World War 2 - Military, Invasions, and Land Control: The Fight Against Germany and Italy

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    Second Italo-Ethiopian War

    Resulted in Italian occupation of Ethiopia, completing their goals of controlling the Horn of Africa.
  • German Troops Enter the Rhineland

    After World War 1, Allied troops set up a demilitarized zone west of the Rhine river in Germany (Demilitarized for Germany, not for Allied troops.) German troops entered the land
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    Spanish Civil War

    Spanish republican government and allies defeat the nationalist rebels and allies. Government supported by Italy, Portugal, and Germany, rebels supported by Soviet Union, France, and Mexico.
  • Germany Invades Austria

    Germany finishes occupation of Austria the same day.
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    Second Czechslovak Republic

    Proclaimed after Germany, Hungary, and Poland invade parts of Czechoslovakia. Ended when the rest of Czechoslovakia was partitioned.
  • Munich Agreement

    Germany is allowed to annex Sudetenland
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    German Occupation of Sudetenland

    Followed by the German annexation of the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. Hitler said it was his last territorial demand he must make in Europe, but of course that wasn't true.
  • First Vienna Award/Polish Occupation of Zaolzie

    Hungary is given Southern Slovakia and Southern Carpathian Rus. At the same time, Poland was given Zaolzie, a mainly Polish part of Czechoslovakia.
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    Battle of the Atlantic

    Name given to all the Atlantic Ocean naval battles in the War.
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    Ossewabrandwag Resistance in South Africa

    Ossewabrandwag was a group of people in South Africa, many of these Dutch Boers, who resisted and strongly opposed the South African declaration against Germany. They were a guerilla warfare group and gave the Union of South Africa trouble until they were suppressed.
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    Hungarian Invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine

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    Slovak Republic

    Nazi Germany gave Slovakia 2 choices: Either declare independence immediately and become a Nazi client state or become occupied under Hungary. Slovakia chose the former. Ended when the Soviet Union captured Bratislava and all Slovakian territory was now Soviet.
  • Germany Occupies Bohemia/Moravia

    Germany's second step in taking over Czechoslovakia. The rest became Polish, Hungarian, or Slovakian.
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    Carpatho Ukraine

    Lasted 3 days before total Hungarian occupation.
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    Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

    Founded the day after Germany occupies the territory. Ended when Germany surrendered to the allies. It couldn't surrender itself as it was completely governed by Germany.
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    Italian invasion of Albania

    Italy occupies Albania over the course of 5 days.
  • Pact of Steel

    Formalized the Rome-Berlin Axis that was signed in 1936 between Germany and Italy.
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    Nazi Invasion/Occupation of Western Poland

    Sparked World War 2. Nazis occupied Western Poland, and the Soviet Union occupied the East. The Allies decided that if they didn't take action, Hitler was just going to keep invading countries - which he did anyway.
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    Slovak Invasion of Poland

    Resulted in Slovak occupation of territories disputed. Moved the border to what it was in 1920, which was in its favor, only the border was now Germany-Slovakia instead of Poland-Czechoslovakia.
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    World War 2: European Theater

    May 15 was when the last German forces surrendered.
  • Danzig Occupied by Germans

    On the second day of World War 2 in Europe, The Free City of Danzig was occupied by Germans.
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    Saar Offensive

    First French offensive of the war. The French only managed to mobilize their army, seeing that Poland was defeated so quickly and that they couldn't be saved. German troops stopped the offensive.
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    Soviet Union Invades/Occupies Eastern Poland

    Soviet Union occupies Eastern Poland
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    Winter War

    The Soviet Union wanted to annex Finland as they did the Baltic nations, but failed, and all they got were some land concessions.
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    Finnish Democartic Republic (Soviet Puppet)

    A relatively large chunk of occupied Finland was turned into a puppet state. Dismantled one day before the Winter War ended, and was turned into a Soviet SSR. The new SSR would be incorporated into the Russian SSR in 1956.
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    Accidental Bombings of Switzerland

