Open book on tabl 450

The Evolution and Development of Methodology and Material of Reaching Instruction

  • Methodology: reading instruction before school

    In 1650, “reading instruction was supposed to have begun before a child entered the town school” (Monaghan, 1988, p.21). This was so that boys could begin school to finish the Bible and begin learning to write.
  • The Use of the Hornbook (Religious Influence Period)

    The Use of the Hornbook (Religious Influence Period)
    The hornbook is the first piece of instructional material mentioned in American records. The text states "The hornbook seems to have been very popular throughout the colonial period. It was used in two capacities: for catechizing in church, and for giving children their first reading instruction in school" (Smith, 2002, p. 14). This teaching strategy/material remained popular until it died out in the middle of the eighteenth century.
  • The New England Primer (Religious Influence Period)

    The New England Primer (Religious Influence Period)
    "The first page and a half were devoted to the alphabet, vowels, consonants, dobule letters, italics, and capitals. After these came the syllabarium, beginning with two-letter syllables and gradually increasing in length until six-syllable words were given..... then came the famous alphabet verses. These were sentences of religious or moral import, arranged in the form of couplets, each couplet containing some outstanding word to illustrate a letter of the alphabet" (Smith, 2002, p. 22).
  • Primers Printed in America (Religious Influence Period)

    Primers (adapted from the New England Primers) were the first reading textbook printed in America in Boston in 1685. "The principal contents were the "Roman Small Letters," the syllabarium, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, the Ten Commandments, John Rogers's biography and verses, words of from two to seven syllables, the "Proper Names" (from Scripture), a catechism, and other religious sections" (Smith, 2002, p. 17).
  • Using literacy for religious conversion

    “In their motives for reading, in their uses of reading, and in their valuation of reading, the converted Vineyard Indians-men, women, and children alike-resembled other devout Christians: their literacy enhanced their access to a religious culture that they believed enriched their lives. In this context, then, literacy was not so much a "practical technique" for cultural adaptation as it was one for personal and spiritual fulfillment” (Monaghan, 1990, p. 497).
  • Spellers (Religious Influence Period)

    Spellers were the biggest competition to Primers. Spellers funtion was not only to teach spelling, but also to teach reading, religion, and morals. Essentially, "this method showed learners how to spell or read any chapter in the Bible, by four or tenty words only; with examples of most words, from one to six syllables, both in whole words and also divided; with Rules how to spell them" (Smith, 2002, p.24).
  • Methodology: spelling is the key to reading

    “The name ‘spelling book’ was a reflection of the prevailing methodology: spelling was the key to reading” (Monaghan, 1988, p.22). When spelling books became the main use in reading instruction, students were taught reading through learning how to spell words.
  • Psalters (Religious Influence Period)

    Published in 1760, Palters, or a book of Psalms, were used for a variety of lessons including: spelling, accented and divded according to rule. For example, they had "rules for reading and particularly of the emphasis belonging to some special word or words in the sentence. Instructions for reading verse; as also of the different letters used in printed books, and particularly of the use of capitals, notes and points, made use of in writing and printing" (Smith, 2002, p. 16).
  • The Period of Nationalistic-Moralistic Emphasis

    Growth of commerce and industry through the development of facilities for communication and transportation as well as the expansion of the press increased literacy and caused a weakened religious control over education. "The break with Great Britain and the establishment of an independent nation were the final incidents which caused politics to replace theology as the center of intellectual interest" (Smith, 2002, p. 33).
  • Teaching Methods in the Nationalistic-Moralistic Period

    Nationalistic-Moralistic Period (1776-1840). Two changes "in method for which this new emphasis was responsible were:
    1. Emphasis upon articulation and pronunciation as a means of correcting the numerous dialects that had sprung up in different selections, and of bringing about a greater unity in the American language.
    2. Increasing attention to elocution, an art which was considered highly necessary in the life under a democratic, representative form of government." (Smith, 2002, p. 63).
  • Religious Influence to Moralistic Emphasis

    In the first period of literacy instruction, it was religiously based, however, many spellers and instruction “changed to suit the prevailing political moment” (Monaghan & Barry, 1999, p.8).
  • Nationalistic Materials Manifestation Following the Revolution

