The age of reason by thomas paine book cover1

The Enlightenment and the Formation of the U.S.

  • Thomas Hobbes/Philospher

    Thomas Hobbes/Philospher
    Believes that people are born with rights that they relinquish to the monarch in return for protection. This is know are social contract. Today the Enlightenment garuntees us rights that the government must obey within reasoning.
  • John Locke/Philospher

    John Locke/Philospher
    John Locke believed all people are born with certain inalienable rights. They are life, Liberty and the right to own Property. He also believed people had the right to revolt against an abusive government. He created the Social Contract. He's in the Declaration Of Independence. This gave us the right to protest today and allowing all people to vote for their rights.
  • Montesquie/ Philospher

    Montesquie/ Philospher
    Montesquie created "Spirits of Laws," that seperation of powers, Check + Balances to check each other. He also believed that all should have equal strength to make decisions. Today the Enlightenment gave us a equal government not only based on one persons decisions but an agreement of branches to pass laws and regulations.
  • Voltaire/Philospher

    Voltaire is considered as, next to Montesquieu, Locke, Rousseau and others, one of the greatest name of the French Enlightenment. He is known as a defender of religious freedom, free trade, civil liberties, social reform. Today we have churches, we can trade freely and we have rights to liberty due to the enlightment
  • John Rousseau/Philospher

    John Rousseau/Philospher
    Just like Hobbs and Locke, he also created a Social Contract. He believed "Man is born free," also that we should have rights and freedom. Also a philospher of the Dec. Of Independence. Rousseau helped us today by protesting that we are made free and deserve better, and today we have this due to the enlightenment
  • George Washington/Founding father

    George Washington/Founding father
    George Washington was a member of the First Continental Congress. He was then chosen to lead the Continental Army. He was the president of the Constitutional Convention and of course became the first president of the United States. In all these leadership positions, he showed a steadfastness of purpose and helped create the precedents and foundations that would form America.Because he cared as president and was for the Enlightenment today we have better freedom.
  • John Adams/Founding Father

    John Adams/Founding Father
    Adams was on the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence and was central to its adoption, because of his foresight; Washington was named Commander of the Continental Army at the second Continental Congress. Also chosen to help negotiate the Treaty Of Paris. First vice president and Second president of the U.S. John Adams helped create us have a better president at the age of reasoning, in so that today we have more safety.
  • Thomas Jefferson/Founding father

    Thomas Jefferson/Founding father
    Thomas Jefferson, as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, was chosen to be part of a Committee of Five that would draft the Declaration of Independence. He was unanimously picked to write the Declaration. He became first the vice president under John Adams and then the third president. He changed John Locke's idea of Life, Liberty and Property. He believed it should have been Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness. Jefferson added meaning to Property, this made happiness possible.
  • Revolution

    King George III ascends to the throne of England. This caused great friction between the U.S. and Great Brittain, later in history he is no longer king, this helped the U.S. develop a better trade system today more than ever.
  • Revolution

    Treaty signed between England and France ending the French and Indian War. Canada and the continent east of the Mississippi River added to Great Britain's growing empire.
  • Revolution

    Parliament passes The Stamp Act as a means to pay for British troops on the American frontier. Colonists violently protest the measure. This provides and example of how we have freedom to protest today in present life.
  • Revolution

    Stamp Act repealed, but on the same day parliament passes the Declaratory Act asserting its right to make laws binding on the colonies.
  • Revolution

    British troops arrive in Boston to enforce customs laws.
  • Revolution

    Four workers shot by British troops stationed in Boston. Patriots label the killings "The Boston Massacre." If the Brittish troops never stationed in Boston for the Massacre it may not have been possible to create a better country, because everything might have been calm and nothing might of happened, this is good for today.
  • Revolution

    Massachusetts patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians protest the British Tea Act by dumping crates of tea into Boston Harbor. If we wouldn't have fought for our rights during the Enlightenment how could we expect more for our people, today this shows that the only way we can get our freedom is by fighting for it.
  • Revolution