    During the war, Switzerland was completely surrounded by Axis at some points in time. Switzerland got hit with several bombs by accident during World War 2, being caught up in the war that raged around them when the Allies came to liberate occupied lands.
  • Karelo-Finnish SSR Founded

    Founded in 1940 after the Winter War. Most of its lands would be occupied by Finland after Nazi Germany invaded. Incorporated into Russian SSR in 1956.
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    Operation Weserübung (German Invasion of Norway/Denmark)

    German occupation of Denmark and Norway. Denmark surrendered immediately, but Norway was a bit more stubborn.
  • British Forces Occupy the Faroe Islands

    To prevent German occupation of Danish colonies, Britain occupies the Faroe Islands on this date.
  • British Invasion of Iceland

    Former Danish Colony. Britain feared Germany would take over Iceland as well, so the British took control first.
  • Germany Invades Luxembourg

    Germany occupies Luxembourg.
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    German Invasion of the Netherlands

    Germany occupies the Netherlands. The Netherlands were stubborn to surrender, contrary to Denmark, who almost immediately surrendered.
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    German Invasion of Belgium

    Germany occupies Belgium
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    German French Campaign

    Germany occupies northern and western France. Southeastern France becomes a Nazi nation known as Vichy France.
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    Battle of Dunkirk

    Fought over the port of Dunkirk. Most of the Allied forces manage to escape France.
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    Italian Invasion of France

    Italy occupies Corsia, Monaco, and portions of the French Alps.
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    Italian Invasion of Sudan

    Failed invasion of British Sudan by Italy.
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    Battle of the Mediterranean

    Naval warfare in the Mediterranean Sea.
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    Siege of Malta

    Malta was an allied-owned strategically important archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. Italy wanted to control this island desperately, but failed to siege the islands into submission. The siege lasted 2 and a half years.
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    Soviet Union pushes troops into the Baltic States

    Over the course of these days, the Soviet Union occupies Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia respectively. Estonia was the only one to put up a fight in a battle on the 21st that lasted several hours. The USSR won.
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    Vichy France

    Axis ally after France fell to the Axis in June 1940.
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    Soviet Union takes over Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

    Soviet Ultimatum sent to Romania wanting these territories, and Romania gives in.
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    Battle of Britain

    German air raids on Britain in preparation for an invasion of Britain that never came.
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    Italian Invasion of British Somaliland

    Italy occupies British Somaliland.
  • Second Vienna Award

    Romania loses Northern Transylvania to Hungary. Romania is forced to join the Axis powers.
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    Treaty of Craiova Signed/Ratified

    Gives Bulgaria territory lost in Second Balkan War.
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    The Blitz

    German bombings of Britain. Ended in a German strategic failure.
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    Italian Invasion of Egypt

    Italian troops advance into Egypt. They didn't occupy all of Egypt, nor did they intend to.
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    (French) West African Campaign

    French West Africa became a part of Vichy France when France surrendered to Germany in 1940. THe olly part of the campaign that wasn't part of Operation Torch was the Battle of Dakar, from September 23-25, 1940. No combat was seen there after Operation Torch.
  • Italian Bombing of Bahrain

    Italian successful attempt to direct Allied resources to a different areas, specifically North Africa, where the resources were desperately needed.
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    Battle of Gabon

    Free French liberation of their former Gabon colony from Vichy France.
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    Italian Invasion of Greece

    The first part of this war is before Germany interfered with the conflict and overwhelmed Greece. Greece occupies parts of Southern Albania and the war comes to a stalemate. Then, when Germany joins in, Greece is forced to surrender within a few weeks.
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    Operation Compass

    British troops recapture occupied regions of Egypt and take part of Cyrenaica.
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    Later Battles in the Italian East African Campaign

    From after the invasion of Somaliland to the last stand of Italian forces in their colony.
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    Operation Sonnenblume

