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Time period 7: The United States continues it's transformation from an agricultural economy to an industrial one. African Americans migrate North to escape violence and segregation in the South and for better economic opportunities.

By ereese
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    A United States policy that opposed European colonialism in the Americas. It began in 1823 but was not coined until 1850. This doctrine was first stated by President James Monroe during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress. The doctrine ensured that the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs or wars between European powers. It declared that the different systems of the Old World and New World must remain distinct and separate.
  • "jingoism"

    Defined as extreme patriotism especially in the form of aggressive warlike foreign policy. The phrase "by Jingo" was established to avoid saying "by Jesus"; "Jingoism" was coined as a political label by the prominent British radical George Holyoake in a letter to the Daily News.
  • Spheres of influence

    Spheres of influence
    Defined as a country or area in which another country has power to affect developments although it has no formal authority. This is a diplomatic term denoting an area in which a foreign power exerts significant military, cultural, it economic influence.
  • "Influence of Sea Power Upon History"

    "Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
    A naval warfare published in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan. The policies published were soon adopted by most major navies which lead to the World War I naval arms race. This publishing was an analysis of the importance of naval power as a factor in the rise of the British Empire.
  • Contextualization of Time period 7

    Contextualization of Time period 7
    In this period progressives responded to political and economic uncertainty; they called for greater government action to social issues such as women's suffrage, the prohibition of alcohol, political corruption, and economic inequality.The beginning of the time period in 1890 was marked by a severe economic depression sparked by the panic of 1893 and strikes in the industrial workforce. The ending of the period 1945 ended with Atomic bombings and concentration camps liberated
  • "Yellow Journalism"

    "Yellow Journalism"
    Defined as journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration. This term was coined (mid-1890's) to characterize the sensational journalism in the circulation war between two New York journals. The battle peaked from 1895 to 1898.
  • De Lôme letter

    De Lôme letter
    The letter was written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States criticizing American President William McKinley, calling him out for being weak and concerned only about graining the favor of the crowd. This letter was thought to rile the American public and push the U.S closer to intervening in Cuba.
  • Sinking of the Maine

    Sinking of the Maine
    The United States battleship, Maine, was suddenly blown up by a mine while riding through the Havana harbour causing it to sink killing 260 officers and men on board. The United States blamed Spain and this became an important catalyst for the Spanish-American war.
  • Teller Amendment

    Teller Amendment
    An amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress in reply to President William McKinley's war message. It placed a condition on the United States military presence in Cuba.
  • Anti-Imperialist League

    Anti-Imperialist League
    An organization established to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. This league cited various reasons for this battle including economic, legal, and racial/ moral values. They opposed the war of the United States with Spain over Cuba's fight for independence from Spanish rule.
  • Hawaiian Annexation

    Hawaiian Annexation
    The United States annexed Hawaii in 1898 at the urging of President William McKinley. Hawaii was made a territory in 1900. Its first governor, Dole declared Hawaii an independent republic. The formal ceremony marking the annexation was held on August 12, 1898.
  • Open Door Policy

    Open Door Policy
    A policy established in the late 19th century and early 20th century that would allow for a system of trade in China open to all countries equally. The policy called for all countries trading with China and for the support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity. Initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900.
  • Square Deal

    Square Deal
    Roosevelt wanted to create a fair and honest society in which everyone has an equal chance at success. Because of this deal, national wildlands would be managed and protected for their national resources. President Roosevelt was extremely popular with the American public due to his Progressive Reforms relating to protection and passion for the conservation of natural resources and the conservation movement.
  • Platt Amendment

    Platt Amendment
    Permitted the United States to leave or buy lands for the purpose of establishing naval bases and calling stations in Cuba. This amendment gave the U.S the right to have a naval base in Cuba, intervene in Cuban affairs, and control Cuba's agreements with other countries.
  • Insular Cases

    Insular Cases
    A series of opinions by the U.S Supreme Court about the status of U.S territories acquired in the Spanish-American war. These cases were heard from 1901 up to the 1920s for the purpose of defining how the U.S would handle its relationships with its new territories and governments. (argued Jan 8-11, 1901 and decided May 27, 1901)
  • Socialist Party of America

