SLWK740 Crisis Intervention History Timeline

Timeline created by slwk740
In History
  • National Save-A-Life League- Posted by Kara Moore

    The first suicide prevention center, the National Save-A-Life League, was established in New York City.
    Roberts, A. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook (3rd Ed.).

    New York: Oxford.
  • This timeline updated by Crystal Pintac: Attack on Pearl Harbor

    This timeline updated by Crystal Pintac: Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor: Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Trauma and Postwar Political Decision-Making Pearl Harbor, though not shown on tv as much as was before the internet was invented, was a collective traumatic event for Americans. Those who lost loved ones or who were the first responders were directly affected in ways similar to what we experienced during and after 9/11.
  • This timeline update provided by Crystal Pintac

    One Surgeon's Army Experience With "Wound Shock" From Pearl Harbor to the Present After 9/11, those who had survived or been alive on December 7, 1941, may have compared what happened in New York City with what happened in Hawaii. Television coverage was far more ubiquituous than what was available in 1941, allowing most of the U.S. and
  • This timeline update provided by Crystal Pintac

    the world to learn what had happened via radio long after the attack began. Many civilians, nurses, doctors, surgeons, firemen, policemen as well as other first responders were affected by the events of Pearl Harbor both during and after the attack. Though casualities were not as great in Pearl Harbor as on 9/11, the collective result of community grief and shock were similar; we new more in 2001 about grief conseling and trauma than in 1941.
  • This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (1)

    This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (1)
    In Boston on November 28, 1942, 493 people perished in the Coconut Grove nightclub, destroyed in the largest single building fire in the country’s history. Lindemann and others from Massachusetts General Hospital played an active role in helping survivors who had lost loved ones that day. He came to believe that clergy and other community caretakers could help people with their grief work.
  • This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (2)

    This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (2)
    Prior to the Coconut Grove fire, only psychiatrist had provided services for those with emotional symptoms of anxiety and depression, and these symptoms were thought to stem from personality disorders or biochemical illnesses. This event not only encouraged lindemann to study crisis theory and intervention, but also showed that non-professionl mental health workers are able to be utilized for crisis theory and intervention. (Kanel, 1999)
  • Lindemann

    Lindemann
    Lindemann's Original Article Lindemann: Published, "Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief" which identified normal behaviors that stem from loss : 1) preoccupation with the lost one, 2) identification with the lost one, 3) expressions of guilt and hostility, 4) some disorganization of daily routine, 5) some evidence of somatic complaints.
  • Lindemann's Thoughts on Normal Grief Processes- Posted by Kara Moore

    Erich Lindemann states that one’s reaction loss depends on the success in which a person does grief work, which includes emancipation from the deceased, readjustment to the environment in which the deceased is missing, and the formation of new relationships. One obstacle that intrudes upon individual’s ability to do the grief work is denial of the death and avoidance of the intense emotions that follow a loss and are connected to the grief process.
  • Source for prior post on Lindemann- Posted by Kara Moore

    Lindemann, E. (1944). Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 141-148.
  • This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (3)

    This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (3)
    From 1946 to 1958, as post-world war II baby boom, there are an estimated 77.3 million Americans who were born, and many grief reactions to stillbirths, miscarriages, and the birth of a premature child began to be revealed.
  • This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (4)

    In 1948, Lindemann and Caplan established the Wellesley project, a preventive community-wide mental health program utilizing professional and non-professional mental health workers which became a basic model for community mental health centers.
  • This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on Jan, 29, 2011 (5)

    Through wellesley project, their work began with references to the personal reactions of individuals to such traumatic events as sudden bereavement or the birth of a premature child. Caplan’s focus on preventive psychiatry led to an emphasis on mental health consultation and much of current-day crisis intervention theory has come from this Wellesley project. (Kanel, 1999)
  • This timeline update provided by Sunghyun Kim on 1/29/11 (6)