    German and Italian troops reoccupy all of Libya except one city that they siege.
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    Axis Invasion of Yugoslavia

    Germany, Italy, and Hungary invade Yugoslavia. Some forces are sent through Romania and Bulgaria as well. Yugoslavia is occupied. Independent State of Croatia created. Germany occupies an area surrounding Belgrade.
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    German Invasion of Greece

    Germany joins the Greco-Italian War and overwhelms Greece.
  • America occupies Greenland

    To prevent it from possible German occupation, American troops occupy the island of Greenland. Occupation would be continued until 1945, when it would be returned to Denmark.
  • Independent State of Croatia founded

    Established as a puppet state of Nazi Germany and Italy when Yugoslavia was invaded.
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    Siege of Tobruk

    Axis troops siege Tobruk, an Allied-occupied city in Libya. The siege is broken.
  • Bulgaria occupies Yugoslav Lands

    Bulgaria didn't use their military to occupy their land portion, but got the land anyway.
  • Germany establishes Direct Occupation of Serbia

    Germany establishes a direct occupation of the Belgrade area, because there was an important railroad in the area that Germany wanted to make sure nothing happened to.
  • Bulgarian Occupation of Greek Lands

    Bulgaria didn't invade Greece, but did take over territory immediately after Greece capitulated.
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    Anglo-Iraqi War

    British re-occupy Iraq, which was given independence after World War 1 in 1932.
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    Syria-Lebanon Campaign

    Resulted in British occupation of French Syria/Lebanon, which had been in control of Vichy France. The colony was given to Free France, which was the government-in-exile that slowly regained some of its colonies and eventually, all its land.
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    Axis Invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa)

    First part of the Axis invasion of the USSR. Spans from the time Germany launched troops over the border to where a standstill was achieved in early December. Axis troops fail to reach the so-called A-A line. It was Germany's attempt to overwhelm the Soviet Union and repopulate the land with Germans. The campaign was not yet a failure.
  • Control of Iceland Given to America

    To relieve pressure from Britain, American troops take over the island of Iceland on this date.
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    Finnish Invasion of East Karelia

    Finnish occupation of the region.
  • Uprising in Montenegro Begins

    The uprising was a failure. The main uprising was suppressed in 6 weeks, but continued at a much lower level until December.
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    Continuation War

    Finland declares war on the USSR after Germany invaded them. Soviet Union occupies Petsamo in the peace treaty. Finland re-occupies its lost territories during the Winter War plus some other territory (especially around Leningrad) but all this comes to an end in 1944. Many German troops were sent to Finland to help open a new war front.
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    Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

    The Soviet Union occupied Northern Iran and the British occupied the South. This opened up the Persian Gulf so that supplies could be transferred to the Soviet Union.
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    Siege of Leningrad

    Lasted nearly 2 and a half years. Nazi troops siege the Soviet city of Leningrad (St. Petersburg today) The Red Army refuses to surrender their city. The siege is finally lifted in late January. Nearly 800,000 citizens died in that siege alone, double the amount of Americans who died in the war. The USSR had an incredibly high cost of men who died in the war, a toll that still shows today.
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    Operation Uzice

    Partisan resistance in Yugoslavia. Germany defeats the rebels.
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    Battle of Moscow

    Another very bloody battle, with roughly 1.5 million casualties. The USSR begins a series of counter-offensives in the coming months.
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    Soviet Comeback: Post-Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa comes to an end. After the German standstill, the trend of the rest of the Eastern front is a slow Soviet advance deep into German territory, all the way to Berlin.
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    Siege of Sevastopol

    City of Sevastopol sieged. Several Soviet attempts to save the city failed and it was eventually captured.
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    Operation Crusader

    Successful Allied offensive in North Africa.
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    Guerilla War in Italian East Africa