    1.Rules for pronunciation/enunciation to overcome diversity dialects/unify American Language
    2.Patriotic selections to instill a love for the country
    3.Literary productions of American authors for appreciation of talent in the country
    4.Historical selections to show children how it affected American policies
    5.Informational selections to inform children of concerning objects
    6.Oratorical selections to develop elocutionary ability for social life in a democratic government (Smith, 2002, p.38)
  • Noah Webster's Readers (Nationalistic Period)

    Webster published "A Grammatical Institute of the English Language" in 3 sections: Section 1: a spelling book to teach beginning reading; Section 2: treatise on grammar; Section 3: "An American Selection of Lessons in Reading and Speaking" for advanced reading instruction.
  • Noah Webster's Readers- Version 2 (Nationalistic Period)

    Webster's three sections "were printed separately and Section 1 became known as 'The American Spelling Book' (aka the "Blue Black Speller"). Feeling the need of an intermediate reader, Webster also prepared 'The Little Reaser's Assistant', which was designed to bridge the gap between the other two readers. These three books were the first set of consecutive readers in the history of American reading instruction" (Smith, 2002, pp. 40-41).
  • The American Spelling Book/Blue-Black Speller (Nationalistic-Moralistic Period)

    The American Spelling Book/Blue-Black Speller (Nationalistic-Moralistic Period)
    The blue-black spellers were the most popular of the 3 speller books. "The bulk of the book was made up of lists of words and syllables, 74 pages out of 158 being devoted to this type of content. Rules for correct reading and speaking occupied a total 39 pages, and moralistic advice and admonitions occupied 29 pages. There were 4 fables, 4 pages of realistic stories, 2 pages of dialogues, and a half page of poetry" (Smith, 2002, p. 42).
  • Caleb Bingham's Readers (Nationalistic-Moralistic Period)

    Bingham's most popular of his books were:
    1. "The American Preceptor": no illustrations, moralistic selections, historical selections designed to inculcate patriotism, literary productions of American authors, information on national affairs, religious materials, female education, and stories of adventure, geographical info, and rules for reading/speaking.
    2. "The Columbian Orator": devoted entirely to dialogues and selections suitable for declamations.
    (Smith, 2002, pp. 48-49).
  • Finding Meaning in Reading Instruction

    "American educators, such as Henry Barnard and Horace Mann, found that the main weakness in literacy instruction was that the texts had no meaning to a child. After publishing their criticisms in the American Journal of Education, children's textbooks and methods were reexamined” (Monaghan & Barry, 1999, p. 14).
  • Lyman Cobb's Readers (Nationalisticc-moralistic Period)

    Cobb's readers were aimed to engage students in reading. "The literary structure of this book was predominantly expository, only 17 pages having a narrative element" (Smith, 2002, p. 51). The nature of the content was among a patriotic theme, having several selections that emphasized patriotic topics to teach students.
  • Primers in the Nationalistic-Moralistic Period

    Primers in the Nationalistic-Moralistic Period
    The New England Primer "continued to survive throughout the nationalistic-moralistic period, but in rapidly decreasing popularity. In order to meet the demands of the new emphasis on nationalism, the primer was several times reprinted under the titles "The American Primer" and "The Columbian Primer". Its contents also were changed in many respects to meet the demands of the new republic" (Smith, 2002, p. 57).
  • Emphasis on Education for Intelligent Citizenship Period

    [1840- 1880] "The aim of promoting intelligent citizenship was the underlying motive for improving the educational methods and materials of the period. In seeking to implement this motive in reading, educators turned their attention to new sources for principles that would broaden the content of readers intellectually and new methods that might make reading instruction more effective" (Smith, 2002, p. 71).
  • Intelligent Citizenship Materials: Graded series of readers

    There were no teachers' manuals in this time period, so unlike previous time periods, textbooks are the chief material of the Intelligent Citizenship period. During this period, the implementation of carefully graded readers were used. "It was not until this period that series appeared in which a book was definitely prepared for each of the different school grades... Graded series of readers were a natural development of the new graded school system" (Smith, 2002, p. 78).
  • Intelligent Citizenship: Changes in Materials