    Socialist Party of America
    A democratic socialist multi-tendency socialist party in the United States that advocates for complete independence from the Democratic Party. It was a young people's socialist league with an ideology of Anti-Stalinism Pacificism Democratic socialism. Started by Eugene V. Debs and Victor L. Berger. Founded July 29, 1901, and dissolved December 31, 1972.
  • Initiative, referendum & Recall

    Initiative, referendum & Recall
    These are processes in which voters can adopt a change in law, disapprove of a law passed by the legislature, or remove an elected official from office. These powers are given to voters by petition.
  • Newlands Reclamation Act

    Newlands Reclamation Act
    Authorized the federal government to commission water diversion, retention and transmission projects in arid lands, particularly in the far west. It provided financial backing to farmers who are unable to carry out their irrigation due to financial constraints.
  • Support of Panamanian Revolt

    Support of Panamanian Revolt
    President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new Panamanian regime and the new government quickly signed a treaty granting all concessions sought by Roosevelt permitting construction of the Panama Canal.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Russo-Japanese War
    A war between the Japanese Empire and the Russian Empire. Started in1904 and ended in 1905. This war happened because the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire disagreed over who should ger parts of Manchuria and Korea.
  • NCLC

    National Child Labor Committee; developed the mission of ending child labor and establishing free education for children. Federal standards were set in 1938 for child labor. The organization investigates human and labor rights abuses committed by large corporations producing goods in the developing world.
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    Roosevelt Corollary
    "Asserted a right of the United States to intervene in order to "stabilize: the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts." This corollary justified American intervention throughout the Western Hemisphere.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act
    This act prohibited the sale of misbranded or adulterated food and drugs in interstate commerce and laid a foundation for the nation's first consumer protection agency (the FDA).
  • Meat Inspection Act

    Meat Inspection Act
    An American law that makes it a crime to adulterate or misbrand meat and meat products being sold as food, and ensures that meat products are slaughtered and processed under strictly regulated and sanitary conditions.
  • The Jungle

    The Jungle
    A book written by Upton Sinclair to portray the harsh conditions of the lives of immigrants in the United States in Chicago and similar industrialized cities. Bringing attention to working conditions led to advance socialism in the United States.
  • Lusitania

    A British passenger ship first launched in 1906. Built for transatlantic passenger trade and was noted for its speed and luxurious interior. It was sunk during WWI by a German torpedo; many lives were lost. The deaths of civilians caused by this sinking at the hands of the Germans galvanized American support for entering the war which led to a turning of the tide in favor of the Allies.
  • Great White Fleet

    Great White Fleet
    This was the nickname of the powerful United States Navy battleships which completed a journey around the globe from December 16, 1907, to February 22, 1909, by order of President Theodore Roosevelt. The main purpose of this fleet was to showcase America's naval power.
  • Scientific management

    Scientific management
    Defined as "management of a business, industry, or economy, according to principles of efficiency derived from experiments in methods of work and production, especially from time-and-motion studies." It replaced the simple habit of common sense with the scientific method to study work and perform certain tasks. Taylor published "The principles of Scientific Management" which simplified jobs for productivity to increase.

    "The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is to secure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights in order to eliminate race-based discrimination and ensure the health and well-being of all persons." It is working in legislation by lobbying Congress and protesting at a community level to advance its goals and further influence social, economic, and political changes.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist fire

    Triangle Shirtwaist fire
    A fire broke out on the top floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist factory. Many workers jumped to their deaths as they were trapped inside due to owners having locked the fire escape exit doors. 146 or the 500 workers (mostly young women) were killed. This brought attention to the working conditions in factories.
  • Bull Moose Party

    Bull Moose Party
    The Progressive party was nicknamed this because President Roosevelt often said that he felt "strong as a bull moose" both before and after an assassination attempt on the campaign trail. The party was built on his Square Deal domestic program and called for several progressive reforms. This party failed to establish itself as a viable third party. Founded in 1912, Dissolved in 1920.
  • 16th Amendment