    Kanel, K. (1999). A guide to crisis intervention. Pacific Grove : Brooks/Cole U.S. Census Bureau (2003). Vital Statistics of the United States, 2003, Volume I, United States, Retrieved Jun 1, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsus.htm
  • This timeline update provided by Wanda Saner on 2/2/11

    psychological and social aspects of civilian disaster In 1957, Dr. J.S. Tyhurst followed Gerald Caplan in studying transition states or phases occuring in individuals experiencing a crisis or emergency situation: 1) a period of impact, 2) a period of recoil, 3) a posttraumatic period of recovery (Roberts, 2005). Tyhurst was influenced by literature and research related to war experiences and expanded
  • This timeline update provided by Wanda Saner on 2/2/11

    the literature about civilian disaster experiences based on his field studies. He believed preparedness for an emergency situation could help improve social relationships, prevent and minimize severe reactions to crisis situations (Tyhurst, 1957). Roberts, A. (Ed). (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford Tyhurst, J. S. (1957). Psychological and Social Aspects of Civilian Disaster. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 76, 385-393.
  • Caplan & Parad

    Publish "A Framework for Studying Families in Crisis" in Social Work, asserting that there are adaptive responses to crisis which are experienced situationally and developmentally. Defines, through his career writing, crisis as a process: temporary state/event followed by confusion and disorganization (equilibrium disrupted), followed by a series of responses designed to bring the person back to equilibrium following the event.
  • This timeline update provided by Danielle Green Jan 26, 2011

    Resulting from Crisis Theory interventions came suicide prevention and crisis centers centers that were established in the US. Requests for help were intially made via telephone hotlines. By 1972 there were almost 200 centers; these centers were considered to be a vital component to comprehensive community mental health. Roberts, A. (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook. Assessment, Treatment and Research. (3rd ed). Oxford. New York.
  • Engel

    Engel begins to examine the separation between grief as a "normal" process and one of pathology, including complicated factors of grief.
  • This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on January 29th, 2011.

    This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on January 29th, 2011.
    In 1961, Engel published a thought provoking essay in which he likened grief to a disease. Engel believed “that the loss of a loved one is psychologically traumatic to the same extent that being severely wounded or burned is physiologically traumatic” (Worden, 2008, p. 16). He saw the period of mourning after a loss as similar to the process of healing after sustaining an injury.
  • This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on January 29th, 2011. (2).

    This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on January 29th, 2011. (2).
    Engel asserted that grief is a period during which an individual experiences a psychological disruption and lacks his or her typical health. The process of mourning is necessary to return that individual to his or her pre-loss state of being. Worden (2008) explains that Engel saw “mourning as a course that takes time until restoration of function can take place” (p. 16).
  • This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on January 29th, 2011. (3).

    This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on January 29th, 2011. (3).
    Engel acknowledged, however, that mourning does not assure full restoration of function, as healing does not always assure a full recovery. Impaired function can result from improper mourning. Improper mourning can occur due to the individual’s actions or the social conditions surrounding the individual.
  • This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on 2.2.11

    This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on 2.2.11
    Engel, G. L. (1961). Is grief a disease? A challenge for medical research. Psychosomatic Medicine, 23, 18–22. Worden, J.W. (2008). Grief counseling and grief therapy: A handbook for the mental health practitioner, 4th ed. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
  • This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on 2.2.11

    This timeline update provided by Alexandra Gallagher on 2.2.11
    Influenced by others studying psychosomatics, Engel developed a complex view of grief, asserting that the psychological impact of the loss of a loved one is comparable to the physiological impact of disease. Pathologizing grief, he saw mourning as healing. One’s actions or the surrounding social conditions can help or hinder one's mourning and impact funcitoning, showing the importance of helping the grieving mourn. Engel took this view to later shape the biopsychosocial view used today.
  • Rapoport

    Rapoport in Social Service Review "The State of Crisis: Some Theoretical Considerations" is published by Rapoport in Social Service Review...full text link here is a great summary of current social work theoretical thinking at the time, integrating knowledge into a phase model of crisis intervention.
  • This timeline update was provided by Jessica Davis on 2/1/2011

    Lydia Rapoport was a pioneer in crisis theory and intervention. Her influences on crisis theory and interventions include being the first practitioner to write about the connections between therapeutic modalities (Roberts, 2005). Rapoport discussed the links between ego psychology, learning theory and social casework (Rapoport, 1962; Roberts 2005).
  • This timeline update was provided by Jessica Davis on 2/1/2011

    In her work, Rapoport defined crisis as a disturbance to the equillibruim or steady state (Rapoport, 1962). She further stated that this disturbance is caused by three interrelated factors; a hazardous event, a threat to life goals and an inability to respond with adequate coping mechanisms (Rapoport, 1962; Roberts, 2005).
  • This timeline update provided by Jessica Davis on 2/2/2011