    First,subject matter of readers changed. Patriotic materials no longer appeared, moralistic selections began being replaced by new materials. 2. Reading to obtain information: upper grade readers read a wider range of informational subjects in history, science, art, philosophy, economics, and politics.3. Primers and first readers gained more realistic material. Nature was used because of emphasis on science and object teaching. 4. More pictures in readers for beginners (Smith, 2002, pp. 78-79).
  • Intelligent Citizenship: The Word Method of Teaching Reading

    The word method had a "greater tendency to give attention to meanings in methods advocated for advanced reading in word method series than in the alphabetic-phonetic series.... The reading lesson should be carefully read, silently, [previous to the class exercise, at which time every word not understood should be examined in the dictionary, and these definitions, or their import, given at the spelling exercise from the reading lesson" (Smith, 2002, p. 85).
  • Bumstead's Readers (Intelligent Citizenship)

    Josiah Bumstead was a Boston merchant and writer of textbooks. His primers "departed from the usual introductory pages given over to the alphabet and syllabarium and devoted itself entirely to lists of words. These words were selected on the basis of child experience and were organized according to related meanings" (Smith, 2002, p. 86). The lessons were organized (i.e. lesson 1: parts of the human head, lesson 2: human body). Later words would be organized in to complete a sentence.
  • Alphabet-Phonetic Methods (Intelligent Citizenship)

    The text states, "In spite of all the agitation on behalf of the word method, the majority of teachers continued to use the alphabet method. The alphabet method was persistent because of the years of tradition behind it... There was, however, a strong tendency during this period to teach the sounds of the letters, either together with their names or instead of their names. Hence we are characterizing this procedure as the alphabet-phonetic method" (Smith, 2002, pp. 92-93).
  • Alphabet-Phonetic Materials (Intelligent Citizenship)

    First, McGuffey's Readers: These stayed popular for 40 years. McGuffey produced the first clearly defined and carefully graded series consisting of one reader for each grade level in elementary school (Smith, 2002, pp. 98-99). 2. Tower's Readers: First reader written by a principal, predominately alphabetic in nature (Smith, 2002, p. 103). 3. Wilson's Readers: Disctinctive because it specialized in scientific content using a variety of literature (Smith, 2002, p. 107).
  • Webb's Readers (Intelligent Citizenship)

    "Webb devoted the first eight pages of the book to carefully prescribed directions for teachers and liberally distributed additional instructions througout the text" (Smith, 2002, p. 90). The book was organized into 3 parts:
    1. Teaching Words
    2. Teaching new words, reading, spelling the alphabet, sounds of letters
    3. A speller as well as a reader, teaching children to spell columns of words and pronounce at sight before reading.
  • Emphasis on Reading as a Cultural Asset Period

    "The nation had now had the leisure and peace of mind to turn to cultural pursiuits in music, art, and literature. This concern for cultural development resulted in an emphasis on the use of reading as a medium for awakening a permanent interest in literacy material that would be a cultural asset to the individual in adult life... one finds well-defined aims, methods, and materials all directed toward the goal of developing permanent interest in literature" (Smith, 2002, pp. 108-109.
  • New Reading Material (Reading as a Cultural Aspect)

    First, Professional books: "With the issuance of new materials and the formulation of new methods, it was natural that entire treaties should appear, devoted to the discussion of reading instruction" (Smith, 2002, p. 115). Secondly, Courses of Study: "Until about 1890, the courses were but meager outlines in reports of a school board or a superintendent of schools... there were publications containing the course of study for all elementary grades and covering all subjects" (Smith, 2002, p.117).
  • New Reading Material Cntd. (Reading as a Cultural Aspect)

    Third, Supplemental Materials: The materials used for supplemental reading in the upper grades took the form of classic literature in books devoted to that type of content and developed entirely apart from any purpose as a systematic reader (Smith, 2002, p. 119). Fourthly, Combined Alphabetic and Phonetic Systems: Included the "Scientific Alphabet" and "The Shearer System" to make reading easier for beginners (Smith, 2002, p. 120).
  • New Methods (Reading as a Cultural Aspect)

