Unit 5 1914 to Present Mueggenborg

  • WW1

    -Began when Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Hungary, was killed in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip
    -The central powers were Austria-Hungary, Germany,
    Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire

    -Russia mobilized to defend Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia
    -Germany then declared war on France
    -German forces swept into France, they invaded Belgium, a neutral country;Britain to declare war on Germany
    -Machine gun was used
    -The Treaty of Versailles was created which gave away German land.
  • Gandhi

    -Pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement
    -He pioneered satyagraha
    -His philosophy was firmly founded upon nonviolence
    -His philosophy and leadership helped India gain independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world
  • Russian Revolution

    -Revolution forced the Tsar to abdicate and set up a provisional government made up mostly of Democratic-Socialist reformers
    -There was disatisfaction in the populace (money, war, etc)
    -The Tsar was ruled by Rasputin and was totally ineffecticve so the people led by the army revolted
    -After a time of confusion the Bolshevik party took over in the country and created the USSR.
    -Russia became communist
  • Treaty of Versallies

    -The peace settlement signed after World War One had ended
    -It was between Germany and the Allies
    -Germany gave up territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France and Poland.
    -France gained control of Germany's Saar Valley coal fields for 15 years
    -Allied military force would occupy the Rhine River's west bank for 15 years
    -Germany forced to give up war materials, livestock, and various goods to the Allies.
    -Germany had to pay $33 billion in reparations to the Allies
  • Wilson's 14-Point Plan

    -It was a plan to end the present hostility amoung European nations and hopefully end all future wars
    -It became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference
    -The Fourteen Points was accepted by France and Italy
    -They choose not to follow it, and was never actually used.
  • League of Nations

    -The League of Nation's task was to ensure that war never broke out again
    -It was formed out of U.S. President Wilson’s 14 points
    -President Wilson hoped that a united front of nations would prevent any future international wars
    -The League did have some successes, but a series of failures soon discredited the League
    -Germany’s aggressive acts after 1935 were never challenged by the League and 20 years after the end of the First World War, war broke out in Europe again
  • Mao Zedong

    -Chinese revolutionary
    -Guerrilla warfare strategist, poet, political theorist, and leader of the Chinese Revolution
    -Founding father of the People's Republic of China
    -Led the Communist Party of China to victory against Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang
    -Helped repel a Japanese invasion
  • Stalin's 5-Year Plan

    -It modernised industry; concentrated on the development of iron and steel, machine-tools, electric power and transport
    -Stalin believed that the USSR should ‘overtake and outstrip the capitalist countries
    -The 5-year plans were very useful propaganda for Communism and for Stalin
    -It met its five year goals within four years and a new five year plan was instituted a year earlier than expected
    -Industrial and agricultural output both increased by over 100% according to the Soviet Union's figures.
  • Great Depression

    -It was the longest and most severe economic downturn in American history
    -It began with the stockmartket crash
    -Unemployment skyrocketed reaching levels as high as one third of the population
    -Output fell by ten percent
    -Crop prices fell by over fifty percent
    -Homelessness, poverty and general despair characterized much of the nation
  • Hitler Comes to Power

    -He had long-term bitterness after the ending result of WW1
    -There was strengths of the Nazi party, and weaknesses of other parties within Germany
    -Many workers turned to communism after the depression, but this frightened wealthy businessmen, so they financed Hitler's campaigns.
    -Hindenburg and Papen came up with a plan to get the Nazis on their side by offering to make Hitler vice chancellor
    -Hitler became chancellor, and immediately set about making himself absolute ruler of Germany using Art
  • WW2

    -Germany wanted to regain the land lost after WW1
    -Germany attacked a small country named Poland. So Britain, Canada, New Zealand attacked them.
    -Japan flew to American soil and attacked their people. So America joined the war effort
    -Italy, joined Germany and they became dual powers
    -Germany killed Jews
    -America teamed up with Canada and Great Britain; they were victorious
  • Juan Peron

    -Argentine military officer, and politician
    -Trade unions were formed in every industry
    -Social security was made universal
    -Education was made free to all who qualified
    -Made Argentina's economy better
  • Chinese Civil War

    -It was due to Conflicts between nationalist and communist Chinese forces
    -Violence broke out briefly after the WW2 ended, the US general Marshall had failed to arrange a lasting compromise settlement
    -Lin Biao completed his conquest of Manchuria, where the nationalists lost half a million men, many of whom defected to the communists
    -In Central China the nationalists lost Shandong and were defeated at the battle of Huai-Hai
    -The People's Republic of China was proclaimed
  • Cold War

    -Neither the United States nor the Soviet Union wanted to openly fight each other and they were afraid of each other’s power
    -Both the countries were fighting indirectly
    -It became a war of the communist world versus the non-communist and democratic nations
    -It was the Republican George W. Bush who called the final shots and that too because Mikhael Gorbachev backed down
    -They bothe had nuclear weapons but didnt want to use them
  • Indian Independence

    -Labour decided to end British rule in India, from Britain being worn out from WWII
    -As independence approached, the violence between Hindus and Muslims continued unabated
    -British army unprepared for the potential for increased violence, Louis Mountbatten advanced the date for the transfer of power
    -Nationalist leaders agreed to a partition of the country along religious lines
  • Creation of Pakistan

