20 century

World History Project.

  • Artictic and Literary Trends.

    Artictic and Literary Trends.
    Two types of art were developed: Dada Art and Surrealism. During WWII, Nazis thought that these types of art were nothing but trash, they reflected the unconscious.
    In Literature, books were written with a new trend: the search for the psychological and unconscious mind.
  • Period: to

    World History Project.

  • More Goods, More Leisure.

    More Goods, More Leisure.
    After WWI, mass production and assembly line took place. By this time, the eight-hour working day was established leaving more leisure time for workers.
    Salaries were also raised.
  • Mass Culture: Radio and Movies.

    Mass Culture: Radio and Movies.
    A new revolution in mass communications like radio broadcastings and motion pictures.
    These new inventions were also used with a propaganda intention.
  • Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities.

    Frontline Civilians: The Bombing of Cities.
    During WWII, bombing made the Homefront very dangerous.
  • The Female Funtion in the Second World War.

    The Female Funtion in the Second World War.
    Women participated in technical labors, auxiliary groups, some in war combats and a feministic movement began in order to achieve equiality between sexes.
  • Bombing of Britain.

    Bombing of Britain.
    London was the first city to be bombed by the germans and it was during the night, killing and injuring thousands of civilians and causing a lot of damage.
    The bombing of germans was named by the British as "The Blitz".
  • Mobilization of Peoples in Germany.

    Mobilization of Peoples in Germany.
    EARLY 1942: Hitler orders a huge increase in arms and in the size of the army.
    1942: Albert Speer is named Minister of armaments and munitions.
    BETWEEN 1942 AND 1943: Speer increases x3 the production of armaments.
    In this time, women weren´t kept out of the job market anymore, but there wasn´t a huge increase in working women, though.
  • Bombing of Germany.

    Bombing of Germany.
    The first city to be attacked by bombers in Germany was Cologne. This was the beginning of an enormously bombing raids by the Allies in German territory.
  • Mobilization of Peoples in Japan.

    Mobilization of Peoples in Japan.
    In Japan happened the complete opposite from Germany about women, they thought that women were weak and that they should stay at home being good wives.
    Young people were encouraged to join the Japanese army as kamikazes, "Kamikaze" means "pilot in suicide misions".
  • Mobilization of Peoples in the Soviet Union.

    Mobilization of Peoples in the Soviet Union.
    Leningrad civilians were so hungry that they ate dogs, mice, and cats.
    The Soviet Union was the only country that used women during ther battles, though some of them continued working at factories and other industries.
  • Mobilization of Peoples in the United States.

    Mobilization of Peoples in the United States.
    Since the U.S. wasn´t fighting in tis own territory, it became the arsenal of the Allied Powers, building as much as six ships a day and ninety-six thousand planes each year.
    African Americans moved to the North and West parts of the country, since they hadn´t been in these zones before, they suffered of extreme racism.
  • The Theran Conference.

    The Theran Conference.
    The leaders of the Soviet Union, the U.S., and Great Britain met in Theran to decide the course of the war, scheduling an invasion of Germany through France in the Spring of 1944 and agreed to divide Germany after the War.
  • Bombing of Japan.

    Bombing of Japan.
    Japanese cities were bombed by the U.S. destroying many industries, and affecting civilians because their cities were built with materials that were very vulnerable to fire.
  • Peace and a New War.

    Peace and a New War.
    After WWII, peace was only a period of poitical tension that led to the beginning of the Cold War.
  • The Yalta Conference.

    The Yalta Conference.
    The Big Three Powers met after defeating Germany. On one side, the Soviet Union wanted to establish a pro-Soviet gorvernment in the countries along its border, and the U.S. wanted them to choose democratic institutions. But, they agreed that Germany had to surrender.
  • The Postdam Conference.

    The Postdam Conference.
    Since the Soviet Union lost more people than the other countries, Stalin felt insecure and wanted Eastern Europe to be under communist control. The Allies agreed to trial leaders who commited crimes against humanity.
    There were trials in Germany, Japan and Italy.

  • Confrontation of Super Powers

    Confrontation of Super Powers
    Once the Axis Powers were defeated, the differences between the USA and the Soviet Union became clear, developing the beginning of the Cold War.
  • The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War.

    The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War.
    With the end of WWII, a huge mobilization of people came in different countries, the four countries that made a huge impact to the civilian society were Japan, the U.S., Germany, and the Soviet Union.
  • The Price Of Development.

    The Price Of Development.
    After WWII, in an apparent stability, many countries began to recieve inmigrants in order to restore the cities, and economy. This led to an increase in urban demographic causing problems in education, health care, and working conditions.
    The World Health Organization tried to eliminate many diseases and epidemics.