    3 new developments in method:
    1. (Primary) The sentence method and the story method, both of which were an outgrowth and expansion of the word method.
    2. (Primary) The elaborate phonectic methods, which stressed and extended the previous practices in regard to teaching children the sounds of letters and combination of letters.
    3. (Secondary) The use of new techniques to arouse appreciation for literature and to establish permanent interest in literature (Smith, 2002, p. 121).
  • Elaborate Phonetic Method (Reading as a Cultural Aspect)

    A growing dissatisfaction for the word method happened because children were not able to read well in upper grades. Rebecca Pollard created the general procedure:
    1. Oral instructional excerpts, stencils and when teaching sounds, word families
    2. Blackboard drill, marking on the board of all the letters, words, and sentences.
    3. Independent marking of the lesson
    4. Writing from teacher's dictation
    5. recitation, pronouncing the words and reading the sentences (Smith, 2002, p. 125).
  • Change in Basal Readers (Reading as a Cultural Aspect)

    "Elocutionary rules disappeared from the readers. Moralistic and information selections lost their foothold in basic readers. The new content for the upper grades consisted almost wholly of literary selections. Mother Goose rhymes and folktales were for the first time used in beginning readers" (Smith, 2002, p. 126). Includes: Ward's readers, The Beacon Readers, Sentence and Story Methods, The Aldine Readers, The Reading-Literature Series, and the Elson Readers.
  • Period of Scientific Investigation in Reading

    This period was the first great break-through in American reading instruction. The text states, "With the advent of instruments for measurement, it was possible for the first time to obtain scientific information about the effectiveness of reading methods and materials, and of administrative arrangements for teaching reading in the classroom" (Smith, 2002, p. 148).
  • Scientific Method Period: Oral to Silent Reading

    Between 1918-1925, silent reading procedures were used for reading instruction due to increase meaning in all phases of education. Furthermore, oral reading was not an effective measure in standardized testing, so this period created yearbooks and standardized tests to assess silent reading. (Smith, 2002, pp. 148-153).
  • Period of Scientific Investigation: Silent Reading Materials

    First, Professional Books and Monographs: O'Brien's books that helped develop silent reading with speed and gave suggestions for classroom procedures to teach silent reading. Secondly, Courses of Study: Boards of Education published bulletins for teachers to apply new silent reading techniques. 3. Teachers' Manuals: included procedures to be used with literary readers.4. Supplemental: Readers with factual materials were used with a basal system & written responses (Smith, 2002, pp. 156- 162).
  • Period of Scientific Investigation- Reading Aims

    The text explains, "The specific aim of reading instruction overshadowing all others during this period was that of teaching efficient silent reading in order to enable the individual to meet the practical needs of life" (Smith, 2002, p. 154). Furthermore, the aim for reading instruction was to help students become effective rapid silent readers.
  • Period of Scientific Investigation: The New Readers

    The content of readers was largely factual and informational that resembled the type of material that is read in practical life reading. The content included exercises that required children to make a reaction that would check their comprehension. These would include: questions, drawing, construction work, dramatization, true-false questions, and completion sentences. The purpose was to provide an easy, informational text to speed read and comprehend.
    (Smith, 2002, pp. 162-164).
  • Period of Scientific Investigation: Methods of Teaching Silent Reading

    Instead of simply reading to yourself, the new methods of teaching silent reading included activities that were more directive and responsive than before. Changes included comprehension emphasis by making definite responses to reading. Also, tests appeared that could identify individual weaknesses and provide remedial work for individual needs. Finally, ability grouping and integration in all subjects was recommended for the first time (Smith, 2002, pp. 171- 175).
  • Period of Scientific Investigation: Remedial Reading in Public Schools

    Wtih standardized reading tests, schools conducted surveys to assess reading achievement and found that many students were deficient in reading. Public schools became concerned with reading disability and began researching improvement programs such as remedial reading. Furthermore, experience charts were initiated, individual instruction was introduced, and teacher improvement became a concern (Smith, 2002, pp. 179-183).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application

    (1925-1935) The experience chart and the Dalton and Washburne plans of individual instruction continued to be in use. The 2 new developments during this period: the application of broader objectives and the teaching of reading in activity programs. Other developments included the expansion and intensive application of reading research, establishment of the readiness concept, extended development in diagnosis, and first appointments of special supervisors of reading (Smith, 2002, pp. 185-186).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Broader Objectives in Textbook Instruction