    After Italian East Africa was occupied by the Allies, a guerilla war was existent in the area until Italy surrendered to the allies in September 1943.
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    Soviet Winter Campaign of 1941-1942

    Soviet troops advance on German lines near Moscow. German troops will never again near Moscow.
  • Capture of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

    Free France captures this island back from Vichy France. No Vichy forces were on the island - just civilians. No casualties were inflicted on either side.
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    Operation Southeast Croatia

    Partisans withdraw from the area of Eastern Bosnia when the Germans come to fight.
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    Channel Dash

    German naval operation in World War 2. German victory. Took place in the English Channel.
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    Operation Thunderbolt

    Air battle in the English Channel and North Sea. German victory.
  • St. Nazaire Raid

    British amphibious raid on the St. Nazaire port in France. The port is rendered useless for the rest of the war.
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    Operation Trio

    Partisans withdraw into the Zelengora mountains to escape the Axis forces.
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    Battle of Madagascar

    British forces wanted to capture the island of Madagascar to secure their trade routes to India due to the possibility of (Yes, I'm going to say it in the timeline that's against Germany and Italy, not:) Japan blocking their routes. The British also didn't want Japan using the ports on the island. The island is established under the Free French government.
  • French Polynesia controlled by Free France

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    Later Battles of the Western Desert campaign

    Consisted of several battles that concluded the Western Desert campaign. Pushed the Axis forces back to Tripolitania.
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    Case Blue

    The goal was occupation of Southern Russia, especially the oil-rich fields of Azerbaijan. German troops did capture some territory but never crossed the Caucasus. The invading army is pushed back out of the Kurban area.
  • Dieppe Raid

    The Allies wanted to take a port for a short period of time to test a landing on the port. The attack failed.
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    Battle of Stalingrad

    Now Volgograd. The Soviet Union destroys the German 6th army. This battle turns the Axis offensive in the Caucasus around. It also began on my birthday!
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    Operation Agreement

    Disastrous Allied landing near Tobruk, Libya.
  • Comoros/Mayotte Under Free French Occupation

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    Operation Torch

    Paired with the Western Desert campaign. Pushed the Axis powers back to Tunisia - French North Africa had been held by Axis forces since French surrender. Sool all of Africa had been liberated by the Allied forces.
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    Run for Tunis

    Axis victory. The allies failed to capture Tunisia before the the Nazis could establish a defensive position there.
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    Tunisian Campaign

    The final Axis troops in North Africa are expelled from the land. Africa would see no more combat.
  • Battle of Réunion

    Free French forces capture the island of Réunion.
  • French Somaliland Surrenders to the Allies

    Vichy France was established when France surrendered to the Axis in 1940, consisting of southern France and most of their former colonies. Free France took back many of these colonies after this time.
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    Greek Civil War: Phase 1

    In the Greek resistance, Allied support began to turn to one group more than the other, resulting in conflict. Ended in a peace treaty between the two, but it wasn't over.
  • Beginning of Case White

    Partisans have heavy losses, Chetnik forces defeated, Axis failure to achieve goals of eliminating Partisans from West Bosnia and the Neretva River. The operation ends sometime in mid-to-late March.
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    Third Battle of Kharkov

    Successful German offensive. Soviet lines were overstretched from their past gains and Germany was able to advance back into the area.
  • French Guiana joins Free France

    This is the South American colony, not Guinea in Africa.
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    Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

    Failed revolt against German forces in the Warsaw Ghetto.
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    Case Black

    Axis failure to destroy Partisan forces; Partisans are experts at escaping, even when encirclement is attempted. Turning point for the war in Yugoslavia.
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    Battle of Kursk

    Soviets regain territory along a 1,200 mile stretch of the warfront.
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    Allied Invasion of Sicily

    Allies occupy the island of Sicily. Mussolini's empire collapses. Italy is soon to surrender.
  • French Antilles Under Control of Free France

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    Fourth Battle of Kharkov