    16th Amendment
    It allows the federal United States government to levy an income tax from all Americans. Other taxes would be considered direct taxes by the Constitution and would be divided back among the states. Passed by Congress on July 2, 1909, and ratified February 3, 1913. The amendment was ratified by Tax protesters because of the United States Constitution which deemed the tax illegal.
  • 17th Amendment

    17th Amendment
    This amendment gives voters the power to directly elect their senators. It also states that the U.S senate includes two senators from each state and those senators have one vote in the Senate.
  • Assembly line

    Assembly line
    Defined as "a series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled." In an assembly line, each worker is assigned a specific task which they repeat as the process moves to the next worker and so on. When all the worker's tasks are complete, the product is complete. The first moving assembly line was installed by Henry Ford.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    Signed by President Woodrow Wilson and gave the 12 Federal Reserve banks the ability to print money to ensure economic stability. Created the dual mandate to maximize employment and keep inflation low. Bankers largely opposed it because of the presence of the Federal Reserve Board in the legislation and only one of its seven members could represent the banking community. This act was in response to a series of Financial crises that occurred in 1907.
  • Clayton Antitrust Act

    Clayton Antitrust Act
    Piece of legislation passed by the U.S Congress in 1914. Defines unethical business practices, such as price-fixing and monopolies, and upholds various rights of labor. This was a more detailed Sherman Act meant to include a prohibition on anticompetitive price discrimination, a prohibition against certain tying and exclusive dealing practices. Passed by a vote of 277 to 54 on June 5, 1914.
  • Federal Trade Commission

    Federal Trade Commission
    Its purpose is to enforce the provisions of the FTC Act which prohibits "unfair or deceptive acts or practices in commerce." It also granted the authority to act against specific and unfair monopolistic practices." Promotes fair competition. Signed by Woodrow Wilson in 1914.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    Built from 1903-1914. The United States had a long-term goal of a trans-isthmian canal. Americans and British leaders and businessmen wanted to ship goods quickly and cheaply between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. This was the most expensive construction project in U.S history to that point.
  • Submarine Warfare

    Submarine Warfare
    Submarine warfare, comprised of diesel and nuclear submarines, torpedoes, missiles or nuclear weapons was used to attack other submarines, ships, or land targets. Submarines may also be used for reconnaissance and landing of special forces as well as deterrence Unrestricted submarine warfare was first used in WWI in early 1915. Germany declared the area around the British Isles a war zone that would be attacked by the German navy.
  • Sussex Pledge

    Sussex Pledge
    a promise made by Germany to the United States in 1916, during WWI before they entered the war. Early 1915, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships, but not passenger ships, to be torpedoed without warning. This pledge promised a change in Germany's naval warfare policy which pledged to no longer allow passenger ships to be targeted.
  • NWP

    The National Woman's Party is an American women's political organization formed in 1916 to fight women's suffrage. Alice Paul is its most prominent leader. Silent Sentinels vigil outside the gates of the White House was the most notable event of the NWP (1917-1919)
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    Zimmermann Telegram
    A secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico. Great financial aid was offered to Mexico If it agreed to enter any future U.S-German conflict as a German ally.
  • Jazz

    A genre of American music that originated in New Orleans characterized by string, prominent meter, improvisation, distinctive tone colors and performance techniques, and dotted or syncopated rhythmic patterns. Jazz originated in the late 19th to early 20th-century as interpretations of American and European classical music mixed with African and slave folk songs.
  • Jone's Act

    Jone's Act
    A federal law that regulates maritime commerce in the United States. This act requires goods shipped between U.S ports to be transported on ships that are built, owned, and operated by United States citizens/ residents. This act plays an important role in sustaining the American maritime industry.
  • Committee on Public info