    -Created from the separation of the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent
    -Movement to have a sovereign and independent Muslim state
    -Resulted from British partition of Indian land
    -Movement was led by lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah
    -Desire to build a state on the principles based on Two-nation theory
  • Nelson Mandela

    -He was President of South Africa; first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election
    -Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist
    -He was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life in prison; he only served 27 years
    -He led his party in the negotiations which led to multi-racial democracy
  • NATO

    -It is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    -It is made up of 26 countries from Europe and North America
    -NATO was created because if the Soviet Union attacked a country that had signed it they would all go to war
    -The aim of the treaty is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means
    -It is currently involved in a range of missions throughout the world
  • Maoism

    -The armed branch of the party must not be distinct from the masses
    -Socialism cannot be introduced before the country has gone through a period in which the material conditions improve
    -Society is dominated by a wide range of contradictions
    -The revolution does not wipe out bourgeois ideology
    -Three World's Theory
  • Korean War

    -It was a conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea
    -At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet (North Korean) and U.S. (South Korean)
    -North Korean forces invaded South Korea. The United Nations quickly condemned the invasion as an act of aggression
    -North Korean capital of Pyongyang was captured; North Korean forces were driven by the 8th Army, which marked the border of Communist China
    -Negotiations failed four different times, but an agreement was signed.
  • Warsaw Pact

    -It was a treaty between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union
    -it was a military treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression
    -The Pact quickly became a powerful political tool for the Soviet Union to hold sway over its allies and harness the powers of their combined military
    -The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved in Prague in 1991, after successive go
  • Great Leap Forward

    -Aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country into a modern communist society
    -Mao Zedong led the campaign based on the Theory of Productive Forces
    -Introduction of a mandatory process of agricultural collectivization
    -Restrictions on rural people were enforced through public struggle sessions
    -Private farming was prohibited
  • Vitenam War

    -It was fought between the communist North Vietnam and the US supported South Vietnam
    -The Viet Minh forces took over North Vietnam according to the Geneva Accord
    -Diem enacted tougher, new anti-communist laws; North Vietnam created the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam
    -The Paris Peace Accord ceaseed fire and allowed for the exchange of prisoners of war; North Vietnam attacked the South violating the Paris peace treaty
    -North and South Vietnam were unifed into a single country
  • Berlin Wall

    -Leaders of the Communist parties of the Commecon meet in Moscow and they decide to close the open border between East and West Berlin
    -The wall was built and separates the city into two parts for more than 28 years
    -East Germans were not allowed to free travel to the West
    -A press conference is held and announced that travel restrictions for East Germans had been lifted
    -In that night people from East Berlin flooded into the western part of the city
  • Bay of Pigs

    -It was an unsuccessful attempt by United States-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro
    -Increasing friction between the U.S. government and Castro's leftist regime led President Dwight D. Eisenhower to break off diplomatic relations with Cuba
    -The invasion was stopped by Castro's army
    -The invasion made Castro wary of the U.S
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    -Nikita Khrushchev secretly decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba
    -President Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba and declared that any missile launched from Cuba would warrant a full-scale retaliatory attack by the United States against the Soviet Union
    -Russian ships carried missiles to Cuba turned back, and when Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles and dismantle the missile sites, the crisis ended
    -Cuba removed all missiles and the US pledged not to invade Cuba
  • Helsinki Accords

    -The accords recognized the borders of Europe, The declaration focused on improving the relations between Communist governments and the Western world, with a goal of reducing Cold War tensions
    -Soviet obtained international recognition of the post-war borders, including the the Soviet annexation of the Baltic States
    -In turn agreed to respect human rights, full human rights would be instituted in a new Russian Federation
  • Islamic Revolution

    -Backlash against the Westernizing
    -Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977
    -Strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country
    -Guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting
    -Royal regime collapsed
    -Iran voted by national referendum to become an Islamic Republic
  • Iran-Iraq War

    -War began when Iraq invaded Iran
    -Invasion by air and land into Iranian territory
    -Iraq was aiming to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state
    -Iraq believed they could attack Iran easily from the recovery of Iranian Revolution
    -Iranians regained virtually all lost territory
    -War ended with a United Nations brokered ceasefire
  • Tiananmen Square

    -Movement used mainly non-violent methods
    -Considered a case of civil resistance
    -Led mainly by students and intellectuals
    -Sparked by mass mourning over the death of former CPC General Secretary Hu Yaobang
    -100,000 people gathered at Tiananmen Square
    -There was widespread international condemnation of the government's use of force against the protesters
  • Reunification of Germany

    -Process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany
    -Also when Berlin reunited into a single city
    -Hole in Iron Curtain caused thousands of East Germans fleeing to West Germany
    -Protests by East Germans led to GDR's first free elections
  • USSR Disintegrates

    -Process caused by weakening of the Soviet government
    -Poor Soviet economy contributed to disintegration
    -No longer able to afford military
    -Country was in a situation of severe stagnation
    -Political differences
  • 9-11

    -Series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda
    -Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners
    -Hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center
    -Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden claimed responsibility for the attacks
    -United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror
    -U.S. invaded Afghanistan to kill the Taliban