    Rapoport, L. (1962). The state of crisis: Some theoretical considerations. The Social Service Review, 36(2), 211-217. Roberts, A. R. (2005). Crisis intervention handbook: assessment, treatment, and research (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • This timeline update provided by Emily Thompson

    He created a way to identify and understand potential behaviors exhibited throughout crisis response. Many helping professions still embrace this model today. In doing so, workers can determine the crisis response stage for an individual and determine where and how to begin crisis intervention (Thomas, Hardy, & Cutting, 1997).
  • This timeline update provided by Emily Thompson

    Expanding on original thoughts from a work by Caplan and Parad in 1960, Caplan developed a 4-phase model to crisis reaction in 1964 that he published in his book “Principles of Preventative Psychiatry,” (as cited in Roberts, 2005). Influenced by Lindemann and psychoanalytic theorists, Caplan developed his crisis theory based on the concept of emotional homeostasis that contributed to the development of his 4-phase model.
  • This timeline update provided by Emily Thompson

    References Roberts, A. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford Thomas, B., Hardy, S., & Cutting, P. (1997). Mental health nursing: Principles and practice. Mosby: London.
  • Rapoport's inclusion of assessment to Crisis Theory posted by Kara Moore

    In 1967 Lydia Rapoport focused on the initial or study phase of crisis intervention and found that it is more important for an individual to have a little help from a crisis worker immedicately following a crisis event rather than having extensive help at a period of less emotionally accessibility.
    Roberts, A. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook (3rd Ed.) New York: Oxford.
  • Wahl

    Wahl and Differential Diagnosis Using a case-based approach, Wahl differentiates criteria to diagnose normal and "neurotic grief"
  • Kubler-Ross

    Kubler-Ross
    Elizabeth Kubler Ross' legendary work, "On Death and Dying" is published, specifying five stages of response to death. These stages would be extended to multiple forms of loss and crisis response, and lead millions of people to become familiar with the stage terms, "Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression and Acceptance"
  • Parkes

    Parkes
    Colin Murray Parkes publishes, "Studies of Grief in Adult Life" which added the concepts of stigma (societal response to the mourner) and deprivation (withdrawl of social and psychological benefits that were provided by the deceased person) into our understanding of grief
  • This timeline update provided by Shalanda Jackson on Jan 28,2011

    The Kubler Ross stages of grief, was outlined in 1969. Her work was a reflection of the grief process of patients who had been diagnosed with terminal illness, These stages later came to be applied to other forms of significant loss. These stages are not concrete, whereas, an individual can cycle back and forth through these stages. The Journey Through Grief. Kubler Ross Stages of Grief.The Journey Through Grief. Kubler Ross Stages of Grief 5 Stages of Grief. Retrieved on Jan 28, 2011,from httl
  • This timeline update provided by Wanda Saner on 2/2/11

    This timeline update provided by Wanda Saner on 2/2/11
    1972 Hurricane Agnes
    In 1972, Hurricane Agnes in Wyoming Valley of PA led to the displacement of 120,000 people, destroying 25,000 homes with damage estimates at $730 million. It was referred to as the greatest natural disaster in US history with total deaths of 122 people. Agnes was an impetus in highlighting the need to provide crisis interventions at the time of the disaster as well as provide
  • This timeline update provided by Wanda Saner on 2/2/11.

    This timeline update provided by Wanda Saner on 2/2/11.
    support to reduce distress during the long recovery period after a natural disaster. Logue, J.N., Hansen, H., & Struening, E. (1979). Emotional and Physical Distress Following Hurricane Agnes in Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania, Public Health Reports, 94(6), 495-502.
  • This timeline update provided by Leah Smith-Walter on January 31

    The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) was enacted in 1974. This legislation created a dedicated Office of Child Abuse and Neglect to coordinate services. These services included providing federal funding for child abuse prevention and treatment programs, collecting a national database of abuse and neglect statistics, and issuing grants for research into child abuse prevention and treatment (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).
  • This timeline update provided by Leah Smith-Walter on January 31

