1980 Summer Olympics Boycott• The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on January 20, 1980 that the United States would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.
• The United States was joined in the boycott by some other countries – including Japan, West Germany, China, Canada etc. Canada did not participate in this Olympics because it boycotted it.
1980 Summer Olmypic Boycott Cont• The response of athletes ,On May 24, 1980 in Buffalo, New York at the United States Olympic Trials for the marathon, Gary Fanelli led the pack for 15 miles (24 km) while protesting the boycott with a shirt that read "The Road to Moscow Ends Here".
1984 Summer Olympic Boycott• The boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California was a follow up to the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.
• The boycott involved 14 Eastern Bloc countries and allies, led by the Soviet Union who initiated the boycott on May 8, 1984, and joined by others, including Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Cuba.
• The American media saw the boycott as revenge for the boycott of the 1980 Moscow Games in response to the 1979 Afghanistan and also because
1984 Summer Olympic Boycott Contthe Olympics was in US. Canada competed at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, States. Primarily due to the Soviet Union-led boycott of these Games, Canada enjoyed its best-ever results at the Summer Games, coming in sixth place in the number of Gold medals won, and fourth place in the total medals won.
Perestrokia begin in the USSR• Gorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out
• At the XXVIIth Party Congress in February–March 1986. The new policy of "reconstruction" was introduced in an attempt to overcome the economic stagnation by creating a dependable and effective mechanism for accelerating economic and social progress.
• According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-gove
Glasnost begin in the USSR• Glasnost means “openness” in Russian
• President Mikhail Gorbachev was responsible for glasnost in the USSR
• Under Glasnost, the soviet media was free for the first time in decades to discuss the country’s problems only (freedom of speech)
• Areas un the soviet union that were not inhabited by Russians, such as Ukraine, were allowed to become independent of the USSR
• These changes continued throughout the decade,Eventually they led to the collapse of the Soviet Union as a world super power
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan• The final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989
• The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year proxy war during the Cold war involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahedeen guerrilla movement and foreign "Arab–Afghan" volunteers.
• Afghanistan was supported by United States and Canada and other countries. The US and Canada would send supplies and equipment’s to
Soviet Invasion of Afhanistan Conthelp overthrow the Soviet Union. The arrival of Mikhail Gorbachev on the scene in 1985 and his 'new thinking' on foreign and domestic policy was probably the most important factor in the Soviets' decision to leave.
Democracy and Independence in Hungary• Following Poland's lead, Hungary was next to reverting to a non-Communist government. Although Hungary had achieved some lasting economic reforms and limited political liberalization during the 1980s, major reforms only occurred following the replacement of János Kádár as General Secretary of the Communist Party on 23 May 1988 with Karoly Grosz.
• On 12 January 1989, the Parliament adopted a "democracy package", which included trade union pluralism; freedom of association, assembly, and the p
Democracy and Independence in Poland• The Poles were always an independent race and in the 1980s the Solidarity movement developed and held a strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk - totally unheard of in Soviet controlled territories.
• There was a long repressive struggle and by the latter part of the decade there had been many more strikes across the country - all under the Solidarity banner. It was not without difficulties - martial law was declared in 1981.
Democracy and Independence in East Germany• On 6 October and 7 October, Gorbachev visited East Germany to mark the 40th anniversary of the German Democratic Republic, and urged the East German leadership to accept reform.
• One feature common to most of these developments was the extensive use of campaigns of civil resistance demonstrating popular opposition to the continuation of one-party rule and contributing to the pressure for change.
• The Soviet Union was dissolved by the end of 1991.
The Fall of Berlin Wall• The city of Berlin was divided by two countries, East Germany and West Germany.
• The East Germany government decided to open up the wall.
• People from East and West Germany rushed to the wall to celebrate.
• Many people chipped away pieces of the wall to keep as souvenirs.
• For people around the world, the wall coming down was a sing of peace.
• The next year East and West Germany united to become one country.
Democracy and Independence in Czechoslovakia• The first anti-Communist demonstration took place on March 25, 1988. On 17 November 1989, the communist police violently broke up a peaceful pro-democracy demonstration, brutally beating many student participants.
• A coalition government, in which the Communist Party had a minority of ministerial positions, was formed in December 1989.