    Both materials and methods used in connection with textbook teaching of reading became broader. In the new instruction, objectives weren't strongly directed toward the development of any one skill or end point, but toward the development of several different abilities needed in the various purposes for which reading was used in well-rounded living. No one type of instruction was given more emphasis than others as in previous periods (Smith, 2002, pp. 186-187).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Reading Objectives

    First, readers should be able to participate intelligently in life and appreciate recreational activities.2. Develop a permanent interest in reading (current events, social problems, habit of reading). 3. Understanding reading: Recognizing sentences as ideas, words and groups of words, interpreting typographical devices, holding the book correctly with correct lighting, intelligent interpretation, oral interpretation to others, skillful use of books/libraries. (Smith, 2002, pp. 192-193).
  • Period of Instensive Research and Application: New Materials

    First,Professional Books: discussed broader topics of interests, methods, and psychology of reading in addition to silent reading, using investigations in the field. 2. Courses of Study: Literature was recognized much more frequently as a distinct subject with separate courses devoted to different phases of reading instruction/abilities. 3. Teachers' Manuals: has its own list of topics, organization, and reading method. 4. Supplemental: very abundant/varied in content (Smith, 2002, pp. 194-198).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Readers

    Changes include colorful cover pages, colorful illustrations generously distributed throughout, and using standard word lists as a basis for selecting vocabulary. In addition, there were realistic stories over all other types of materials (84 percent made of realistic narratives). Silent reading exercises were also popular, and there was a wide variety of subject matter (Smith, 2002, pp. 199-208).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Basal Reading Series

    The text states, "two 'giants' in the field of reading instruction turned their great funds of knowledge to practical application in developing basal reader programs" (Smith, 2002, p. 209). Arthur I. Gates and William S. Gray conducted a lot of research and published writing about teaching reading. The materials included: The Work-Play Books, The Scott Foresman Reading Program, The Child's Own Way Series, The Child-Story Readers, and The Children's Own Readers (Smith, 2002, pp. 208-214).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Methods of Teaching Reading

    -Integration: connection with various activities/interests througout the school day
    -Methods of Approach: Using readers for a varied approach
    -Phonics: practice the recognition of similarities/differences in word elements through comprehension exercises requiring choices from various words/phrases that look alike
    -Developing Different Reading Abilities: provision of procedures/materials for different abilities.
    -Adjustment to Individual Needs: flexible grouping
    (Smith, 2002, pp. 215-226).
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Activity Program

    Activity curriculum is "a network of experiencing. It begins with something which an individual or group has already experienced; and, through the desire of the individual or group to further interpret the experience, new interests are created and new problems appear. It is a never-ending process" (Smith, 2002, p. 228). This leads to investigating, questioning, planning, performing, evaluating, appreciating, achieving, and enjoying.
  • Period of Intensive Research and Application: Expansion and Intensive Application of Research

    The topics that were being researched were "reading interests, reading disability, and readiness for beginning reading. Other topics of high interest were: vocabulary load in reading materials, evaluation of reading tests and scales, factors involved in reading achievement, and phonics" (Smith, 2002, p. 239). Furthermore, remedial reading developed by improvements in diagnosis and remediation of children with reading disabilities and the reading readiness concept gained recognition.
  • The Period of International Conflict

    The atomic age and reading became interactive, but it was not realized during this time. The following are effects of this time of international strife:
    1. a reduction in output of published research.
    2. a few fore thinkers began to state a fresh viewpoint in regard to the contribution that reading might make to the American democracy
    3. emphasis on social values in reading
    4. discovery that many military service men could not read well enough to follow instructions (Smith, 2002, pp. 247-252).
  • The Period of International Conflict- Representatitve Readers

    Developments made between 1935-1950:
    1.The Reading for Interest Series: readiness book, 4 preprimers, 2 primers, a first reader, and a one reader each for grades 2-6
    2. The Learning to Read Program (1945): wrtten by well-known children's authors
    3. The Ginn Basic Readers (1948): primary series
    4. The Betts Basic Readers: first edition for all 6 grades.
    5. The Curriculum Foundation Series: added the first prereading book to this series in 1937 and 3 preprimers in 1940 (Smith, 2002, pp. 261-267).
  • The Period of International Conflict: Specific Reading Objectives