    The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) was created with a fundamental purpose being education and the conservation of cultural heritage.
  • Rivalry in Europe.

    Rivalry in Europe.
    After WWII, Eastern Europe was the first area of desagreement.
    USA and Great Britain wanted to free it, but the Soviet Union was afraid they would be anty-Soviet, so they stayed in the conquered areas.
    Also there was a Civil war between Greece and Greait Britain for the control of Greece.
  • A New Struggle.

    A New Struggle.
    After WWII, a new conflict began due to the interest of the Soviet Union to expand communism in order to protect its territory.
    In March 1946, Churchill declared that an iron curtain had descended dividing Europe in two hostile camps. Stalin thought of it as a call of war, dividing the world one more time.
  • The Truman Doctrine.

    The Truman Doctrine.
    The Truman Doctrine considered Communism as a grave threat.
    It said that it would borrow money to the countries that were threatened by the Communist expansion.
  • The Marshall Plan.

    The Marshall Plan.
    This plan followed the Truman Doctrine.
    It was prposed by General George C. Marshall. It provided $13 billion to rebuild war-torn Europe.
  • New Military Alliances.

    New Military Alliances.
    Due to the sense of insecurity, some countries made Military Alliances: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and The Warsaw Pact (May 14th 1955).
    Later, to stop the Soviet aggression, the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) were formed.
  • The Arms Race.

    The Arms Race.
    The Soviet Union launches its first atomic bomb.
    The Soviet Union and the U.S. develop the Hydrogen Bomb (1950s).
    Soviets launch "Sputnik 1" to orbit the Earth (1957).
    None of these countries launched a nuclear attack, but there was always the fear of it.
  • The Division of Germany.

    The Division of Germany.
    Germany was divided by the Allied Powers into four zones. Inside of the Soviet Union´s zone, Berlin was also divided into four zones, creating a conflict which ended in the creation of The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.
  • The Spread of The Cold War.

    The Spread of The Cold War.
    China becomes communist straightening the U.S. fear of the spread of communism; also the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb.
  • The Contrast Between Wealth and Poverty.

    The Contrast Between Wealth and Poverty.
    Due to the economic recovery that took place, a new period began know as the "Golden Years". This finantial growth happened in capitalist and communist blocks.
    The U.S. became the country with the most purchase power, but despite the apparent prosperity, a new crisis showed that the growth of inmigration would only result in a bigger consumist and ecological deterioration.
  • Cuba´s Revolution.

    Cuba´s Revolution.
    Fidel Castro takes power of Cuba in the name of the Revolution with a communist regime.
  • Environmental Problems and Landscape Changes.

    Environmental Problems and Landscape Changes.
    The behavior of Men produced environmental problems and changes in landscape due to pollution, the agriculture and intensive lifestock breathing, soil erosion, and desertification, the extinction of animal and plant species, large housing constructuions, deforestating huge land areas, and the thought that all resources were renewable.
  • The Diversity of Ideas.

    The Diversity of Ideas.
    An expansion and emergence of new ideas appeared like: Albert Camus, Jean Paul Sartre, Mahatma Gandhi, Matin Luther King, Christianity, Budahism, and Hippie Groups.
  • A Wall in Berlin.

    A Wall in Berlin.
    Under Nikita Krushchev´s regime the Wall of Berlin was built, imposing a physcal division between the east and west parts of Berlin.
    It was guraded by barbed wire, flood-lights, machine-gun towers, minefields, and dog patrols.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis.

    The Cuban Missile Crisis.
    Since the U.S. had missiles in Turkey, the Soviet Union decided to pace arms in Cuba to have a closer reach to the U.S.
    But the U.S. blocked Cuba so the missiles never arrived.
    After all, both governments reached an agreement in which the Soviet Union would remove missiles from Cuba and the U.S. would not invade it.
  • The Domino Theory.

    The Domino Theory.
    This Theory was used by the U.S. to justify the reason they sent american troops to North Vietnam.
    The Theory said that other countries in Asia would become communist like dominoes.
  • Vietnam War.

    Vietnam War.
    Under the command of President Lyndon B. Johnson, many U.S. troops were sent to Vietnam, this was to avoid the communist society of North Vietnam to gain power over South Vietnam.
    Many american troops failed their purpose of defeating North Vietnam, from these many troops, accompained of many college students started an anti-war movement.
  • Ending of the Vietnam War.

    Ending of the Vietnam War.
    Under President Nixon´s Gorvernment, the U.S. reached an agreement with North Vietnam and they removed their troops, with a knowledge that the Domino Theory was proved unfounded.
  • The War Industry in Times of Peace.

    The War Industry in Times of Peace.