    Research has indicated that early response helps to relieve crisis situations and prevent future abuse (Roberts, 2000). Call centers and hotlines have been set up throughout the United States to report child abuse and to help deescalate caregivers in crisis before abuse occurs (Roberts, 2000). For more resources on responding to child abuse and neglect: http://www.childwelfare.gov/responding/
  • This timeline update provided by Leah Smith-Walter on January 31

    Roberts, A.R. (2000). Crisis intervention handbook: Assessment, treatment, and research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d). Child abuse prevention and treatment act. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/laws_policies/cblaws/capta/.
  • This timeline updated provided by Natalie Cowan on 2/6/2011 (1)

    This timeline updated provided by Natalie Cowan on 2/6/2011 (1)
    In one of the first school-related crises garnering wide-spread media attention in the United States, 26 children along with their bus driver were kidnapped by gunmen and buried underground for more than 16 hours. Known as the Chowchilla school-bus kidnapping, the event prompted Lenore Terr to study the traumatic responses of these children. Initially, Terr (1981) found differences in the traumatic responses of the children as compared to those experienced by adults.
  • This timeline update provided by Natalie Cowan on 2/6/2011 (2)

    This timeline update provided by Natalie Cowan on 2/6/2011 (2)
    Eventually, Terr’s groundbreaking work led to the identification and differentiation of two trauma subtypes in children, Type I, trauma resulting from a single event, and Type II, trauma resulting from multiple, on-going events (Roberts, 2005).
  • This timeline update provided by Natalie Cowan on 2/6/2011 (3)

    Terr, L. C. (1981). Psychic trauma in children: Observations following the Chowchilla school-bus kidnapping. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 138 (1), 14-19.
    Terr, L. C. (1983). Chowchilla revisited: The effects of psychic trauma four years after a school-bus kidnapping. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 140 (12), 1543-1550.
    Roberts, A. R. (2005). Crisis intervention handbook: Assessment, treatment, and research (3rd ed.). Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Golan

    The publication of "Treatment in Crisis Intervention" creates a 3 phase model that lays the foundation for brief intervention. Golan, N. (1978). Treatment in Crisis Intervention. New York: Free Press
  • This timeline update provided by Gary Baker on January 30th, 2011

    Naomi Golan was one of the original pioneers in the study of crisis intrevention. She believed that during the state of active crisis, when coping skills where not adequate, and the individual was in pain, that person is more open to suggestive change. Golan believed in brief, intensive, focused treatment, when the client is more motivated, than long term treatment. Roberts, A. (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook. Assessment, Treatment and Research. (3rd ed.). Oxford, New York
  • This timeline update provided by Gary Baker on January 30th, 2011.

    Charles R. Figley and the Consortium of Veteran Studies provided insight into the level 3 crisis of war combat. He suggested that combat included four major elements that makes it highly traumatic. 1) Hightened Danger 2)Helplessness in death prevention 3)Destruction and 4) Sense of Loss. The four stages to emotional adjustment are: recovery, avoidance, reconsideration and adjustment. Roberts, A. (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook. Assessment, Treatment and Research (3rd ed.) NY Oxford Press
  • This timeline update provided by Emily Sheldon on 01/31/11.

    This timeline update provided by Emily Sheldon on 01/31/11.
    Figley suggests that the high degree of dangerousness, a sense of helplessness in preventing death, a sense of destruction and disruption, and a sense of loss combine to make war/combat a level 3 crisis. This understanding of war as a crisis was vital to working with Vietnam veterans. Roberts, A. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis intervention handbook (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford.
  • This timeline update provided by Amy Tyson on January 28, 2011

    This timeline update provided by Amy Tyson on January 28, 2011
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder History Published in the DSM III, the concept of PTSD originated from studying Civil War soldiers, evolved during major 20th century wars, and was linked to other forms of crisis after the Coconut Grove fire (Andreasen, 2004; Roberts, 2005). PTSD criteria reflect crisis theory principles such as Lindemann’s crisis reactions (APA, 2000; Roberts, 2005). The DSM’s inclusion of PTSD signifies a central conceptualization of possible crisis effects and serves as a tool to codify extreme crisis reactions.
  • This timeline update provided by Amy Tyson on January 28, 2011

