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1750-Present: A History

  • Industrial Revolution Begins

    Industrial Revolution Begins
    The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world.The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America. They first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and then expelled all royal officials.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. French society underwent an epic transformation as feudal, aristocratic and religious privileges evaporated under a sustained assault from radical left-wing political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside. Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy – of monarchy, aristocracy
  • Latin American Revolution

    Latin American Revolution
    arious revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish, Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas. Haiti, a French slave colony, was the first to follow the United States to independence, during the Haitian Revolution, which lasted from 1791 to 1804.
  • Haitian Independence

    Haitian Independence
    After the only successful slave revolt in history, Haiti gains its independence from France. The main point here is to remember that slave revolts were few and far between, but this was the sole exception for a successful one. However, slaves did not carry very much weight in society although they were foced to do all of the hard labor. This independence movement allowed Haiti to become the first independent nation in Latin America.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    This was a meeting between the Allies to decide what to do with France since Napoleon has been exiled (see Battle of Waterloo). Rulers before Napoleon would gain back their thrones while France would remain intact. A balance of power existed and Enlightenment and Revolution ideals are ignored at this event.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Napoleon is defeated by Britain and Prussia. Austria and Russia also helped to rally together and defeat Bonaparte. He was sent into exile and this event signified his downfall. The Congress of Vienna grew out of this event
  • Opium Wars

    Opium Wars
    climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire. After the inauguration of the Canton System in 1756, which restricted trade to one port and did not allow foreign entrance to China, the British East India Company faced a trade imbalance in favour of China and invested heavily in opium production to redress the balance. British and United States merchants brought opium from the British East India Company's factories
  • Marx and Engles write The Communist Manifesto

    Marx and Engles write The Communist Manifesto
    The main idea of the book was that the working class would eventually revolt and take control of the means of production. After the class struggle is resolved, then the groups of power that currently existed would no longer be needed. This centered on the flaws of capitalism and served as the basis for many Communist leaders to come.
  • Commodore Perry Opens Up Japan

    Commodore Perry Opens Up Japan
    Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Japan from the US on a steamboat. This shocks the Japanese and they begin to realize what their isolation has done to them. It has made them unable to economically and militarily compete with the industrialized world. Opens up the eyes of the Japanese and soon their isolation is slightly lifted and industrialization begins.
  • Sepoy Mutiny

    Sepoy Mutiny
    The British East India Company begins to disrespect Hinduism and Islam, two key religions of the workers they have employed in India. This event occurred when it was discovered that the bullets used were greased with animal fat. This violated the laws of the religions and the workers rebelled in an attempt to gain more independence from Britain. This failed and Britain began to look over India more closely and made it a crown colony.
  • End of Russian Serfdom

    End of Russian Serfdom
    Emancipation Edict in Russia leads to this event. Czar Alexander II oversees the end of Russian serfdom. This is a step towards equality in Russia and working conditions are also improved with this emancipation.
  • Italian Unification

    Italian Unification
    Giuseppe Garibaldi, Camillo Cavour, and Victor Emmanuel II all work to make this happen. Garibaldi had driven Spain away from Sicily and Cavour had removed Austrian influence from much of Italy. Victor Emmanuel II was chosen to be king of the new united kingdom of Italy. (Form of nationalism)
  • Meiji Restoration

    Meiji Restoration
    lso known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period.
  • Franco Prussian War

    Franco Prussian War
    conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria. The complete Prussian and German victory brought about the final unification of Germany under King Wilhelm I of Prussia. It also marked the downfall of Napoleon III and the end of the Second French Empire, which was replaced by the French Third Republic.
  • German Unification

    German Unification
    Otto von Bismarck won Franco-Prussian War which allowed him to consolidate the German Catholic regions under Prussian control. He then crowned King William I as the new emperor of the region. Germany began to industrializ and become a strong economic and politcal power in the world. This event allowed Germany to emerge as a world power.
  • Berlin Conference

    Berlin Conference
    regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    This was fought between the Spanish and Cuban revolutionaries with the goal of acquiring new territories. The US intervenes in this year and helps the Cubans to quickly destroy the Spanish. Cuba gains its independence from Spain in exchange for the US gaining military bases in Cuba. After this, the US acquires Cuba, the Philippines, Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico and emerges as a world power.
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    Boer War

    British fight the Boers over rights to resources found in Transvaal in Africa. The British win and South Africa is added as part of Britain. Africans were forced to work in the mines to mine the gold and diamonds. However, they had to send what they found abroad.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Russo-Japanese War
    was "the first great war of the 20th century. It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
  • Chinese Revolution