    Committee on Public info
    (1917-1919) An independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence public opinion to support U.S participation in WWI; Founded by Woodrow Wilson. The committee's goal was to provide members of the public with information about the war effort and the censorship of anti-war material. The CPI became the U.S government's propaganda and publicity agency.
  • Selective Service Act

    Selective Service Act
    This act required all men in the U.S between ages 21 and 30 to register for military service. Around 10 million men across the country registered within a few months in response to the military draft.
  • Espionage Act

    Espionage Act
    This act made it a crime for any person t convey information intended to interfere with the U.S armed forces prosecution of the war effort or to promote the success of the country's enemies.
  • War Industry Board

    War Industry Board
    Agency tasked with overseeing and promoting industrial production during the First World War. At times the WIB would demand the creation of new factories and direct and allocate raw materials to certain factories. President Woodrow Wilson appointed Bernard M. Baruch as chairman of the WIB and greatly augmented its powers.
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    A body formed to resolve disputes in labor during wartime production (WWI and WWII). Its purpose was to prevent strikes that would disrupt production to war industries. Post-war, the NWLB was praised by progressives.
  • Fourteen points

    Fourteen points
    A statement of principles for peace that was used for peace negotiations in order to end WWI. Woodrow Wilson gave this speech to Congress wanting lasting peace and to completely end the war.
  • Sedition Act

    Sedition Act
    This act made it a crime to "willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of the Government of the United States."
  • WWI Armistice

    WWI Armistice
    The armistice signed at Le Francport near Compiègne that ended fighting on land, sea and air in WWI between the Allies and their opponent, Germany. The Bolsheviks wanted to negotiate peace with Germany and they signed the armistice during the "war to end all wars" (WWI).
  • Schenck v U.S

    Schenck v U.S
    A legal case in which the U.S Supreme Court ruled that the freedom of speech protection afforded in the U.S Constitution's first Amendment could be restricted if the words spoken or printed represented to society a "clear and present danger."
  • Volstead Act

    Volstead Act
    Law enacted in 1919 and taking effect in 1920. This act was for the enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment which prohibits the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. This act failed to prevent the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages and lead to organized crime in America.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    A peace negotiation that would establish conditions of peace with Germany and meet the goals of various Allied Powers. The treaty failed when the Allies disagreed on how best to treat Germany and Germany refused to accept the terms of reparations.
  • Palmer Raids

    Palmer Raids
    A series of raids between 1919 and 1920 during the first Red Scare to capture and arrest suspected leftists (mostly Italian and Eastern European immigrants) under the administration of Woodrow Wilson.
  • Red Scare

    Red Scare
    The promotion of widespread fear of a potential rise of communism or anarchism by a society or state. The first Red Scare was during the early 20th-century in the United States caused by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism mostly due to the Russian Revolution and anarchist bombings. (1917-1920)
  • Radio & Phonographs

    Radio & Phonographs
    Radios were used to broadcast music and ideas. It was one of the most important inventions of the 1920s because it brought the nation together and was a whole new way for people to communicate and interact. The phonograph inspired more people to pick up instruments; jazz was invented using the phonograph. musicians were able to learn a new form of music by hearing it live.
  • Lost Generation

    Lost Generation
    defined as "the generation reaching maturity during WWI, a high proportion of whose men were killed during those years." They were referred to as "lost" because they often acted aimlessly and recklessly focusing primarily on the accumulation of personal wealth. Born between 1883 and 1900. But many scholars use the term in reference to the 1920s.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    A turning point in black cultural history. It helped African American writers and artists gain control over the representation of black culture. This provided African Americans with a place in Western high culture. This was triggered by the Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities due to Jim Crow segregation laws of the south.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    An international diplomatic group developed after WWI as a way to solve disputes between countries before that erupted into open warfare. They wanted to be able to prevent war through collective security.
  • Sacco & Vanzetti Case

    Sacco & Vanzetti Case
    Advocates for Sacco and Vanzetti charged that this case was brought first because a conviction for the Bridgewater crimes would help convict hin for the Braintree crimes where evidence against him was weak. Despite worldwide support of their innocence, they were executed for murder.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    A bribery scandal involving the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding from 1921 to 1923. The scandal involved national security and big oil companies and bribery/corruption at the highest levels of the government. This was regarded as the "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics."
  • Five-Power Naval Treaty

