Timeline of Chemistry

  • Alchemy (5000 BC to 400 BC)

    Alchemy (5000 BC to 400 BC)
    -alchemy in the medieval times was a mixture of science, philosophy and mysticism
    -medieval alchemy was the idea that all matter was composed of four elements: earth, air, fire and water
    -alchemists believed that the ‘transmutation’ of one substance into another was possible
    -alchemy originated in ancient times, evolving independently in China, India and Greece
    -to obtain the ‘philosopher stone’ an elusive subtance that was believed to make possible the creation of an elixir of immortality
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    Alchemy (5000 BC to 400 BC)

  • Democritus (Born on 460 BC;died on 370 BC)

    Democritus (Born on 460 BC;died on 370 BC)
    -also known as the 'laughing philosopher' because of his emphasis on the value of 'cheerfulness'
    -he was one of the two founders of ancient atomist thoery
    -he, along with Leucippus held that everything is composed of atoms in which are physically, but not geometrically, indivisible
    -Democritis, Leucippus and Epicurus proposed the earliest views on the shapes and connectivity of atoms
    -he was a pioneer of mathematics and geometry in particular
    -died on 370 BC at the age of 90
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    Democritus, born in Abdera, Thrace, Greece.

  • John Dalton

    John Dalton
    -he was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist
    -Dalton is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory, and his research into colour blindness
    -also known for the Law of Multiple Proportions, Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures, and Daltonism
    -died on 27 July 1844 in Manchester, England at the age of 77
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    John Dalton, born in Eaglesfield, Cumberland, England

  • Henri Becquerel

    Henri Becquerel
    -he was a French physicist and a Nobel laureate
    -discovered radioactivity along with Marie and Pierre Curie
    -shared the Nobel Prize with Marie and Pierre Curie
    -died on 25 August 1908 in Le Croisic, Brittany, France at the age of 55
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    Henri Becquerel, born in Paris, France.

  • J.J Thomson

    J.J Thomson
    -was a British physicist and Nobel laureate
    -he was credited for the discovery of the electron and the isotopes and the invention of the mass spectrometer
    -Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906
    -discovered the natural radioactivity of potassium
    -demonstrated that hydrogen had only a single electron per atom
    -died on 30 August 1940 in Cambridge, UK at the age of 83
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    J.J Thomson, born in Cheetham Hill, Manchester, UK

  • Pierre Curie

    Pierre Curie
    -he was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity, and Nobel laureate.
    -he recieved the Nobel Prize in physics with his wife, Maria Salomea Skłodowska-Curie
    -formulated what is now known as the Curie Dissymmetry Principle: a physical effect cannot have a dissymmetry absent from its efficient cause
    -he designed and perfected an extremely sensitive torsion balance for measuring magnetic coefficients
    -died on 19 April 1906 in Paris, France
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    Pierre Curie, born in Paris, France.

  • Marie Curie

    Marie Curie
    -she was a Polish-born French physicist and chemist famour for her work on radioactivity
    -was a pioneer in the field of radioactivity
    -first person to be honoured with two Nobel Prizes-both in physics and chemistry
    -created the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes
    -discovered two new elements, Polonium and Radium
    -married Pierre Curie
    -died on 4 July 1934 in Passy, Haute-Savoie, France at the age of 66
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    Marie Curie, born in Warsaw, Vistula Land, Russian Empire.

  • Ernest Rutherford

    Ernest Rutherford
    -he was a New Zealand-born chemist and physicist
    -became known as the father of nuclear physics
    -he discovered the concept of radioactive half life
    -Ernest postulated that atoms have their positive charge concentrated in a very small nucleus
    -Rutherford became the first person to transmute one element into another when he converted nitrogen into oxygen through the nuclear reaction
    -he theorised about the existence of neutrons
    -Rutherfordium was named after him
    -died on 19 October 1937
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    Ernest Rutherford, born in Brightwater, New Zealand.

  • Neils Bohr

    Neils Bohr
    -he was a Danish-physicist
    -Neils made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic stucture and quantum mechanics for which he recieved the Nobel Prize in Physics
    -he succeeded in founding the Institute of Theoretical Physics in 1921
    -concieved the principle of complementarity which is that items could be seperatly analyzed as having several contradictory properties
    -Bohrium was named in honour of him
    -died on 18 November 1962 in Copenhagen, Denmark at the age of 77
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    Neils Bohr, born in Copenhagen, Denmark

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    J. Chadwick, born in Bollington, Cheshire, England.

  • J. Chadwick

    J. Chadwick
    -he was an English Nobel laureate in physics awarded for his discovery of the neutron
    -his discovery made it possible to create elements heavier than uranium
    -worked with Ernest Rutherford
    -died on 24 July 1974 Cambridge, England at the age of 82