Revolution and Enlightment

  • May 8, 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres.

    NIcolaus Copernicus was a native of Poland. He publihshed his famous book, On the Revolutions of the Heavely Spheres. He was a mathematician that thought that his heliocentric (sun-centered) conception of the universe offered a more accurate explanation than did the Ptolemaic system. He thought the sun was the enter of the universe not the Earth. He thought that the aovement of the sun around Earth was caused by the rotation of Earth on its axis and its jouney around the sun.
  • Period: Feb 22, 1550 to

    Scientific Rev

    The Scientific Revolution gave Europeans a new way to view humakind's place in the universe
  • John Locke writes Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    An Englishmen, John Locke, argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa or blank mind. He said that people were molded by the experiences that came thought their senses from the surrounding world.
  • Galileo Galilei published the Starry Messenger

    In 'The Starry Messenger', Galileo tells about how his discoveries did more to make Europeans aware of the new view of the universe than did the works of Copernicus and Kepler. He found himself under suspicion by the Catholic Chuch. His idea threatend the churches conception of the universe. His observations also seemed to destroy Ptolemaic conception.
  • Rene Descartes publishes Discouse on Method

    The French Philosopher wrote about the doubt and uncertainty that seemed to be everywhere. He doubted his existance.... "I think, therefore I am" He also had the principle of the separation of mind and matter were completely seperate.
  • Isaac Newton publishes Principia

    Most important works in the history of science based on Physics. WHen he was making his theories, he used mathematical methods now used in Calculus.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft writes A Vindication of the Rights of Women

    As and English writter, Mary advanced the strongest statement for the right of women. In A Vindication of the Rights of Women, she noted that the same people who argued that women must obey men also said that government based on orbirary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong. She declared that women should have equal rights.
  • The first daily newspaper printed in London

    The first newspaper in London was provided free in coffee shops and cheap to others.
  • Reign of Frederick William I

    1713-1740 He maintained a highly efficient bureaucracy of cilvil service workers. His major concern was the army. By the end he had double the armys size.
  • Hanovers take British crown

    in 1714, Hanoverian dynasty was established after Queen Anne died. The crown was offered to the nearest relitives.. Frist and Secon Hanoverian Kings didn't speak English or know the system well so the cheif ministers were allowed to deal with Parliament.
  • Maria Theresa inherits the Austrian throne

    She worked to centralize and stengthen the state. She had a son, Joseph II. She was not open to the calls for reform, but worked to improve condition of the serfs.
  • War of Austrian Succession

    This war was faught in 3 areas of the world. Europe, Asia and North America. They agreed to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle to end the war and return all occupied territories except silesia which made another war between Prussia and Austria.
  • Begining of Seven Years' War

  • Reign of Frederick II

    He was kind of Prussia from 1740-1786
    His main interest was music and philosophy
    Prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • End of War of Austrian Succession

  • End of Seven Years' War

    It ended with Aix-la-Chapelle
  • Montesque publishes The Spirit of the Laws

    The French noble, Montesque uses the scientific method to try to find the natural lawas that govern the social and political relationships of human beings. He identified three basic kinds of governments. 1. republics, suitable for small states, 2.despotism, appropriate for large states, 3. monarchies, ideal for moderate-sized states.
  • Denis Diderot publishes his first volume of his Encyclopedia

    Diderot publihsed his 28 volume Encyclopedia or Classified Dictionary of the sciences, arts, and trades from 1751 to 1772. It became a weapon against the old French society. His articles attacked religious superstition and supported religious toleration. It also spread Enlightment ideas.
  • Rousseau writes Discourse on the Orgins of the inequality of Mankind

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the most famous philosopher of the later Enlightment argued that people had adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property in that process, they had been enslaved by government.
  • Rousseau writes The Social Contract

    Rouseau also wrote the Social Contract. It was his major work. It was his concept of the social concept which is an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
  • Catherine the Great rules Russia

    1762-1796, Catherine supported Enlightment ideas but did not always act upon them. She took stronger reforms against the peasants. Under her rule, Russia spread Southward to the Blacksea by defreating the Turks and 50% of Pollands' territory
  • Voltaire publishes Treatise on Toleration

    Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) was a Parisian that reminded governments taht "all men are brothers under God" He championed deism, an 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. He said that the universe was like a clock.
  • Ceasare Beccaria publishes Crimes and Punishments

    In his essay, he argued that punishments should not be excersizes in brutality. He opposed capital punishment but he didn't think that it stopped people from commiting crimes, it set an example of barbarism.
  • Stamp Act imposed on coloies

    in 1765, Parliament imposed the Stamp Act on the colonies. It required legal documents and newpapers to carry a stamp showin gthat a tax had been paid to Britian opposition was wide spread and violent repealed in 1766
  • First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia

    The first Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in Sept 1774. It was organized by the colonies to counteract British actions. So members urged colonists to "take up arms and organize militas and fighting Eruped between colonists and British army in 1775 in Massechustts.
  • Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations was the best statement of laissez-faire. He believed that the state should not interfere in economic matters. He mentioned 3 basic roles- to protect society from invasion, government should defend citizends from injusticce, and keep certain public works that private people cound not afford.
  • Treaty of Paris signed

    It recognized independence of the American colonies and granted Americans control of Western territory from the Appalachians to the Mississippi River.