    Five-Power Naval Treaty
    A treaty signed among the major nations that had won WWI which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. "established limitations on capital ship construction to a ratio of 5 each for the United States and Great Britain, 3 for Japan, and 1.67 each for France and Italy.
  • Nine-Power China Treaty

    Nine-Power China Treaty
    Signed by the powers of the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium, and China which affirmed China's sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity and gave the nations the right to do business with it on equal terms.
  • USSR Recognized

    USSR Recognized
    Franklin Roosevelt ended almost 16 years of American non-recognition of the Soviet Union followed by negotiations for foreign affairs. Roosevelt sought to establish relations with the Soviets seeing as the U.S was the only major power yet to recognize the Soviet Union. Establishment of Diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. (December 30, 1922-December 26, 1991)
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    Successfully resolved the issue of WWI reparations that Germany had to pay. It ended a crisis in European diplomacy following WWI and the Treaty of Versailles. This was an arrangement between the Allies and Germany. When the German government failed massive inflation and unemployment occurred. Adolf Hitler and Alfred Hugenberg attacked the plan because it did not produce the reparations total.
  • Quota Laws of '21 &'24

    Quota Laws of '21 &'24
    A law restricting the number of new immigrants into the United States. It was rooted in social movements, political fears, and economic reasons. The quotas were based on nationality and sharply reduced immigrants from Eastern Europe and Africa.
  • Scopes trial

    Scopes trial
    An American legal case in which a high school teacher, John T. Scopes was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty
    It was ineffective at stopping the rise of militarism and made no immediate contribution to international peace. This was named after United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. It was concluded outside the League of Nations and remains in effect. An international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "dispute of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be."
  • Black Tuesday

    The day when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed becoming a pivotal factor in the emergence of the Great Depression. Panicked sellers traded nearly 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange. The panic resulted from the new method for buying stocks called buying on the margin. More than $26 billion in stock value was lost.
  • Dust Bowl

    Dust Bowl
    An area of severe soil erosion caused by economic depression, extended drought, high temperatures, and poor agricultural practices that causes many people to move. An estimated 2 million people became homeless due to the damage it did to their farms. About 6,500 people were killed trying to flee or get to other parts of the country to look for work. (1930-1939)
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff

    Hawley-Smoot Tariff
    A law that implemented protectionist trade policies in the United States. Sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley and it was signed by President Herbert Hoover on June 17, 1930. It increased 900 import tariffs by an average of 40 percent to 48 percent. Most economists blame it for worsening the Great Depression, It also contributed to the start of World War II.
  • Japan takes Manchuria

    Japan takes Manchuria
    Japan needed a reason to invade/occupy China, but they did not want to outright invade China. Japan wanted to expand its control over Manchuria so the Japanese planted a small explosive device next to the tacks owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railroad near Mukden. The invasion took place between September 19, 1931-February 27, 1932.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corp.

    Reconstruction Finance Corp.
    A government corporation administered by the United States Federal Government between 1932-1957 that provided financial support to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations, and other businesses. Created by Herbert Hoover. He wanted to facilitate economic activity by lending money in the depression. During the contraction period, many banks had to suspend business operations and most of these ultimately failed.
  • Bonus march/army

    Bonus march/army
    This demonstration drew national attention. Congress rewarded veterans of World War I with certificates redeemable for $1000 a week. They demanded immediate bonus payment for wartime services to alleviate the economic hardship of the Great Depression. They needed this bonus to pay for food and shelter while looking for their new jobs. Results: Bonus Army dispersed, demands rejected, Herbert Hoover loses the 1932 Presidential election.
  • Good Neighbor Policy