    A sound reading program had 8 main criteria:directed toward specific ends agreed by the entire school staff; Reading activities coordinated with child development; A child's development in reading relates to development in other language arts; has larger reading programs extending through secondary school; varied instruction/flexible requirements to meet the different reading levels; guided level of advancement; special provisions for disabilities; frequent evaluation (Smith, 2002, pp. 253-254).
  • The Period of International Conflict: New Reading Materials

    Professional Books: "several professional books on reading were published in this period. A new feature in regard to these books was that several dealt solely with a specific aspect of reading... The first two books devoted to reading at the secondary level published during this period were Guy Bond and Eva Bond's Developmental Reading in the High School, and Ruth Srang, Constance McCullough, and Arthur Traxler's Problems in the Improvement of Reading (Smith, 2002, pp. 254-255).
  • The Period of International Conflict- New Materials

    First, Teachers' Manuals: Teachers' manuals for a series of readers increased and there was a strong trend toward having more manuals in the first grade. 2. Basal Readers: One change was the wide acceptance of the reading readiness concept. Authors considered the development of reading readiness to be so important that they provided material for and instructions to the teacher for use during a readiness period. Also, the use of preprimers were used. (Smith, 2002, pp. 256-259).
  • The Period of International Conflict- Methods of Teaching

    Methods of Teaching as Advocted in Basal Reading Series:
    A new concept was developed in which there were interrelationships in various curriculum areas. The teachers' guides for basal readers contained social studies or science content as well. Furthermore, the reading readiness concept was integrated as well as word recognition techniques (visual and auditory discrimination), skill development in elementary grades, and adjustment to individual needs (Smith, 2002, pp. 267-272).
  • The Period of International Conflict- Teaching Reading in Secondary School/College

    Smith states, "in the last two years of this period, there was a strong upswing of interest in the teaching of reading at the higher levels and a new concept emerged- that of teaching developmental reading in high school. The primary influence came from the large number of research reports that had to do directly with reading at secondary and college levels" (2002, pp. 274-275). Gray suggested sound reading programs in addition to the remedial instruction.
  • The Period of International Conflict- Instruction for Reading Disabilities

    There became an increased interest in reading disabilities in this time period as made apparent by summaries of investigations, articles in educational journals, and new professional books dealing exclusively with this subject.The professional books treating diagnosis and remedial reading were used as an informal diagnosis with basal readers. This caused an array of books on specialized aspects of reading. Mechanical aids to reading difficulties also appeared (Smith, 2002, pp. 280-282).
  • The Period of International Conflict- Supervision of Reading

    Interest in having a special supervisor in reading became important during this time period. Reading specialists in public school systems were "reading supervisors" or "reading coordinators" and gathered reading problems for discussion and helped teachers feel better trained (Smith, 2002, pp. 283-285).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution

    (1950-1965) During this period, U.S. citizens became aware of the need for vigorous effort in maintaining leadership as a nation and preserving the way of life... The key solution proposed to solving these problems (pressures of Sputnik and governmental support) is education, and reading is basic to education (Smith, 2002, p. 287). This included an accumulation of knowledge (social, scientific, ideological, economic, and political) and the technological revolution.
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Professional Books on Reading

    New professional books on the teaching of reading were created (most at the elementary level, but some for the secondary) and for the first time, books for college and adult levels were created. Books for parents on children's reading was also introduced to help parents guide their children's reading interests (Smith, 2002, pp. 299-301).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: New Basal Reading Programs

    First, The Sheldon Basic Reading Series uses Sheldon Diagnostic Tests to gauge student abilities/weaknesses. Second, the Winston Basic Readers, Communication Program focused on the interrelationships of the langague arts skills by providing experiences in reading, writing, speaking, and listening, as each one augments the other. Third, the Macmillan Reading Program had fiction and nonfiction, self-help dictionaries, and a new idea of teaching word recognition (Smith, 2002, pp. 305-313).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: New Basal Reading Programs Cntd.