    Chinese Revolution
    Led by Sun Yat-sen. This was an attempt by the Chinese to become more westernized and try to gain enough power to kick out the Europeans and the Japanese. Nationalism was intended to unite the people and given them an identity against foreign interest. Democracy was to help them plan their future. Socialism was implemented in order to gain more economic equality. These were Sun Yat-sen's three principles in the revolution.
  • World War I

    World War I
    major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world's great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war).
  • Treaty of Versailles/End of WWI

    Treaty of Versailles/End of WWI
    Peace Treaty- ended state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Other Central Powers were dealt with in seperate treaties. Left unfair terms for Germany-required them to take responsibility for the war. War Guilt clauses- to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had made the Entente powers. Germany was neither pacified or conciliated nor per permanently weakened. Factor leading to WWII.
  • Mexican Revolution

    Mexican Revolution
    Begins in 1910 and ends in 1920. Many people disagreed about Porfirio Diaz's dictatorship because the people had no power. They wanted democracy and thought that a revolution would be the way to achieve this. Eventually, Diaz ends his rule and gives way to Francisco Madero, the head of the "Anti-reelection" party in Mexico.
  • Soviet Union

    Soviet Union
    constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991.
    The Soviet Union was a single-party state ruled by the Communist Party from its foundation until 1990. A union of 15 subnational Soviet republics, the Soviet state was structured under a highly centralized government and economy.
    The Russian Revolution of 1917 caused the downfall of the Russian Empire. Following the Russian Revolution, there was a struggle for power between the Bolshevik party
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century
  • Japanese Invasion of Manchuria

    Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
    Manchuria was invaded by the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan immediately following the Mukden Incident. The Japanese established a puppet state, called Manchukuo, and their occupation lasted until the end of World War II. Under orders from Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon, troops of the 2nd Division moved up the rail line and captured virtually every city along its 730 mile length in a matter of days.
  • Italian Invasion of Ethiopia

    Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
    Colonial war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa. Politcally, the war is best remembered for exposing the inherent weakness of the League of Nations. Regained its independence five years later during WWII with the help of the Allied forces.
  • World War II

    World War II
    global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack was intended as an action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions Japan was planning against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II.
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.
  • Cold War

    Cold War
    continuing state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies. This began after the success of their temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences.
  • Indian Independence Act

    Indian Independence Act
    Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The Act received the royal assent on 18 July 1947, and the two new countries came into being on 15 and 14 August respectively.
  • African Independence

    African Independence
    post World War II, On February 12th 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss the postwar world. The result was the Atlantic Charter. One of the provisions, introduced by Roosevelt, was the autonomy of imperial colonies. After World War II, the US and the African colonies put pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter. When Winston Churchill introduced the Charter to Parliament, he purposely mistranslate
  • Birth of Israel

    Birth of Israel
    Following the adoption of a resolution by the general Assembly of the UN recommending the adoption and implementation of the UN plan to partition Palestine. Declared the establishment of a Jewish state to be known as Israel. Neighboring Arab states invaded the next day in support of the Palestinian Arabs who wanted control of the country.
  • Chinese Communist Revolution

    Chinese Communist Revolution
    Civil war fought between Kumingtang (KMT), the governing party of the Republic of China, and Communist Party of China (CPC). Led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China (ROC), and People's Republic of China (PRC). 3rd largest war ever fought in history, behind WWI and WII.
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    Korean War

    war between the Republic of Korea (supported primarily by the United States of America, with contributions from allied nations under the aegis of the United Nations) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (supported by the People's Republic of China, with military and material aid from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries.
  • De-Stalinization

    process of eliminating the cult of personality, Stalinist political system, and the Gulag labor-camp system created by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. He was succeeded by a collective leadership after his death. Involved the end of forced labor and improved prison conditions
  • Nationalization of the Suez Canal

    Nationalization of the Suez Canal
    diplomatic and military confrontation between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France, and Israel on the other, with the US, the Soviet Union, and the UN playing major roles in forcing Britain, France, and Israel to withdraw. Britain an dFrance bombed Cairo. Anglo-French Forces withdrew before th end of the year, but Israeli forces remained until March, prolonging the Crisis. The aims of the attack were primarily to regain Western control of the canal and to remove Nasser from power.
  • Cuban Revolution