    This timeline update provided by Amy Tyson on January 28, 2011
    References
    American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Quick reference to the diagnostic criteria from DSM IV-TR. Washington, DC: Author.
    Andreasen, N. C. (2004). Acute and delayed posttraumatic stress disorders: A history and some issues. American Journal of Psychiatry. 161. 1321-1323. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/8/1321
    Roberts, A. R. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis intervention handbook (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Figley & McCubbin

    Figley & McCubbin
    Trauma can occur from events which are sudden, unexpected and non-normative, exceeding the person’s perceived ability to meet its demands. Trauma disrupts the individual’s frame of reference, central psychological needs, and related schemas. Trauma and crisis theory begin to converge. Figley, C. R. & McCubbin, H. I. (Eds.) (1983) Stress in the Family, Volume II. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
  • This timeline update by Jennifer Mack

    This timeline update by Jennifer Mack
    In classrooms across the US, children watched as the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after launch and all on board were killed. Crisis intervention in schools was then restructured to accomodate the flury of media/distaster exposure that children endure.
    Steele, W. (2011, February 1). Trauma’s Impact on Learning and Behavior: A Case for Interventions in Schools. Retrieved from http://www.tlcinst.org/impact.html.
    http://www.aerospaceguide.net/spaceshuttle/challenger_disaster.html.
  • This timeline update provided by Leah Smith-Walter on January 31

    1990 Vicarious Traumatization
    McCann and Pearlman publish their framework for understanding “vicarious traumatization” (as cited in Cunningham, 1999). They theorized that those who provide assistance to people in traumatic situations may themselves experience negative impact on their psyche. McCann and Pearlman recognized that exposure to images and stories of horrific events may take an emotional toll that is unique from issues such as “burnout” (as cited in Cunningham, 1999).
  • This timeline update provided by Leah Smith-Walter on January 31

    Cunningham, M. (1999). The impact of sexual abuse treatment on the social work clinician. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 16(4), 277-290.
  • Roberts

    Roberts
    Roberts' Model Roberts begins publication of a Crisis Intervention conceptualization leading to the seven-stage model. The remainder of class content will build on Roberts' model and subsequent crisis intervention approaches
  • This timeline update provided by Danielle Green Jan 27, 2011

    This timeline update provided by Danielle Green Jan 27, 2011
    -Roberts believed first responders and hotline staff are the first to come in contact with those in crisis and proposed that these individuals be trained in crisis interventions. These individuals respond to crisis such as domestic violence and suicide.
    -3 goals for Crisis interventions; return to equlibrium, understanding precipitating events and build coping skills. -Roberts, A. (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment and Research. (3rd ed). Oxford: New York
  • This timeline update provided by Ashlee Giles on January 28, 2011

    W. J. Worden’s Tasks of Mourning Worden describes grief as a process, suggesting individuals work through grief by accomplishing tasks such as accepting & working through the emotional pain of loss, adjusting to major changes to one’s roles & identity & finally incorporating the loss into one’s life (Dent, 2005). This theory provides insight into coping with grief and crisis intervention following loss.
  • This timeline update provided by Ashlee Giles on January 28, 2011

    W.J. Worden's Tasks of Mourning Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the bereaved: linking theory to practice. Healthcare Counseling & Psychotherapy Journal, 5(3). 16-19
  • This timeline update was provided by Jessica Davis on 2/1/2011

    Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and NeglectRapoport proposed intervention strategies and theory that are still used today. The United States Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families Administration on Children, Youth and Families National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect released a report in 1994 that discusses their use of Rapoport’s intervention model in addressing family stabilization and functioning (Gentry et al., 1994).
  • This timeline update provided by Jessica Davis on 2/1/2011

    Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and NeglectThe report describes Rapoport’s approach to crisis intervention as having six primary goals (Gentry et al., 1994). The goals Gentry et al. (1994) describes in the article include relieving the acute symptoms of family stress, restoring the family to pre-crisis levels of functioning and the ability to identify and understand the relevant precipitating event(s) of the crisis.
  • This timeline update provided by Jessica Davis on 2/2/2011