    Last time that Kharkov 'changes hands' during World War 2. Soviet liberators push German forces past the Dnieper River, setting the stage for the Battle of Kiev.
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    Second Battle of Smolensk

    Germany's heavy resistance makes the offensive hard on the Soviet advancers, but with the territorial gains made, the Soviet Union prepares for the liberation of Belarus. (First battle of Smolensk was when Germany occupied the region. Now the Soviets are back for revenge!)
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    Białystok Ghetto uprising

    Defeated Jewish uprising in Nazi-occupied Poland (General Government of the Occupied Polish Territories
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    Battle of the Dnieper

    Includes the liberation of Kiev. Soviets reclaim parts of Central Ukraine, Kiev, and the Donets Basin.
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    Allied Invasion of Italian Peninsula

    Aligned with Operation Avalanche. Allied victory.
  • Italian Surrender to the Allies

    After the Italian government collapses, Italy surrenders. Germany and the Allies would race to occupy Italian lands.
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    Dodecanese Campaign

    Axis victory. Germany occupies the Dodecanese Islands that were Italian occupied until Italy surrendered.
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    Operation Achse

    Germany invades the now-Allied Italy. Germany disarms over a million Italian soldiers.
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    Operation Avalanche

    When Italy surrendered, it was a race between Germany and the Axis to occupy formerly Italian lands (mostly in the Italian peninsula). This was the Allied offensive.
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    Four Days of Naples

    Naples resistance movements capture Naples.
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    Battle of Berlin (RAF Campaign)

    Bombings on Berlin, the German capital.
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    Dnieper-Carpathian Offensive

    Soviet forces retake most of Ukrainian SSR, plus they enter Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Eastern Poland.
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    Leningrad-Novgorod Offensive

    Siege of Leningrad is lifted. Capture of Novgorod by Soviet forces.
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    Battle of Narva

    German defensive victory. One of the few German victories after the tides turned against them. Soviet-German front.
  • Operation Margarethe

    Nazi Germany orders occupation of Hungary after Budapest, its capital fell to the Allies
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    Operation Strangle

    Allied air assault on German forces in Italy in an attempt to get them to withdraw so that the Allies could beat the very weakened and almost beaten Italy without dealing with the Nazis. It was inconclusive, not achieving its goal, but doing significant damage.
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    Crimean Offensive

    Soviet forces recapture Crimea
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    Battle of Romania

    Invasion of Romania fails at first, but then the Soviets come back for Round 2 against the Nazis and capture nearly all of Romania. Romania changes sides.
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    Operation Rösselsprung (1944)

    German failure to destroy Partisan headquarters and kill their leader.
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    Western Allied Invasion of France

    The name given to many different offensives and campaigns from the D-Day landing to early May 1945.
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    Operation Overlord: Invasion of Northern France by Allies

    The start of the campaign was the D-Day landing on June 6, 1944. When the German forces were pushed past the Seine River in August, the campaign was considered successful. Paris was liberated on the 25th of August.
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    Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive

    Soviets re-occupy Eastern Poland and Ukraine.
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    Operation Bagration

    Red Army retakes all of the Byelorussian SSR and gains a foothold in Eastern Poland. All of former Russian land before the German invasion is almost liberated
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    Battle of Tali–Ihantala

    Finnish victory.
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    Battle of Vyborg Bay (1944)

    Both sides win. Soviets capture the main Viborg Bay islands.
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    Warsaw Uprising

    Polish resistance rises up to fight. Resistance fails.
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    Operation Dragoon: Allied Invasion of Southern France

    Successful Allied invasion of Southern France.
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    Allied Advance from Paris to the Rhine

    Exactly what it sounds like. Successful allied advance.
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    Slovak National Uprising

    Slovakian resistance groups rise up against the Nazi government. The revolt failed, and it resulted in total Nazi occupation of Slovakia (which was formerly just a protectorate).
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    Lorraine Campaign

    American occupation of Lorraine.
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    Clearing the Channel Coast

