life". The war ended on May 8, 1945 with the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and Germany's surrender. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=105&sid=5b63cb28-beb2-4d1d-87
  • Josef Stalin

    Josef Stalin
    Took power aa the head of the Soviet Union.The head of the Soviet Union. Quickly got rid of any competition and consolidated the communist power in the Soviet Union leading into WW II. His red army was able to push Germany out of the Soviet Union. pushed into western Europe, setting the stage for the Cold War.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor was a U.S. naval base located in Hawaii. The Empire of Japan attacked on the morning of December 7, 1941. There were two waves of attacks from 6 Japanese carriers. The death toll reached 2,402 and left 1,282 wounded, including 68 civilians (1,177 were from the USS Arizona). The following day the U.S. declared war on Japan and due to Japan's alliance with Germany it brought the U.S. into World War II. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=105&sid=cc6d7ebf-f868-4fc6-95
  • D-Day

    D-Day is the invasion of France by Allied troops on June 6, 1944. Fighting took on 5 seperate beaches in Normandy, France. The landing was codenamed Operation Neptune which was part of the Allied invaion in Operation Overlord. D-Day is known as the biggest invasion in history and as a turning point in World War II. The Allies succeed with the invasion and marched across Fance into Germany. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=105&sid=44a42baa-f03c-4e59-8544-844689342f71%40sessio
  • The Cold War

    The Cold War
    The Cold War was political and military tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. There was never any military action between the two countries since both had nuclear weapons that could destroy each other. The Cold War was the cause of the Berlin Blockade, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Soviet War in Afghanistan. The U.S. became the dominant power after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    The U.S. had called for the surrender of Japan to put an end to World War II but Japan had refused. The U.S. decided to drop two atomic bombs on Japan. The first bomb, nicknamed Little Boy, was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The second bomb, nicknamed Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. In Hiroshima, 140,000 civilians were killed and in Nagasaki 80,000 were killed. Six day after the last bomb was dropped, Japan surrendered. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vi
  • Microwave oven

    Microwave oven
    The microwave oven was invented by Percy Spencer. He realized that electromagnetic waves in labratory radar equipment had melted a candy bar in his pocket and thought of the idea. The microwave oven was the start of modern cooking, which many American kitchens have today.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    The war was the result of the political division of Korea between the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. American administrators divided Korea along the 38th parallel. U.S. military forces helped the South Korean military and the Soviet Union helped the North Korean forces. The war ended in July of 1953 with the signing of the Armistice Agreement that established the 38th parallel. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=105&sid=5d088544-1984-42fa-82ea
  • Civil Rights Movement

    Civil Rights Movement
    The movement started in 1954 and it was to abolish public and private acts of racial discrimination, especially in the southern United States. There were major campaigns of civil resistance like non-violent protests and civil disobedience. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act and the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 were major laws that were passed to put an end the movement.
  • The Vietnam War

    The Vietnam War
    The Vietnam War began on November 1, 1955 when the U.S. sent military aid into Vietnam to contain communism from spreading. It is a Cold War Era conflict that took place in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. The war was between North Vietnam and communist allies against South Vietnam and anti-communists. The war ended on April 30, 1975 with the capture of Saigon by the Vietnam People's Army. North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfvi
  • The Space Race

    The Space Race
    A competition between the U.S. and the Soviet Union for supremacy in space exploration. The race officially began on Oct. 4, 1957 with the Soviet launching of Sputnik 1, the first satellite in space. The race ended on July 16, 1969 when Apollo 11 landed on the moon and Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f46f6d75-1545-4ff8-8396-fb538fc378c6%40sessionmgr12&vid=14&hid=105
  • Photocopier

    The photocopier was invented by Chester Carlson. He hated hand copying everything so he wanted to find a way to make copies faster and easier. It first weighed 650 lbs. Copiers are now used to make easy copies.
  • Laser

    The laser was invented by an American physicist named Theodore Maiman. He wanted to see if he could create a new type of light by hitting radiation from a powerful photografic flash at a pink ruby crystal. The laser is now important for medicine , communications and industry.
  • John F Kennedy

    John F Kennedy
    35th US president from 1961-1963. Instructed the infamous invasion by the United States into Cuba (Bay of Pigs). He also kept the United States from being part of a global catastrophe in the Cuban Missile crisis. Known as a womanizer and polarizing figure. Assassinated in November 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald. “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    On Oct. 15, the Soviet and Cuban government secretly built bases in Cuba for nuclear missiles that could strike most of the U.S. Instead of attackng the U.S. blocked all delivery weapons and demanded the Soviets dismantle the missiles. On Oct. 28 President Kennedy and the U.N. reached an agreement with the Soviet Union. The Soviets dismantled and returned their missiles back to the Soviet Union. The U.S. agreed never to invade Cuba and dismantled all weapons in Turkey and Italy.
  • Computer Mouse

    Computer Mouse
    The mouse was invented by Douglas Engelbart, a computer engineer. It was first seen at the Fall Joint Computer Expo, which took place in San Francisco. The invention of the computer mouse has made it easy for people to browse on computers.
    Alison McLean, "This Month In History," Smithsonian, 39, no. 9 (2008): p24-24, http://www.ulib.niu.edu:4426/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=110&sid=77982371-450b-48d1-b55b-b1368d6da0db@sessionmgr113&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ==
  • Space Shuttle

    Space Shuttle
    Nasa invented the space shuttle. The president announced the start of the shuttle on January 5,1972. Nasa announced the final shuttle configuration on March 5, 1972. It was created to be able to travel into space. It allows people to travel above the atmosphere in a safe way.
  • Munich Olympic Games Massacre

    Munich Olympic Games Massacre
    The 1972 Summer Olympics were held in Munich, West Germany. On the morning of Sep. 5, 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by a Palestinian terrorist group called Black September. Five of the eight terrorists and a West German police officer also died. On Sep. 6, a memorial was held in which athletes and spectators attended. The olympics continued on but teams or members form other countries quit the games.
  • Arcade Video Game

    Arcade Video Game
    The first arcade video game "pong" was created by Nolan Bushnell in 1972. It was the first commercially successful game. The game "pong" was the start of the electronic video gaming world.
  • Walkman

    The walkman was invented by Sony. It was first released in Japan. It was created as a personal stereo that could easily be carried around. This technology not only gave a new way to listen to music, it was the start of more musical technology.
  • samuel Barber

    samuel Barber
    He died in 1981. Was an american composer. Adagio for strings was composed in 1936. He composed Dover Beach in 1931. His later musical works polytonal and chromatic. Adagio for strings was actually used as a memorial at John F Kennedy's funearl
  • Personal Computer

    Personal Computer
    Invented by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. The first personal computer was called the macintosh. This invention has created a whole different technology world. Was a step in making huge advancements in technology.