    Gentry, C. E., Correia, P., Davidson, H., Davis, S., Flip, J., Hodge, S., ... Urquiza, A. (1994). Crisis Intervention in Child Abuse and Neglect (United States, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families). McLean, VA: Circle Solutions. Rapoport, L. (1962). The state of crisis: Some theoretical considerations. The Social Service Review, 36(2), 211-217.
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller
    During the first week, workers were going into nursing homes, schools and senior centers to offer crisis counseling. Mental health workers were provided with trainings on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, crisis counseling, and grief and bereavement. Nearly three weeks after the bombing, The Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services developed “Project Heartland” which offered free services and counseling for the weeks, months and years following the horrific events of
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller
    The Oklahoma City Bombing occurred on April 19, 1995 when the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma was bombed. This horrific act of terrorism claimed 168 lives and injured over 600 others. Prior to 9/11, the Oklahoma City Bombing was the worst act of terrorism in the United States. Mental health professionals in Oklahoma City were challenged to develop a plan in the midst of chaos that would meet the needs of all that had been affected, including themselves.
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller
    April 19th, 1995 (Tucker, Pfefferbaum, Vincent, Boehler & Nixon et al., 1998). It is evident that those who responded to the Oklahoma City Bombings provided the best crisis intervention techniques available at the time. They integrated the ideas developed by theorists such as Golan, Caplan and Roberts by developing the 24 hour crisis hotline, offering immediate crisis counseling and recognizing the need to offer long-term treatment (Roberts, 2005; Tucker et al., 1998).
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller
    During that point in history, major crisis intervention techniques such as the ACT model had not yet been developed (Roberts, 2005). References
    Tucker, P., Pfefferbaum, B., Vincent, R., Boehler, S. D., & Nixon, S. (1998). Oklahoma City: Disaster challenges mental health and medical administrators. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 25(1), 93. Roberts, A. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis intervention handbook (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford.
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Roller
    On the day of the bombing, the goals of mental health professionals around the city were to provide immediate assistance such as medical supplies, equipment, and contacting all disaster relief agencies within close proximity. Within the first 72 hours, a twenty-four hour crisis hotline was up and running. According to Roberts, (2005) twenty-four hour crisis hotlines are effective because they allow more people to be reached in a shorter amount of time (p. 26).
  • The timeline update provided by DeAndra Lee on January 30, 2011

    The timeline update provided by DeAndra Lee on January 30, 2011
    Roberts’ seven- stage crisis intervention model began to provide a useful framework for practitioners. In, 1996 this model was initiated. The model’s first stage is assessing lethality, making sure the individual is not posing any harm for self or worker. This is also where planning and conducting an assessment takes place. The second stage is establishing rapport. Meeting the individual where they are and rapidly establishing a relationship is important here. This also can occur simultaneously
  • This timeline update provided by DeAndra Lee on January 30, 2011

    This timeline update provided by DeAndra Lee on January 30, 2011
    with the first stage. The third stage consists of identifying major problems. This is finding out what would be considered the clients “last straw”. Fourth stage is dealing with feelings, and the worker participates by validating and active listening. Fifth stage is exploring alternatives, meaning discussing with the client various options. Sixth stage is developing and formulating an action plan. This is detailing
  • This timeline update provided by DeAndra Lee on January 30, 2011

    This timeline update provided by DeAndra Lee on January 30, 2011
    what the client is agreeing to do while working through the crisis. Seventh stage, the final stage, is establishing a follow up plan and agreement. Roberts’ seven- stage intervention paradigm should be utilized as a guide, and not as a rigid process. Roberts, A. R. (2005). Crisis intervention handbook: Assessment, treatment, and research (3rd ed.) Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • This timeline update provided by Shalanda Jackson on Jan 27, 11

    Cocoanut Grove Fire
    On November 28th 1942, a huge fire occurred at the Cocoanut Grove Night Club in Boston, killing 492 people.
    This event created the need to identify at least five normal behaviors that stem from any form of loss. This event promted Lindemann to identify at least five identifiable normal behaviors.
  • This timeline update provided by Tammy Becoat-Eclou on January 28, 2011

    This timeline update provided by Tammy Becoat-Eclou on January 28, 2011
    Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), created by George Everly and Jeffrey Mitchell, is a comprehensive crisis intervention system that serves as “psychological first aid” after a crisis or disaster (Reibling, 2010). CISM consists of interventions that are applicable to individuals, organizations, and communities. It has shown to be effective as a form of professional self care for clinicians who are exposed to crisis situations.
  • This timeline update provided by Tammy Becoat-Eclou on January 28, 2011