    Fourth, the Developmental Reading Program (1958) has both a regular and simplified version. Fifth, the basic Reading (1963) represents a highly specialized phonic approach that begins in first grade and no reading readiness materials are provided. Sixth, Betts Basic Readers "Annotated and Keyed Teachers' Edition" appears with the pupil's book with the regular manual. Seventh, the Ginn Basic Reading Program (1949) includes enrichment readers and "By Myself" booklets (Smith, 2002, pp. 313-320).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: New Basal Reading Programs Cntd.

    Eighth, the Curriculum Foundation Series was a new basic reading program for middle grades. Ninth, Wide Horizons serve as an extension for students who exceed.Tenth, the Open Highways Program reawakened interest in reading for students who do not meet the expectations. 11. Reading for Interest: larger page size and and more color. 12. Reading Caravan: high interest appeal literature to foster appreciation13. Reading for Meaning: workbooks and testing program provided(Smith, 2002, pp. 320-323).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: The Individualized Approach

    Individualized reading instruction was researched and published heavily during this time period. Following the evolution of standardized tests, surveys of reading achievment were made and revealed wide individual differences. New materials were developed and new procedures put in place to allow children to progress at their own individualized rates while learning to read. Reading assignments were prepared in steps of increasing difficulty (Smith, 2002, pp. 347-349).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: The Linguistics Approach

    The linguistic approach focuses on getting meaning from the print on the page by gaining speech from graphics on a page. Graphemes and phonemes were coined under this approach. Two main series were used in this time period: Let's Read (first to be used by children, focused on word patterns and blending) and A Basic Reading Series Developed Upon Linguistic Principles (first graded series of basal readers prepared for the purpose of applying linguistic theory) (Smith, 2002, pp. 356-360).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Reading Programs that included different ethnic groups

    With emphasis on integration and strengthened internationalis, and with problems of teaching reading to larger numbers of bilingual and culturally disadvantaged children in large cities, readers focused on multicultural backgrounds were developed. The content presented an authentic cross-section of life in urban America and the methodology had a strong emphasis on phonics and structural analysis by making use of meaningful words in the children's spoken vocabulary (Smith, 2002, pp. 351-354).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Methods of Teaching Advocated in Basal Reading Programs

    All basal programs except one provide material for the reading readiness period. Also, some provided pictures to use for language activities. Word recognition techniques are also used because of the high controversy of phonics. All reading programs that have readiness books give practice in auditory and visual discrimination of letters. Skill development was also emphasized and increased attention was given to study skills needed in reading in other subject areas (Smith, 2002, pp. 324- 334).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Reading instruction at high school, college, and adult levels

    High schools began implementing both remedial and developmental reading programs to combat high school dropouts and increase college reading readiness. Secondly, the number of programs at the college level also doubled and research on college reading grew vastly. Finally, reading improvement courses were provided for adults that had a basic grasp of reading, and the armed services and businesses became interested in this topic, but materials needed to be created (Smith, 2002, pp. 338-347).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Using the Pitman Augmented Roman Alphabet

    Sir James Pitman created the the Pitman Augmented Roman Alphabet or Initial Teaching Alphabet (i.t.a.) and is modified to contain 43 characters instead of 26. It was planned to make reading easier because of the provision for presenting fewer whole-word representations and phonic symbols. The Downing Readers and I/T/A Early-to-Read Series implemented this alphabet (Smith, 2002, pp. 363-367).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Programmed Learning in Reading

    Based on principles derived from experimental studies in learning, programmed learning is based on three basic principles:
    1. Continuous active student response is required, providing explicit practice and testing of each step of what is to be earned.
    2. Informing the student with minimal delay whether each response he makes is correct, leading him directly or indirectly to correction of his errors.
    3. The student proceeds on an individual basis at his own rate (Smith, 2002, p. 368).
  • Period of Expanding Knowledge and Technological Revolution: Changes in Basals

    The basals focused on skills under three headings: word recognition skills, comprehension skills, and organization skills. Furthermore, basal reading programs were also advanced to meet individual needs during this time period. They provided teacher's guides with higher flexibility, allowing students to read from books of their own choice, and remedial and enrichment material was used for immature, average, and advanced students (Smith, 2002, pp. 334-338).
  • Sociocultural Perspective- Pop culture and Political Implications