    Good Neighbor Policy
    A United States foreign policy doctrine adopted by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Designed to improve relations with Latin America. The policy encouraged interaction between the United States and Latin America as equals. FDR stated this was one of his main goals during his inaugural address. This was a reaction to the exploitative dollar diplomacy of the early 1900s and was a ramp-up to the Cold War.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    Sets the dates at which federal United States government elected offices end. This amendment also decides who succeeds the president if the president dies. This amendment was ratified on January 23, 1933. This amendment tried to eliminate Lame Duck presidents and legislators. The amendment failed.
  • New Deal

    New Deal
    Enacted by President Franklin Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1939. It was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations. The New Deal put people back to work, saved capitalism, and restored faith in the American economic system while at the same time reviving a sense of hope in the American people. It restored public confidence and created new programs that brought relief to millions of people.
  • Civilian Conservation Corp.

    Civilian Conservation Corp.
    A voluntary public relief program in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. This was for men ages 18-25 and was eventually expanded to ages 17-28. The jobs included planting trees, building flood barriers, fighting forest fires, and maintaining forest roads and trails. This program operated from 1933-1942. This was provided in President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. African American men played a major role in the CCC in North Carolina.
  • Tennessee Valley Authority

    Tennessee Valley Authority
    Signed by President Roosevelt on May 18, 1933. The purpose was to tackle important problems facing the valley, such as flooding, providing electricity to homes and businesses, and replanting forests. The TVA was a part of the New Deal's measures approved by Congress in 1933. This still exists today.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.
    An independent federal agency insuring deposits in U.S. banks and thrifts in the event of bank failures. The FDIC was created in 1933 to ensure public confidence and financial stability through the promotion of sound banking practices.
  • 1st Hundred Days

    1st Hundred Days
    This refers to the beginning of a leading politician's term in office. It is used to the beginning of the first term of a President of the United States. This term was coined by Roosevelt during a July 24, 1933 radio address. This period is considered a benchmark to measure the early success of a president.
  • 21st Amendment

    21st Amendment
    This amendment prohibited the transportation, importation, or possession of the United States for delivery or use of intoxicating liquors and declared it a violation of the law.
  • 21st Amendment

    21st Amendment
    This amendment repealed the 18th amendment to the United States constitution which had mandated nationwide prohibition on alcohol.
  • Securities & Exchange Commission

    Securities & Exchange Commission
    A law started by Franklin D. Roosevelt that was designed to restore investor confidence in our capital markets by providing investors and the markets with more reliable information and clear rules of honest dealing. United States federal government; headquarters in Washington, D.C, U.S.
  • Indian-Reorganization Act

    Indian-Reorganization Act
    The measure enacted by the U.S Congress aimed at decreasing federal control of American Indian affairs and increasing Indian self-government and responsibility. This gave Indians the right to form businesses and other organizations, granted them certain rights of home rule, and provided vocational education. Signed by President Roosevelt.
  • Neutrality Acts '35, '36, '37, '39

    Neutrality Acts '35, '36, '37, '39
    Laws passed in 1935, 1936, 1937, and 1939 to limit U.S involvement in future wars. Based on the belief that the United States had been drawn into the war through loans and trade with the Allies. The president had to declare foreign war and certain restrictions automatically went into place. "No American could sail on a belligerent ship, and sell, make loans to, or transport munitions to a belligerent.
  • Wagner Act

    Wagner Act
    A New Deal reform passed by President Franklin Roosevelt. It was instrumental in preventing employers from interfering with workers' unions and protests in the private sector. This law guaranteed the right of private-sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take collective action such as strikes.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    Established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, and for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and physically handicapped. Roosevelt in 1935 wanted to create a Federal safety net for elderly and disadvantaged Americans. This was originally to give financial benefits to retirees over the age of 65.
  • Italy invades Ethiopia

    Italy invades Ethiopia
    This invasion was to boost Italian national prestige which was wounded by Ethiopia's defeat of Italian forces at the Battle of Adowa. In 1935 Italy launched a second invasion which resulted in an Italian victory and the occupation of Ethiopia.
  • Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Civil War
    War caused by socio-economic problems such as poverty and inequality. The main cause was all sides' failure to compromise and to respect the rights and opinions of others. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. U.S victory in the war produced a peace treaty. The United States also annexed the independent state of Hawaii during this same conflict. (July 17, 1936-April 1, 1939)
  • Court Packing Scheme