    This timeline update provided by Tammy Becoat-Eclou on January 28, 2011
    Mitchell, J.T., & Everly, G.S., (n.d.). CISM - Critical incident stress management. Critical Incident Stress Management Training Seminars. Retrieved from: http://www.cisresponse.com/cism.htm. Reibling, J. (2010). Office of work-life programs: Critical incident stress management. Retrieved from: http://www.uscg.mil/worklife/critical_incident_stress.asp. For additional information, try the following link: http://www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mtichellCriticalIncidentStressManagement.pdf
  • This timeline update provided by Danielle Green Jan 29, 2011

    This timeline update provided by Danielle Green Jan 29, 2011
    Caplan defines the crisis process as an event followed by confusion and a series of responses that help reestablish equilibrium (Roberts, 2005). Figley & McCubbin's Trauma Theory states that a sudden event can exceed a person’s coping as well as disrupt their frame of reference (Roberts, 2005).
    *(continued on next 2nd point)
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 1/30/11

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 1/30/11
    The terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 struck America to its core and had mental health professionals lined up around the block to offer their services (Roberts, 2005; Waters, 2002). Some may have been equipped to handle such a tragedy through training and other experiences however many were likely not. Roberts (2005) cites that this large scale tragedy highlighted the deficit that mental health professionals have in crisis training.
  • (continuation from 1st post).This timeline update provided by Danielle Green January 29, 2011

    (continuation from 1st post).This timeline update provided by Danielle Green January 29, 2011
    Group Responses to 9/11 This article helps to explain the ideas of Caplan and the Trauma Theory in that it describes how the events of the 9/11 crisis impacted many individuals ability to cope, the process they went through to make sense of the events as well as their recovery from the lasting impact of 9/11. Roberts, A. (2005). Crisis Intervention Handbook: Assessment, Treatment and Research. (3rd ed). Oxford: New York
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd
    This model created by Roberts creates a streamlined treatment guideline for workers to follow during a crisis situation and can help improve mental health professionals’ approach to crisis work.

    References
    Roberts, A. (Ed.) (2005). Crisis intervention handbook (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford.
    Waters, J. A. (2002). Moving forward from September 11: A stress/crisis/trauma response
    model. Brief Treatment & Crisis Intervention, 2(1), 55-74.
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 2/2/11

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 2/2/11
    The “T” in the ACT intervention model serves to explain/explore the trauma reactions that occurred after the event. These may be short or long term reactions, and may or may not include the development of symptoms of PTSD (Roberts; Waters). Not all people who experience a crisis become traumatized (Roberts; Waters).
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 2/2/11

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 2/2/11
    This includes assessing pressing medical needs, threats of harm to self or others and or a biopsychosocial/ other type of cultural assessment if needed (Roberts). The “C” stage is the crisis intervention stage which consists of connecting the victim to community supports or providing resources for disaster relief (Roberts, 2005; Waters, 2002). It also contains Robert’s seven stage crisis intervention model (see other timeline posts).
  • This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 2/2/11

    This timeline update provided by Sarah Floyd on 2/2/11
    As a caveat to crisis theory Roberts has developed the ACT intervention model which contributes substantially to crisis theory and improves the way clinicians respond to crisis situations (Roberts). The first critical part of the ACT intervention is the “A” which stands for assessment (Roberts, 2005; Waters, 2002).
  • Elizabeth Young, Hurricane Katrina

    An emerging type of trauma that is currently not recognized by the DSM or many clinicians is transgenerational trauma. This type of trauma is not directly experienced by the client, but can be passed down through generations by parents (Goodman et al, 2008). Many historical events such as the Holocaust, Vietnam War, and African enslavement have made a major impact on the mental health of descendents of those directly affected.
  • Elizabeth Young, hurricane Katrina Part 2

    Goodman et al (2008) found that some of the major effects of transgenerational trauma that have been documented are “depression, anxiety, hypervigilance, low self-esteem, suicidal ideation and behavior, substance abuse, violence, and loss of cultural identity” (p. 123.) Hurricane Katrina, a devastating natural disaster, not only left New Orleans in physical and financial ruins, but also left behind thousands of citizens who lost loved ones and were directly affected by the storm.
  • Elizabeth Young, Hurricane Katrina Part 3

    lost loved ones and were directly affected by the storm. Years after the event, the city is still trying to regain control and infrastructure programs are struggling to function including public transportation, schools, libraries, restaurants, and medical facilities (Goodman et al, 2008.) Citizens of New Orleans have also been struggling to attend to their own sharp decline in mental health with an increase in mortality rates, suicides, and interpersonal violence following Hurricane Katrina (G
  • Elizabeth Young, Hurricane Katrina Part 4

