To slow down Spanish and French expansion in to New World, King George gave land to and English General who got people to move there and created a non-slavery colony called Georgia. Unfortunately, in 1752, Georgia quickly became a royal colony and its economy boomed as many slaves began to work there. It was one of the last of the thirteen colonies to be formed and became the forth state into the Union. It helped the population of the thirteen conies reach over 1,000,000.
New England Colonies
By now, all the New England colonies had been formed. They included New Hamshire, Massachusettes, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Ever since the arrival of the Mayflower, these colonies were the first to be founded. Its economy flourish on its fishing, shipbuilding, lumbering and furtrading. It also formed the an edge of the famous Triangle trade. The union agreement was called "The New England Confederation" and was created to fend of numerous threats.
The Middle Colonies
The Middle Colonies include New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware. They thrive on an economy of grain, livestock and farming.
The Era of the Thirteen Colonies
The American Revolution
A war between Britain and America that ended in the Treaty of Paris and the Americans getting independence.
The Royal Proclamation
The Royal Proclamation was a proclamation made by King Georges III after Britain took the French Land after the French and Indian War. The land taken from the French was left for the British to keep or given to the First Nations. This outraged the French and more land was given to them after the Quebec Act.
Cause and Effect of The War of 1812
The Sugar Act
The Sugar Act was a tax for the Americans to pay for colonial defense in the seven years war. It made people pay extra for imported luxuries like sugar, coffee and wine. It raised an estimated seventy-eight thousand pounds each year.
The Stamp Act was made Americans put legal stamps on all legal documents and contracts. It was passed on March 22 1765 but became effective on November first 1765. This was also to help pay for the war cost.
The Declaratory Act said that all colonies were under British control. This was so they could impose more acts on the Americans to get back more of the borrowed money.
(Couldn't find exact date)
The Townshend Act was a series of acts to put taxes on imports such as glass, paper, lead, paint and tea. These were also to help pay for the war. The Tea Act led ot the Boston Tea Party.
The Boston Massacre was one of the key events that lead to the American Revolution. In this horrifying incident, the British Army killed five civillian Bostonians. It stirred up hatred and anger in the Americans and hep bolster the Revolution. It also stepped up hostilities between the British and the soon-to-be Americans. A propoganda wasr sudden errupted between the two parties.
Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party was a sort of rebellion against the Tea Act. People had to pay a lot extra in import taxes but when the governor of Boston refused to send the tea back to Britain, many people in Boston went to the port and poured tea into the water in the harbor.
Coercive or Intolerable Acts
(Exact dates unknown)
The Coercive Acts were a series of acts that closed the port of Boston and didn't allow the discussion of taxes in public meetings. This was an attempt to stop the rebellions against the taxes but failed.
By this year, all of the colonies had established a Provincial Congress. This was a sort of smaller government for each colony to govern itself.
The Quebec Act
The Quebec Act was an act in favour of the Canadiens. It increased their land size, it allowed Roman Catholics into the government, it made a Council of Represenatives to make choices and reinstated the French civil law allowing the seigneural system to be used again.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
One of the first battles in the American Revolution, the battles of Lexington and Concord set in motion a cascade of events that led to the formation of America. It was a short battle with only one hundred ten casualties.
In July 1776, 2 British Frigates were sent to Hudson Bay and started blasting their guns to show their power. The British then extend a peace feeler and Washington meets with Howe's representatives. They make some broad offers of peace to the Americans and Washington declines.
George Washington Crosses the Delaware River
In December 1776, George Washington made his famous crossing of the Delaware River with approximately 2,400 men in a surprise invasion.
In December 1776, George Washington's troops attacks the British Hessians or German Mercenaries in Trenton, New Jersey. After an hour, the Hessians surrendered after 1,000/1,500 of them taken prisoner with the Washington's troops only having 6 wounded. This was a great boost in morale for the Americans.
The Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris was a treaty made at the end of the American Revolution. It was an important event that changed to course of history and indirectly helped course the war of 1812. The momentous Treaty explicitly stated that the USA was a free nation. But it allowed the British to support Indian (Tenskwatawa) raids. This angered the settlers in the 13 colonies
Start of the French Revolution
On the other side of the world, the French were having an internal revolt. Though their was no direct impact on North America, it worried the British. It may have led toa better life for the loyalists, as the British did not want such a revolt as well.
The French Revoution
Louis XVI Arrested
This marks a major hallmark in the French Revolution. It sent a symbol to the rest of the morach world, a symbol of the power of the people. It inspired the Americans and worried the British. It may not have caused the American Revolution but it sure might have helped it. It also led the British to the pass the Quebec Act and assist the Canadiens in order to prevent a French-Style revolt.