    Alvermann mentioned, “beginning in the 1990's through the first decade of the twenty-first century, reading research published in NCTE journals reflected a growing trend among English language arts scholars to situate their work in a sociocultural perspective – one that could accommodate among many other issues, the increasing presence of popular culture in schools and its political implications for classroom practice” (2010, p. 75).
  • Using Culturally Relevant Texts

    Harris states, “If African American children do not see reflections of themselves in school texts or do not perceive any affirmation of their cultural heritage in those texts, then it is quite likely that they will not read or value schooling as much” (Harris, 1990, p.552). This is an important shift in literacy instruction because the idea of including diversity in text choice become prevalent. Just as differentiation for learning style is important in education, finding relevant texts is also.
  • Moving Away from Read Aloud

    “In the 17th and 18th centuries, speaking was seen as related to reading aloud and to writing; today this matrix is no longer present” (Keller-Cohen, 1993, p. 296). There has been a shift from reading aloud to reading for analyzation and writing for academic purposes.
  • Connecting school to life

    Keller-Cohen (1993) writes, “Under the rubric of the new literacy, these innovations include an emphasis on connecting work in school with life outside the classroom. This connection is accomplished by creating opportunities for literacy activities that are meaningful to students and by emphasizing such practices as peer response groups where students develop reading, writing, and thinking skills in a collaborative context” (p. 301).
  • Reading is taught at school and less at home

    “During the 19th century, this country began to depend on public schools as the sites for literacy acquisition. Although the home and the church still played a role, the school came to be an important source of literacy instruction. And today, American society takes literacy development primarily to be the responsibility of schools” (Keller-Cohen, 1993, p. 299).
  • Digital Literacy

    “Educators have increasingly come to recognize that being literate requires that readers be able to deal with all types of texts, including online texts” (Martinez et. al, 2000, p.165). The importance of including digital literacies in children's literacy is vital to be successful in our world today. This includes reading online articles, e-books, writing online, etc.
  • Using Nonfiction Texts

    Martinez & McGee discuss that “nonfiction articles for younger students are becoming more accessible” (2000, p. 163). This really applies to my teaching practice. I teach ninth grade language arts, and we have a big “push” for incorporating nonfiction texts. The idea behind this is that students who are able to analyze and think critically about a nonfiction text will be able to apply their literacy in the day-to-day world as adults.
  • Literacy instruction: teaching skills

    Baumann et al. (2000) write, “Both primary- and intermediate grade teachers provide skill instruction in the content of literature so that students can learn and practice word identification, vocabulary, and comprehension skills as presented in stories and books” (p. 360). Instead of simply reading, Baumann explains that teachers should be teaching literacy skills so that students can apply them to other contexts.
  • Using various approaches to reading instruction

    “There have been discussions surrounding the prevalence of phonics instruction in beginning reading whether whole language or process-oriented approaches prevail in elementary classrooms, the effectiveness of various approaches for preventing reading failure in young children, and the merits of intensive skill instruction...He concluded that “no single method of instruction in beginning reading be advocated but that a variety of approaches be utilized” (2000, pp. 341-342).
  • Culturally Relevant Literacy Instruction

    The whole language movement developed out of the need to teach and reach “linguistically-different children... and years later has resulted in an increased focus on “discourse genres, including the teaching of reading through discourses that are culturally relevant for students from non-dominant backgrounds” (Alvermann, 2010, pp. 75-76).
  • Reading Research and Reading Disbility (Reading as a Cultural Aspect)

    First, Beginnings of Reading Research studies were not sufficient or practical enough in application to impact classroom instruction, but are important because they called attention to rate in reading, distinctions between silent and oral reading, and individual differences in reading. 2. Attention to Reading Disability:"congenitalalexia" or "word blindness" research assigned a specific cause for reading disability and created the possibility of doing something to help (Smith, 2002,pp. 146-147).
  • Teaching Reading With the LA Curriculum

    “Although buffeted by the social, cultural, and political currents of the last one hundred years, NCTE remained steadfast in its commitment to teaching reading within the English language arts curriculum, not separate from it. At the same time, the membership showed signs of understanding full well that, just as what we read and how we read changes with the passing years, so too must the way we teach reading” (Alvermann, 2010, p.31).