    Cuban Revolution
    armed revolt by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement against the regime of cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista between 1953 and 1959. Batista was replaced by Castro's revolutionary government. This government later reformed along communist lines, becoming the present Communist Party of Cuba.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    13 day confrontation between the SU and Cuba on one side and the US on the other. Cuban and Soviet governments secretly began to build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missles with the ability to strike most of the continental US. moment when the Cold War became closest to turning into a nuclear crisis.
  • Chinese Cultural Revolution

    Chinese Cultural Revolution
    social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China. Stated goal was to enforce socialism in the country by removing capitalist, traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society, and to impose Maoist orthodoxy within the Party.The revolution marked the return of Mao Zedong to a position of absolute power after the failed Great Leap Forward. The movement politically paralyzed the country and significantly affected the country economically and socially.
  • Six day War

    Six day War
    Fought by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria. After a period of high tension between Israel and its neighbors, the war began on June 5 with Israel launching surprise air strikes against Arab forces. The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory. Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
  • Yom Kippur War

    Yom Kippur War
    between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria. The war began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism. Both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, and this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers. The United States initiated new efforts at mediation and peacemaking.
  • Iranian Revolution

    Iranian Revolution
    events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy (Pahlavi dynasty) under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic. unusual for the surprise it created throughout the world: it lacked many of the customary causes of revolution (defeat at war, a financial crisis, peasant rebellion, or disgruntled military); produced profound change at great speed; was massively popular; and replaced a westernising monarchy with a Theocracy.
  • 1st Palestinian Intifada

    1st Palestinian Intifada
    Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories, which lasted from December 1987 to 1993. Palestinian actions primarily included nonviolent civil disobedience and resistance, and it was the first time that Palestinians acted together and as a nation. Intra-Palestinian violence was a prominent feature of the Intifada, with widespread executions of alleged Israeli collaborators.
  • Tiananmen Square

    Tiananmen Square
    series of demonstrations in and near Beijing China. spurred by the death of deposed Communist Party General Secretary Hu Yaobang, mass gatherings ( by 13 May there were over half a million protesters) and protests took place in and around Tiananmen Square. The largely student-run demonstrations aimed for continued economic reform and liberalization, and eventually evolved into a mass movement for political reform and freedom of the press.
  • Fall of Berlin Wall

    Fall of Berlin Wall
    Protests broke out all over East Germany. Initially, protesters were mostly people wanting to leave the West, then protests began to chant, "We're staying here". This was the start of What East Germans generally call the "Peaceful Revolution". The protests demonstrations grew considerally by early November. Th emovement nearned its height when half a million people gathered at Alexanderplatz demonstratoin, a rally to change in East Berlin's large public square and transportation hub.
  • First Gulf War

    First Gulf War
    War waged by UN- authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the US against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait. Decisive victory for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. Ariel and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on the border of Saudi Arabia.
  • Fall of USSR

    Fall of USSR
    Left all 15 republics of the Soviet Union as independent sovereign states. Marked an end to the Cold War. Revolutions increased pressure on Gorbachev to introduce greater democracy and autonomy for the Soviet Union's constituent republics. Presidents of Soviet Republics of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus met secretly and agreed to dissolve the SU, replacing it with a loose, voluntary form of a union known as the Commonwelath of Independent states.
  • Genocide in Rwanda

    Genocide in Rwanda
    mass murder of an estimated 800,000 people in the small East African Nation of Rwanda. culmination of longstanding ethnic competition and tensions between the minority Tutsi, who had controlled power for centuries, and th emajority Hutu peoples, who had come to power in the rebellion and overthrew the monarchy.
  • 1st all race elections in South Africa

    1st all race elections in South Africa
    Lines for the elections stretched for more than a mile in some areas and with voters waiting up to 12 hours to cast their ballots. Many feared violence would erupt,, but peace remained in tact. More than 17 million black South Africans over the age of 18 voted for the first time during those four days and their votes led to a new national assembly in which black South Africans and women served in significant numbers for the first time.
  • Iraq War

    Iraq War
    onflict that occurred in Iraq from March 20, 2003 to December 15, 2011 though sectarian violence continues since and has caused hundreds of fatalities.
    Prior to the war, the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom claimed that Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed a threat to their security and that of their coalition/regional allies.
  • September 11th Attacks

    September 11th Attacks
    series of four suicide attacks that were committed in the United States on September 11, 2001, coordinated to strike the areas of New York City and Washington, D.C. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally piloted two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City; both towers collapsed