    The Privy Council reprimands Benjamin Franklin in London for leaking letters damaging to the Royal Governor of Massachusetts. September. First Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia.
  • 1st Brittish Grievance

    1st Brittish Grievance
    That his majesty's subjects in these colonies, owe the same allegiance to the crown of Great Britain that is owing from his subjects born within the realm, and all due subordination to that august body, the parliament of Great Britain.
  • 2nd Brittish Grievance

    2nd Brittish Grievance
    That his majesty's liege subjects in these colonies are entitled to all the inherent rights and privileges of his natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain.
  • 3rd Brittish Grievance

    3rd Brittish Grievance
    That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted rights of Englishmen, that no taxes should be imposed on them, but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives.
  • 4th Brittish Grievance

    4th Brittish Grievance
    That the people of these colonies are not, and from their local circumstances, cannot be represented in the house of commons in Great Britain.
  • 5th Brittish Grievance

    5th Brittish Grievance
    That the only representatives of the people of these colonies are persons chosen therein, by themselves; and that no taxes ever have been, or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures
  • 6th Brittish Grievance

    6th Brittish Grievance
    That all supplies to the crown, being free gifts of the people, it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the principles and spirit of the British constitution, for the people of Great Britain to grant to his majesty the property of the colonists
  • 7th Brittish Grievance

    7th Brittish Grievance
    That trial by jury is the inherent and invaluable right of every British subject in these colonies.
  • 9th Brittish Grievance

    9th Brittish Grievance
    That the duties imposed by several late acts of parliament, from the peculiar circumstances of these colonies, will be extremely buthensome and grievous, and, from the scarcity of specie, the payment of them absolutely impracticable.
  • 10th Brittish Grievance

    10th Brittish Grievance
    That as the profits of the trade of these colonies ultimately centre in Great Britain, to pay for the manufactures which they are obliged to take from thence, they eventually contribute very largely to all supplies granted there to the crown.
  • 11th Brittish Grievance

    11th Brittish Grievance
    That the restrictions imposed by several late acts of parliament, on the trade of these colonies, will render them unable to purchase the manufactures of Great Britain.
  • 12th Brittish Grievance

    12th Brittish Grievance
    That the increase, prosperity, and happiness of these colonies, depend on the full and free enjoyment of their rights and liberties, and an intercourse, with Great Britain, mutually affectionate and advantageous.
  • 13th Brittish Grievance

    13th Brittish Grievance
    That it is the right of the British subjects in these colonies, to petition the king or either house of parliament.
  • 14th Brittish Grievance

    14th Brittish Grievance
    Lastly, That it is the indispensable duty of these colonies to the best of sovereigns, to the mother country, and to themselves, to endeavor, by a loyal and dutiful address to his majesty, and humble application to both houses of parliament, to procure the repeal of the act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, of all clauses of any other acts of parliament, whereby the jurisdiction of the admiralty is extended as aforesaid, and of the other late acts for the restriction of the America
  • 8th Brittish Grievance

    8th Brittish Grievance
    That the late act of parliament entitled, an act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other duties in the British colonies and plantations in America, &c., by imposing taxes on the inhabitants of these colonies, and the said act, and several other acts, by extending the jurisdiction of the courts of admiralty beyond its ancient limits, have a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists.
  • Revolution

    Shots fired at Lexington and Concord. "Minute Men" force British troops back to Boston. George Washington takes command of the Continental Army.
  • Lee Resolution/Dec of Independnce

    Lee Resolution/Dec of Independnce
    Lee Resolution
    Richard Henry Lee, a delegate from Virginia, read a resolution before the Continental Congress "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."
  • Committee of Five Appointed/Dec of Independence

    Committee of Five Appointed/Dec of Independence
    Committee of Five Appointed
    Consideration of the Lee Resolution was postponed-- the "Committee of Five" was appointed to draft a statement presenting to the world the colonies’ case for independence.
  • Dec of Independence Drafted