    Court Packing Scheme
    A bill passed by Roosevelt in which he proposed to recognize the federal judiciary by adding a new justice each time a justice reached age seventy and failed to retire. This plan was widely criticized and was never enacted by Congress and Roosevelt lost a great deal of political support for having proposed it.
  • Quarantine Speech

    Quarantine Speech
    Roosevelt called for an international "quarantine" against the "epidemic of world lawlessness" by aggressive nations as an alternative to the political climate of American neutrality.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    Fair Labor Standards Act
    A "federal law which establishes minimum wage, overtime pay eligibility, recordkeeping, and child labor standards affecting full-time and part-time workers in the private sector and in federal, state, and local governments." This act originated in President Roosevelt's New Deal. This exists in five developed nations that have no legal minimum wage (Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. A Nationwide federal regulation of wages and hours.
  • Manhattan Project

    Manhattan Project
    Led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada. (1942-1946) The project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S Army Corps of Engineers. The project developed and built the first atomic bombs that were used to get Japan to surrender during the second World War.
  • The Grapes of Wrath

    The Grapes of Wrath
    A great American novel that was written by John Steinbeck. It captured the plight of millions of Americans whose lives had been crushed by the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression that awakened the nation's comprehension and compassion. This book was burned and banned when the ruling Communist Party thought that it showed that even the most destitute Americans could afford a car.
  • Holocaust

    A systematic murdering of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its allies. The Nazis came to power in 1933 and believed that Germans belonged to a race that was "superior" to all other races. German authorities persecuted groups because they were perceived as racial or biological inferiority. (1941-1945)
  • Four Freedoms Speech

    Four Freedoms Speech
    The four freedoms outlined were freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. Delivered by President Roosevelt in a State of the Union address. This speech helped change the world.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    Lend-Lease Act
    This act set up a system that would allow the United States to lend or lease war supplies to any nation deemed "vital to the defense of the United States." The United States was able to supply military aid to its foreign allies during World War II while remaining officially neutral. President Roosevelt signed this act into law on March 11, 1941.
  • Oil & steel embargo (Japan)

    Oil & steel embargo (Japan)
    Established on August 1st; an embargo on oil and gasoline exports to Japan responding to the Japanese occupation of key airfields in Indochina. FDR ordered all Japanese assets frozen as he told his Cabinet an embargo meant war that would force oil-starved Japan to seize the oil fields of the Dutch East Indies. The embargo slashed Japanese oil imports by 90 percent. Initially meant as a deterrent, it rapidly led to economic warfare.
  • Pearl Harbor attack

    Pearl Harbor attack
    This was Japan's element of surprise attack to destroy the American navy as quickly as possible. Japan wanted to move into the Dutch East Indies and Malaya to conquer territories that could provide important natural resources such as oil and rubber. 2,403 people died during the attack, 68 were civilians. This surprise attack drove the United States out of isolation and into WWII that ended after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Atlantic Charter

    Atlantic Charter
    Outlined the US and UK aims for no territorial aggrandizement, no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people, restoration of self-government to those deprived of it. It defined the Allied goals for the post-war world for economic and social cooperation among nations. Joint declaration released by U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
  • War Production Board

    War Production Board
    An agency of the United States government that supervised war production during World War II. Established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In charge of converting peacetime industries to meet war needs. It allocated scarce materials vital to war production and established priorities in the distribution of materials and services/ prohibited non-essential production.
  • Japanese Internment

    Japanese Internment
    Camps established during World War II by President Franklin Roosevelt through his Executive Order. (1942-1945) The policy said that people of Japanese descent would be interred in isolated camps. "take all people of Japanese descent into custody, surround them with troops, prevent them from buying land, and return them to their former homes at the close of the war."
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    The U.S Navy's decisive victory in the air-sea battle/ its successful defense o the major base located at Midway island destroyed Japan's hopes at getting the United States to neutralize as a naval power. (June 4, 1942- June 7, 1942)
  • Office of War info.