Forced Recruitment into the British Navy
In the mid 1790's, the British forced some Americans to join their Navy which was short on people. This angered the Americans because it violated their rights and liberties. This was also one of the major causes of war.
Capturing Trade Ships
In 1805, the exact date unknown, the British intercepted several American merchant ships to search for deserters. The Americans saw this as another insult since they believed the deserters had the right to be Americans. This got the sailors to start using fake papers making the British even more aggresive and creating more tension.
The Essex Case
On 23 July 1805, The British passedt The Essex case declared that US merchant ships could not claim protection under neutral rights. This led to an increase of seizures of American ships. It did not create a giant uproar, but had a minor impact on Britain-American relationships.
In 1807 (Exact date not known), the British tried to slow down or completely stop trade between the French and the Americans by making it illegal under international law. The British concidered the Americans were a threat and responded by attemping to stop trade. The Americans thought the British were violating their liberty and right to trade. Hostilities arose and tesion built up, which eventually led to war five years later.
The Chesapeake Leopard Affair
The Chesapeake Leopard Affair was an attack by a British ship on an American ship called the USS Chesapeake. Here, the British killed 3 people and captured 4 deserters of the British Navy. 3 Americans and 1 British. The British was hanged and the 3 Americans were sentenced to around 500 lashes each. This angered the Americans even more and now, the amount of people that wanted war increased by a lot.
The Leander Affair
The Americans banned British ships from American ports and harbours as a response to the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair.
In 1812, the British navy blockaded the French navy diverting all of their boats except the Royal Navy away from North America.
The War of 1812
The official war took place between 1812 and 1814. By the end of the war, most of the reasons for war had been eliminated and both sides then signed the Treaty of Ghent which officially ended the war in 1814.
On this day, Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated allowing Lord Liverpool to take power. Lord Liverpool tried to get the Congress to change their minds but the Americans were unaware of this because it took 3 weeks to get news across the Atlantic Ocean and by then, it was too late.
James Madison's Letter
On June the 1st 1812, President James Madison sent a letter to the Congress about the Americans. It wasn't a declaration of war but caused the Congress to declare war 4 days later.
The Congress's Decision
After reading the letter of the president, the Congress voted to declare war of the U.S.A. This was when the war had officially started.
Attack on Sandwich
In July 1812, General William Hull led 1,000 poorly armed soldiers across the Detroit River and invaded the Canadian town of Sandwich (Now Windsor Ontario) but were forced to retreat against the 2,500 enemies. This was the first attack in the war of 1812.
In October 1812, General Brock led an attack to push american troops back from Canada to the U.S. over the Niagra River. General Brock was shot and killed but the British managed to push the Americans back.
Attack at York
In April 1813, 1,700 American forces sailed over Lake Ontario and defeated a British force in York (now Toronto). Although they only stayed there for a few days before buring the place, this proved that the Americans could manage to attack the heart of Upper Canada.
Blockade on America
The British navy blockaded the American coast to keep the ships from helping in the war. The blockade was so tight, all the ships were confined to the harbor. If one tried to leave, it would probably have been destroyed.
On June 6, 1813, American forces were surprise attacked by British in the middle of the night. In all the confusion, many people died and the Americans retreated to Forty Mile Creek allowing the British to take over.
French and British Ties Strengthen
The exact date unfound, the British defeated Napoleon creating better ties between France and Britain. The British no longer wanted to stop trade between France and America eliminating another of the most major causes of the war of 1812.
The White House
THe exact date unknown, the White House was burnt by British troops along with many other famous buildings. This was the home of the Presidents. This made the Americans dismiss the secretary of the war.
On July 1814, Sir Thomas Masterman Hardy led a British attack and took Moose Island and got all of Fort Sullivan to surrender. This was a major push forward into America for the British.
The Treaty of Ghent
The Treaty of Ghent officially ended the war. With the causes of war solved, both sides decided to end the war with the Treaty of Ghent. Both sides released all prisoners and restored all lands and boats. Britain was also force to pay over 1 million dollars to Washington in order to reimburse for poperty losses to private land owners in the southern U.S.A.
The Battle of New Orleans
This was one of the final battles of the war of 1812, after the Treaty of Ghent. It was a decisive win for the Americans - causing a startling four hundred deaths to the british, while only taking fifty-five in defense. The American force was lead by the famous Andrew Jackson while the british by Edward Pakenham. Jackson's service to his country and brilliant tactics soon led him to the White House after the war. He became the seventh president of his new country.
In 1820 (exact date unknown), Maine sparated from Massachusetts.