    Dec of Independence Drafted
    Declaration of Independence Drafted
    On June 11, Congress recessed for three weeks. During this period the "Committee of Five" (John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson) drafted the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson drafted it, Adams and Franklin made changes to it. Congress reconvened on July 1, 1776.
  • Lee Resolution Adopted And Consideration of Dec Of Indpendence

    Lee Resolution Adopted And Consideration of Dec Of Indpendence
    Lee Resolution Adopted & Consideration of Declaration
    On July 2, the Lee resolution was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies (New York did not vote). Immediately afterward, Congress began to consider the Declaration. Congress made some alterations and deletions to it on July 2, 3, and the morning of the 4th.
  • Adopted and printed Declaration of Independence

    Adopted and printed Declaration of Independence
    Declaration of Independence Adopted and Printed
    Late in the morning of July 4, the Declaration was officially adopted, and the "Committee of Five" took the manuscript copy of the document to John Dunlap, official printer to the Congress.
  • Declaration of Indipendence

    Declaration of Indipendence
    With the Declaration of Independence, adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, the 13 American colonies severed their political connections to Great Britain. The Declaration summarized the colonists’ motivations for seeking their independence, by declaring themselves an independent nation. The authors of the Declaration of Indipendence were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams.
  • Copies of Declration of Independence Dispatched

    Copies of Declration of Independence Dispatched
    Copies of the Declaration Dispatched
    On the morning of the July 5, copies printed by John Dunlap were dispatched by members of Congress to various committees, assemblies, and to the commanders of the Continental troops.
    (On July 9, the action of Congress was officially approved by the NY Convention.)
  • Congress Orders Dec of Independence Engrossed on Parchment

    Congress Orders Dec of Independence Engrossed on Parchment
    Congress Orders the Declaration Engrossed on Parchment
    Congress ordered that the Declaration be "fairly engrossed on parchment, with the title and stile {sic} of ‘The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America’ and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress."
  • Declaration signed

    Declaration signed
    Declaration Signed
    The document was signed by most of the members on August 2. George Wythe signed on August 27. On September 4, Richard Henry Lee, Elbridge Gerry, and Oliver Wilcott signed. Matthew Thornton signed on November 19, and Thomas McKean signed in 1781.
  • Revolution

    January. Thomas Paine's Common Sense published. Becomes an instant best seller and pushes the colonies closer to independence. July 4. Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence ratified by the Congress July. A huge British force arrives in New York harbor bent on crushing the rebellion. August. Continental Army routed at Long Island, New York. December 26. Washington crosses the Delaware River and captures a Hessian force at Trenton, New Jersey. December french allie w/ America
  • Revolution

    July. A British force led by John Burgoyne takes Fort Ticonderoga in a devastating loss to the Americans. The Marquis de Lafayette arrives in America. Washington defeated at Brandywine (September 11) and Germantown (October 4). Philadelphia is lost to the British. October 17. Americans capture Burgoyne and his army at Saratoga.
  • Revolution

    France signs a treaty of alliance with the United States and the American Revolution becomes a world war. British attack Charleston, South Carolina. City falls in May. 1780-'81 Americans "lose" series of engagements in the south, but exact a heavy toll on the British army.African-American Elizabeth Freeman sues for her freedom in Massachusetts. Her victory prohibits slavery in that state.A miraculous convergence of American and French forces traps Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown,Virginia.
  • Article of Confedration

    Article of Confedration
    While the U.S. Articles of Confederation was a plan of government based upon the principles fought for in the American Revolutionary War, it contained crucial flaws. It had no power of national taxation, no power to control trade, and it provided for a comparatively weak executive. Therefore, it could not enforce legislation. It was a "league of friendship" which was opposed to any type of national authority. The Articles of Confederation's greatest weakness.
  • Articles of Confedartion Cont.