    Office of War info.
    United States government agency created during World War II. Provided connection between the battlefront and civilian communities through radio broadcasts, newspapers, posters, photographs, films, and other forms of media. It wanted to centralize the many information services of the United States government and create a single line of communication about the war of the American public.
  • Braceros Program

    Braceros Program
    "manual laborer" or "one who works using his arms." A series of diplomatic agreements when the United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico. Created by executive order in 1942 because many growers argued that World War II would bring labor shortages to low-paying agricultural jobs.
  • Island-Hopping

    A military strategy used by the United States; forces concentrate their resources by setting up military forces and supplies on strategically important islands. MacArthur's troops leapt from island to island in the southwest pacific and a pacific campaigner began with the invasion of Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands November 1943
  • "Rosie the Riveter"

    "Rosie the Riveter"
    Her real name was Rose Will Monroe who moved to Michigan during World War II. She worked as a riveter at the Willow Run Aircraft Factory building B-24 bombers for the U.S Army Air Forces. The name was part of a propaganda campaign and became the symbol of women in the workforce during WWII, created by an American artist. "We Can Do It" a poster produced by J. Howard Miller as an inspirational image to boost female worker morale.
  • Tehran Conference

    Tehran Conference
    A strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. They discussed important issues concerning the fate of Eastern Europe and Germany in the postwar period. This conference caused tension between powers specifically Britain as the British Empire was a larger threat to global peace than the Soviet Union.
  • Korematsu v U.S

    Korematsu v U.S
    The United States Supreme Court held that the wartime internment of American citizens of Japanese descent was unconstitutional. On December 18, 1944, a divided supreme court case rules in a 6-3 decision that the detention was a "military necessity" not based on race.
  • D-Day

    Used for the date of any important military operation or invasion. The D-Day landings in 1944 during WWII were the biggest invasion by sea in sea history. There were about 4,000 and 9,000 German casualties. The invasion of Normandy. The Allied forces of Britain, America, Canada, and France attacked German forces on the coast of Normandy, France. Allies attacked and gained a victory.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    The World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to discuss the postwar reorganization of Germany and Europe. Attended by Franklin Roosevelt and Stalin pledged that free elections would be held in Poland.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    The Big Three- Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S President Harry Truman met to negotiate terms for the end of the World War. Failed to settle most of the important issues at hand and helped set the stage for the Cold War that began shortly after WWII ended.
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki

    Hiroshima & Nagasaki
    This bombing made the U.S the only country to have used nuclear weapons. Hiroshima was chosen as a target because of its military importance, and Nagasaki was bombed a few days later. This was the world's first atomic bombing which spawned the dawn of a dangerous nuclear age.
  • Japan's surrender

    Japan's surrender
    Nuclear weapons used during WWII was not what the only thing that forced Japan to surrender; they surrendered when the Soviet Union entered the war. They claimed that the bombing is why they surrendered because it looked better being defeated by a "miracle weapon" than the Soviet Union. This surrender brought an end to WWII As the Japanese navy and airforce were destroyed.
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    Made up of the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States which form the security council. The main purposes of the UN are: maintaining worldwide peace and security, developing relations among nations, fostering cooperation between nations in order to solve economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian international problems, and providing a forum for bringing countries together to meet the UN's purposes and goals. Created by Roosevelt and Churchill
  • Filipino Independence

    Filipino Independence
    The Philippines gained independence from the United States on July 4, 1946. Roxas became the first president of the new republic. This happened when the Treaty of Paris was signed which ceded the Philippines from Spain to America. Many people said that the U.S did not have the right to a land where many people wanted self-government. Andrew Carnegie offered to pay the U.S government $20 million to give the Philippines its independence.
  • Cuban Revolt

    Cuban Revolt
    A Cuban independence movement. They sought freedom from its colonial master and faced political problems and legitimacy from a lack of international recognition.