The Cold War

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    Korean Conflict

    Japan conquered Korea at the beginning of the twentieth century while it was still an independent kingdom. When World War II came to its end, American and Soviet forces decided to temporarily split Korea on the 38th parallel of latitude. The leader of North Korea, Kim Il Sung, decided to become an ally of the Soviets while South Korea’s dictatorial leader, Syngman Rhee, sided with the US . North Korea called for the reunification of Korea (“heroic struggle”) and invaded South Korea.
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    Korean Conflict

    They overran most of the south when the United Nations decided to act.
    UN troops arrive to help South Korea. They were not able to push back the North Koreans, though, until they stopped the advance in August on what is known as the Pusan Perimeter.UN troops were able to land behind enemy lines and cut off supplies for the North Koreans. They surrendered soon afterwards. Pushed them back up to the Yalu river.
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    Korean Conflict

    China sends troops to help out the North Korean troops and manages to push South Korea back to the 38th parallel. this then turned into a stalemate where neither side can push forward.Both sides signed a armistice to end the fighting. almost 2 million troops stayed on either side of the demilitarized zone, an area with no military forces on it, and remained their till this very day.
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    Vietnam Conflict

    French Indochina tore apart. 1946-1954 they were in war against the French. 1955-1975 they were involved in the cold war. French beat Japan and set out in 1946 to re-establish authority in Indochina. Ho chi Minh led Vietnam in guerrilla armies. In 1954 in the bloody battle of Dienbienphu the French left Vietnam. The struggle then became a part of the cold war. In an international conference western and communist powers agreed to temporary divide Vietnam. Ho’s communists controlled North Vietnam.
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    Vietnam Conflict

    South Vietnam supported by the US was led by Ngo Ding Diem who ran a non-communist government. US supported the south scared that the domino theory would happen and communism would keep spreading. At first they only provided supplies and military advisers, later sending thousands of troops.
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    NATO and Warsaw Pact

    After WWII the Soviet Union and the US had their difference on how they thought things should be after the war. The Cold War was a state of tension and hostility between nations, the Soviet Union and the United States. In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten other countries got together to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO was countries that pledged to help each other if one was attacked.
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    NATO and Warsaw Pact

    Then in 1955, to get back the Soviet Union formed their own alliance with seven fellow communist countries in Eastern Europe called the Warsaw Pact. But unlike NATO, the Soviet Union was clearly in charge and the leader over the other countries. The Warsaw Pact divided Europe into “eastern” and “western” blocs. The east was Soviet-dominated countries that were basically dictated by the Soviet Union. The west was led by the United States.
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    Chinese Civil War

    Mao Zedong led communist forces in a civil war against nationalists ending in a victory for Zedong. Mao set up The Peoples Republic of China, China was finally under communist control. People hoped that communism would build a new China and would end foreign domination and supported Mao. One after another nationalist held cities fell, Mao’s People’s Liberation Army was victorious. Mao Zedong built a one party totalitarian state.
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    Chinese Civil War

    To boost agriculture Mao called for collectivization in an effort to increase productivity, later Mao Zedong led a program known as The Great Lead Forward. He wanted people to put superhuman effort on increasing farm and industrial out put. However, The Great Leap Forward failed and China took a long time to recover. Then Mao launched The Cultural Revolution, its goal was to purge China of bourgeois tendencies. Red Guards attacked all those who they considers bourgeois, the accused where publicl
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    Nuclear Arms Race and Detente

    The Nuclear Arms Race was during The Cold War, right at the end of World War II. It was a race between the United States and the Soviet Union, it was a race to have better weapons than each other. The United States started out on top being the only one with nuclear power but in 1949 the Soviet Union also got nuclear weapons. Four years later both sides had the more powerful, hydrogen bomb.
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    Nuclear Arms Race and Detente

    However, if either side used their threats both sides would have complete destruction so the “balance of terror” would take place where neither side would use them.
    In 1969, the United States and the Soviet Union began Strategic Arms Limitation Talks to limit the amount of nuclear bombs held by each side. More agreements had yet to come to only led to an ers in detente. This was some relaxation of tension in the 1970’s. The era of detente ended in 1979 because the Soviet Union invaded Afghan
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    Communist Cuba and Missile Crisis

    n 1954 after Vietnam won the bloody battle of Dienbienphu the French left Vietnam. Western and communist powers then agreed to temporarly divide Vietnam. The North was communist ruled by Ho Chi Minh, and the South (supported by the US) was ran by Ngo Dinh Diem in a non-communist matter. The US supported the south in fear that the domino effect of communist would happen. The south attacked on August 1, 1964 on North Vietnamese islands.
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    Communist Cuba and Missile Crisis

    The north attacked the US Maddox the next day which they had mistakenly thought had aided the south in the raids. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was passed by congress on August 7th, authorizing the president to take all necessary measures to prevent further aggression. On the Vietnamese New Year, the Tet North Vietnam guerrilla armies surprised the south. This being the turning point in the United States. In January 1973 President Nixon negotiated the Paris Peace Accord. In 1975 the North conque
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    Soviet Union Falls

    After Mikhail Gorbachev came to power the Soviet Union brought about two reforms. He signed an arms control treaty with the US and tooks troops out of Afghanistan. With the reform of glasnost he ended cenorship, providing freedom of speech. In the other reform he gave factories responisble for decisions, and allowed farmers to sell on the free market. This brought about economic turmoil. Soon the Soviet Republic had broken into 12 independent states; after 69 years the Soviet Union didn't exist
  • Berlin Wall

    After WWI Berlin was divided into two pieces, democratic West Berlin and communist East Berlin. Low-paid people in East Berlin became unhappy with communism and in a massive exodus fled to West Berlin. However, to stop the exodus East Germany built a wall that sealed off West Berlin from the fleeing people wishing to live better. The massive barrier topped with barbed wire was patrolled by guards and was strong enough to stop a tank. The Berlin Wall went through four generations of changes and s
  • Berlin Wall

    After WWII, Berlin was divided into two pieces, democratic West Berlin and communist East Berlin. Low-paid people in East Berlin became unhappy with communism and in a massive exodus fled to West Berlin. However, to stop the exodus, East Germany built a wall that sealed off West Berlin from the fleeing people wishing to live better. The massive barrier topped with barbed wire was patrolled by guards and was strong enough to stop a tank. The Berlin Wall stayed up until 1989.
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    Eastern European Independence

    While the Soviets dealt with Czechoslovakia defiance, Hungary quietly introduced economic reforms. Since Hungary remained loyal to communism and the Warsaw pact, they were allowed to go ahead with the reforms. These new reforms helped expand its market economy throughout the 1970’s.
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    Soviets in Afghanistan

    Soviets went to war with Afghanistan that lasted for almost ten years. The Soviets have tried to modernize Afghanistan and turn it completely communist but warlords took up arms against this new government. . When the Soviets saw this, their troops moved in for an attack. Fighting the mujahedin, though, proved to be just as hard as the Americans fighting the Vietnamese.
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    Soviets in Afgahnistan

    Later on in the war, the American government began smuggling modern weapons to Afghanistan for the mujahedin. Even before the Americans smuggled weapons for the mujahedin, the Soviets suffered many casualties and, just like the Vietnam War, many Soviets were opposed to this war. They eventually retreated from Afghanistan in 1989.
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    Eastern European Independence

    While the Soviets dealt with Czechoslovakia defiance, Hungary quietly introduced economic reforms. Since Hungary remained loyal to communism and the Warsaw pact, they were allowed to go ahead with the reforms. These new reforms helped expand its market economy throughout the 1970’s.