    Articles of Confedartion Cont.
    The government could not govern efficiently because of a general lack of power to compel states to honor national obligations. The government's main activity was to control foreign policy and conclude treaties. Economic credibility was a major problem because the government owed $42 million (more than $40 billion today) after the Revolutionary War, and the debt was mainly owed to American patriots. This financial obligation was not paid off until the early part of the 1800's.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    America’s First Constitution The first constitution in our nation's history was the U.S. Articles of Confederation. Under the U.S. Articles of Confederation we took "baby steps" as a nation. The government conducted the affairs of the country during the last two years of the Revolutionary War, helped to negotiate the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and produced two monumental pieces of legislation in the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
  • Revolution

    September. A peace treaty is signed between Great Britain and the United States. December. George Washington gives up command of the Continental Army and, to the astonishment of foreign observers, returns to private life. 1783-'87 Noah Webster creates and publishes a speller which helps standardize American English. Treaty talks with Spain for rights to navigate the Mississippi fail because of regional conflicts between northern and southern states.
  • Constituion

    The Federal Convention convened in the State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation. Because the delegations from only two states were at first present, the members adjourned from day to day until a quorum of seven states was obtained on May 25. Through discussion and debate it became clear by mid-June that, rather than amend the existing Articles, the Convention would draft an entirely new frame of government.
  • Revolution

    Shay's Rebellion, an armed insurrection of debt-ridden farmers in Massachusetts, quashed by the state militia.
    Northwest Ordinance adopted by Confederation Congress. Prohibits slavery in territories and provides a means for new states to enter the union. In May, delegates
    from all 13 states arrive in Philadelphia to rewrite the Articles of Confederation. September 18. The Constitutional Convention adjourns having passed a National Constitution that needs ratification from 3/4 of the states
  • North West Ordinance

    North West Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance, adopted July 13, 1787, by the Second Continental Congress, chartered a government for the Northwest Territory, provided a method for admitting new states to the Union from the territory, and listed a bill of rights guaranteed in the territory. Following the principles outlined by Thomas Jefferson in the Ordinance of 1784, the authors of the Northwest Ordinance (probably Nathan Dane and Rufus King) spelled out a plan that was subsequently used as the country expanded.
  • Anti-Federalist

    Anti-federalists such as the Federal Farmer, Centinel, and Brutus argued that the new Constitution would eventually lead to the dissolution of the state governments, the consolidation of the Union into “one great republic” under an unchecked national government, and as a result the loss of free, self-government. Brutus especially believed that in such an extensive and diverse nation, nothing short of despotism “could bind so great a country under one government.”
  • Federalists

    Federalists such as James Madison (writing as Publius) countered that it was precisely a large nation, in conjunction with a well-constructed system of government, which would help to counter the “mortal disease” of popular governments: the “dangerous vice” of majority faction. In an extended republic, interests would be multiplied, Madison argued, making it difficult for a majority animated by one interest to unite and oppress the minority.
  • Revolution

    The crucial states of Virginia (June 25) and New York (July 26) become the 10th and 11th states to pass the Constitution. A Bill of Rights passed by the 1st Congress of the United States.
  • Bill Of Rights

    Bill Of Rights
    I.Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition II.Right to keep and bear arms III.Conditions for quarters of soldiers IV.Right of search and seizure regulated V.Provisons concerning prosecution VI.Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc. VII.Right to a trial by jury VIII.Excessive bail, cruel punishment IX.Rule of construction of Constitution X.Rights of the States under Constitution
  • Connection Back to Philosphes and the Enlightenment

    Connection Back to Philosphes and the Enlightenment
    There were a lot of unequalness back in the early 1700s to late 1700's we went through wars and treaty just to get the freedom we have today, because of John Locke, Voltaire, Montesquie, Hobbes, and Rousseau, we have been ensured, Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness and the Judicial Legislative and Executive Branches because of Montesquie. Today we are a Free country because of people that fought for freedom and took a step in that direction.