    Erased German occupations remaining on the coast of the English Channel. Dates are rough estimates.
  • Bulgaria Declares War on Germany

    One day after Soviet forces enter the country, Bulgaria, who hadn't used their military hardly at all to aid the Axis, turned sides and began fighting Germany after a government overthrow. The new government easily drives Axis units out of the country.
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    Baltic Offensive

    Soviet forces re-occupy most of the Baltic states. Some of Latvia and Estonian islands are still German occupied.
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    Belgrade Offensive

    Soviet troops liberate Belgrade, all of German Serbia, and other surrounding regions. Partisans, who had captured half of Yugoslavia, also helped with the offensive.
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    Operation Market Garden: Allies Occupy German Lands in the Netherlands

    Allies occupy certain Dutch cities. Some of the Netherlands aren't liberated until Germany surrendered.
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    Battle of San Marino

    San Marino, who hadn't participated in WW2 at all, is invaded by Germany and then captured by the Allies. (I find it funny that Germany invaded San Marino, but Italy never did!)
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    Lapland War

    After Finland joins the Allies in 1944, Finland forces out German troops in Lapland to their occupation zone of Norway.
  • German Evacuation of Athens

    When the Romanian oil fields were captured, there was no reason to occupy Greece, as the sole purpose of occupation was to keep British bombers out of the country. Therefore Germans evacuated. They would have fully left Greece by the end of the month.
  • Allied Capture of Athens

    Greek government returns to Athens 4 days later. British forces are liberating Greece. Conflict between the Monarchists and Communists soon erupts.
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    Budapest Offensive

    USSR and Romania invade Hungary. Offensive ends when Budapest is captured. This disabled Germany's last ally in Europe and greatly sped up the end of the war. Note that the surrendered allies of Germany don't fall under Allied occupation immediately: they just become direct German occupation zones (Finland excluded). The same was true when Italy surrendered.
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    Later Italian Peninsula Battles (Garfagnana and Monte Castello)

    Many dates on this timeline have been combined like this because these battles weren't major, yet had to be put in, so they were combined together. German troops are still falling back further and further.
  • Albanian Communists Enter Tirana

    Albanian communists will soon take over the rest of Albania.
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    Greek Civil War: Second Phase

    Greek Government victory. The country leans closer to the American side of the Cold War.
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    Battle of the Bulge/Ardennes Counteroffensive

    Germany, knowing that the war is lost if they don't take desperate measures, plans a counteroffensive on Allied lines that, if successful, would make the Allies sign a peace treaty in the Axis' favor. It failed, and Germany could no longer stop the Allied advance.The Allied advance is delayed by 5-6 weeks.
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    Operation Nordwind

    Last major German offensive of the war. Germany failed to stop the Allied lines. This was a continuation of the Battle of the Bulge.
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    Vistula–Oder offensive

    Majority of Poland occupied by Soviet forces.
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    East Prussian Offensive

    Most of East Prussia liberated by Poland. USSR occupies some surrounding areas.
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    Silesian Offensives

    Necessary operations to occupy territory to prevent a German counterattack on the push to Berlin. Delayed the advance to Berlin by 2 months.
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    East Pomeranian offensive

    An offensive that delayed the advance to Berlin. At this point the Soviets were more focused on liberating land for postwar control than they were defeating Germany. Occupied Pomerania and West Prussia.
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    Operation Spring Awakening

    Last major German offensive of World War 2. German attempt in Western Hungary to secure oil fields and prevent a march on Vienna. German failure.
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    Vienna Offensive

    Vienna captured by Soviets.
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    Western Allied Invasion of Germany

    Fall of Nazi Germany is near.
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    Nagykanizsa–Körmend offensive

    Allied offensive in Western Hungary to secure oil fields. Success.
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    Spring 1945 Offensive in Italy

