Soviet withdrawal from.Afghanistan

  • Government Change

    Afghanistan's Democratic Party is put in control, but is split because of ethnic -lines. The country is renamed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA).
  • Treaty (before the war)

    A friendship treaty is signed with the USSR, building on Soviet economic and military support given to Afghanistan since the early 1950s.
  • The beginning

    The USSR military begins a massive aid to the DRA, including hundreds of advisors. This was mostly because the US had scaled down it's presence after the kidnapping and murder of the US ambassador to Afghanistan. Afghan soldiers in the city of Herat rebelled; in the end, many Soviet citizens lost their lives.
  • Period: to

    Soviet and Afghanistan war

  • Soviet's requested

    Hafizullah Amin emerges as DRA leader and requests for large numbers of Soviet forces to combat the growing insurgency, which continues under Amin's administration.
  • Soviet Invasion

    The Soviet defence ministry reveals the orders to senior staff to send troops into Afghanistan. Troops seize strategic locations in Kabul. Armoured columns cross the border at Termez and Kushka heading towards Kabul and Herat respectively.
  • Resistance increasing

    Resistance intensifies with various mujahideen groups fighting the Soviet forces and their DRA allies. In the first six months of war the Soviets commit more than 80,000 personnel to occupy Afghanistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia supply money and arms to the mujahideen. The US is also training the mujahideen in military tatics.
  • Soviet's signs to withdraw

    More than five million Afghans are now estimated to have moved to different places because of the war, with many fleeing to neighbouring Iran or Pakistan. After prevously being asked by the United Nations General Assembly to withdraw the troops; the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev says, he wants to end the war in Afghanistan. A quick victory resulted in the escalation of troops to pacify the region. It is the bloodiest year of the war.
  • US participation

    The US begins supplying the mujahideen with Stinger missiles, enabling them to shoot down Soviet helicopter gunships.
  • The beginning of Soviet withdrawal

    The DRA, USSR, US and Pakistan sign peace accords, and the Soviets begin to pull out their troops.
  • The Final withdrawal

    The USSR announces the withdrawal of the last Soviet troops. More than one million Afghans and 13 thousand Soviet troops had been killed in the war . The Civil war continues, as the mujahideen push to overthrow Najibullah, who is eventually toppled in 1992.