    Katrina (Goodman et al, 2008). Clinicians feel that the psychological effects on victims in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina could potentially be passed down to future generations through this new “transgenerational trauma” (Goodman et al, 2008.) It is suggested that counselors working with trauma, crisis, and disaster victims incorporate their historical context, socioeconomic status, geographical location, and cultural practices into treatment planning.
  • Elizabeth Young, Hurricane Katrina Part 5

    location, and cultural practices into treatment planning. Goodman, R. D. & West-Olatunji, C. A. (2008.) Transgenerational trauma and resilience: Improving mental health counseling for survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30(2), 121-136.
  • This Timeline update provided by Gary Baker on Feb. 1, 2011

    On April 20, 2010 an explosion on a BP oil rig in the Gulf killed 11 people, affected millions, and unleashed oil into the Gulf. Before the diaster, there was abundant shrimping, and tourist filled beaches. After, it became a place filled with depression, worry and sadness. A Gallup survey showed that depression cases rose 25 percent. It also found that 40 percent of those living in the coastal areas reported feeling stress. This was a 15 percent increase than the previous cases reported.
  • This timeline update provided by Gary Baker on Feb 1, 2011

    (Part 2) An earlier study conducted in 13 counties and parishes with a population of 1.9 million showed that 13 percent of coastal residents from Louisiana to Florida suffered a serious mental illnesses after the diaster. BP provided $52 million for mental health care in the Gulf region. The level of mental illnesses was similiar to those seen in Hurricane Katrina. These included: sleeplessness, anxiety, depression, anger, substance abuses, and domestic violence being reported most by mental
  • This Timeline update provided by Gary Baker on Feb 2, 2011

    (Part 3) Health Agencies. The oil may have stopped flowing, but officials believe that the toll on mental health may get worse as the financial strains persist. Retrieved on February 1, 2011 from: http://www.msnbc.com/id/39394876/ns/us_news-environment/
  • This timeline update provided by Michelle Jackson

    As stated in the article by Johnson and Zlotnick (2009) women who have suffered traumatic events such as Domestic Violence may experience Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. When these women initially meet with staff, they are in a state of crisis and may not be able to be given proper interventions to deal with their current situation nor the PTSD.
    Johnson, D; and Zlotnick, C. (2009). HOPE for Battered Women with PTSD in Domestic Violence Shelters. Professional Pyschology Research and Practice.
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    Part 1: 23 Aug 2005, This timeline update provided by Barbara Evans-Kwamla on Feb 1

    The occurrence of hurricane Katrina that in August of 2005 in Louisiana became a major crisis due greatly in part to the fact that the official responders were highly unprepared and informed on how to handle a crisis of that magnitude. The task of evacuating such a large population proved to be too challenging for them. Nieburg, Waldman, & Krumm (2005) noted that the great amount of criticism that FEMA faced in the wake of the disaster caused them to look elsewhere for effective models.
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    Part 2: 23 Aug 2005. This timeline update provided by Barbara Evans-Kwamla

    They found answers in consulting international sources that have dealt with large scale evacuations such as occur when refugees have to be moved from war-torn countries to other locations. The methods used by these international organizations could have been of great use during the Katrina crises. Also, the U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) had drafted a grounds field manual following an earlier meeting of humanitarian organizations to identify effective disaster response models
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    Part 3: 23 Aug 2005. This timeline update provided by Barbara Evans-Kwamla

    OFDA Manual This document could have been really useful during the Katrina crises as well, but was neither identified nor employed during the crisis. This response model has since been resurrected and will more than likely be used to its full extent in addressing future situations. The OFDA disaster response manual is attached.
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    Part 3: 23 Aug 2005. This timeline update provided by Barbara Evans-Kwamla

    Nieburg, P., Waldman, R. J., Krumm, D. M. 2005. Evacuated populations-Lessons from foreign refugee crises. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(15), 1547-1549.