    Final offensive up the Italian Peninsula. Axis forces in Italy surrender and the Italian Social Republic collapses.
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    Final Battles of WWII on the Western Europe Campaign

    3 final battles of WWII (Western front) take place. Germany is officially beaten.
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    Battle of Berlin

    German defenses fail and Berlin is taken by Soviet forces. Many German units begin fighting Westward to surrender to the Allies instead, to whom they expected kinder treatment than to the Soviets.
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    Battle of Odžak

    Not a major battle, but it was the last battle of World War 2 in Europe so I had to put it in. The battle was between the Independent State of Croatia and Yugoslav Partisans, lasting until 17 days after the German surrender.
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    Nazi Germany Surrenders Its Forces

    Germany, almost having all its lands completely occupied, surrenders its forces.
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    Prague Offensive

    Last major military operation of World War 2. Prague (Czechoslovakia) is occupied.
  • Return of the Faroe Islands to Denmark

    Britain returns the Faroe Islands to Denmark, their former owner.
  • Allied Powers Split Austria

    Allied powers agree to a split plan of Austria. Vienna was split up as well, similar to how Berlin was. The rest of the country was also divided similarly to Germany until 1955.
  • Carpatho-Ukraine Officially Ceded to the USSR

    After pressure from the USSR to Czechoslovakia, a treaty is signed between the two and Czechoslovakia gives up their far eastern territory.
  • Potsdam Agreement

    The treaty punished Germany for the war, but this treaty involved the repayment to the Soviet Union and determined Poland's new borders. The USSR got much of Poland's former eastern land, but Poland got lots more land east and north of their former controls.
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    Saar Protectorate

    France establishes the Saar Protectorate aside from the normal French-occupied zone of Germany. It ended at the beginning of 1957, when it was incorporated into West Germany.
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    Greek Civil War: Third Phase

    Major conflict of the Civil War. Greek government defeats the Communist rebellion.
  • 1947 Paris Peace Treaties

    Italy has its own timeline piece due to the fact that its territories came into effect later in time. Hungary's borders were restored to those they had at the beginning of 1938. Finland's borders were restored to that of after the winter war, plus the cession of Pestamo in the northern areas. Romania was given the borders of Jan. 1, 1941, with the exception of Northern Translyvania which was given back to them. Bulgaria kept pre-WW2 territory except that they got Southern Dobruja from Romania.
  • Peace Treaty With Italy Signed

    The treaty required Italy to pay war reparations. It also gave land to Yugoslavia, Greece (Dodecanese Islands), France, China (Italian concession that had been held there since the Boxer Rebellion in 1901), independence of Italian colonies, and the creation of the Free Territory of Trieste.
  • Free Territory of Trieste Established

    Would last until 1954, in the area of the city of Trieste, when it was split between Yugoslavia and Italy.
  • Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Established

    The Western Allies of World War 2 (The UK, France, and the US) combine their occupation zones in Germany to make a West German state. The east of Germany becomes Soviet.
  • German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Established

    The Soviet occupation zone of Germany becomes a nation in the so-called Communist Bloc or Eastern Bloc, a Soviet collection of nations in Eastern Europe.
  • Italian Somaliland Returned to Italy

    Italian Somaliland becomes a UN trust territory under Italian rule.
  • Kingdom of Libya Established

    The British and French occupation zones in Libya combine to make the new republic.
  • Britain Cedes Control of Eritrea to Ethiopia

    "As provided by Annex XI of the Treaty, upon the recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 390 (V) of 2 December 1950, Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia on 11 September 1952." Paragraph came from Wikipedia, extremely helpful during this article as they are extremely accurate when it comes to historical, past matters. Thanks Wikipedia!
  • Austria Becomes an Independent Nation Again

    Allied powers agree that Austria will be a neutral nation (not Soviet or American influenced) and won't be divided up like Germany was.
  • Formation of the Somali Republic (Somaliland)

    As planned, on this date, British and Italian Somaliland are combined to make the new republic.