Red 01

Red Scare

  • Espionage Act

    This act made it illegal to convey information intended to interfere with the U.S. armed forces prosecution of the war effort or to promote the success of the country's enemies.
  • Seizing control of the Russian government

    The Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party seized control of the Russian government. This party was made up of the Bolsheviks who were led by Lenin, and they became the dominant political power. The Bolsheviks insisted upon a highly centralized, disciplined, professional party. They boycotted the elections and refused to cooperate with the government and other political parties.
  • Russian Communist Party

    Still headed by Lenin, the Bolsheviks changed their party name from the Russian Social Democratic-Workers' Party to the Russian Communist Party. They contributed to the growth of Communism in Russia
  • Sedition Act

    The Sedition Act of 1918 was passed to enforce the Espionage Act of 1917. This act enforced making it illegal to spread opposition to the war and targeted individuals who interferred with the draft or publicly criticized the government. This act helped enforce unity in America and support for democracy as communism spread in Europe and Asia.
  • Schenck v. United States

    During WWI, the United States made it illegal for people to speak against the war. Schenck was the general secretary of the Socialist Party of America, and socialists didn't support the war. He started anti-war movements against the Espionage Act, and encouraged workers to oppose the war too. Because of the spreading of opposition, the United States charged him with the violation of the Espionage Act and brought him to the Supreme Court.
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    The Red Scare ("Red" versus "White")

    The red represented the Russian political party (communism), which was asociated with communists and socialists. The White represented America and theirparty of conservatives.
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    Soviet Ark

    Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted a series of raids, arrests, and deportations on individuals believed to be a threat to National Security. The deportation of 249 people back to Russia was called the Soviet Ark. These people were deported without cause or warrent, They were primarily deported due to thier connection to Russia and the threat of communism.
  • Seattle General Strike

    A five day workers strike that was blamed on the Bolsheviks and inspired by un-American ideologies. It was also the first concentrated eruption of the anti-red hysteria.
  • Establishment of the Comitern

    Establishment of the Comitern
    Lenin establishes the Comitern, the Third Communist International.It's mandate was to coordinate communist acivity world wide, from Moscow.
  • Postal Bombs

    A New York Postal clerk discovers bombs in twenty packages to be delivered to a variety of goverment officials.The bombs were set to explode on May Day,but were defused by the postal workers. This event launched America's First Red Scare. The bombs were thought to be sent by anarchists/communists.
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    Red Summer

    During the summer of 1919, there were a serious of race riots throughout the south. The bloodiest riots were the ones in Chicago and Washington D.C. The government had stopped all immigration from Europe to prevent communists entering the country and this created labor shortages. Blacks migrated north to fill these shortages and the whites didn't accept them completely. The mixed races created lots of causes for riots to break out, the largest being in Chicago.
  • Industrial Workers Union (Wobblies)

    The labor strikes led by the Wobblies caused a sense of un-patrioticness throughout the country, helping to ignite the Red Scare. These strikes were also interpreted as the effects of communism on society.
  • General Intelligence Division

    The Justice Department creates the General Intelligence Division, headed by J. Edgar Hoover. This division was responsible for investigating the programs of radical groups and the identification of their members.
  • Boston Police Strike

    After the World War I many stirkes ensued, causing Americans to believe there was a workers revolution beginning. The Boston Police strike was caused from the working conditions of the police force and the pay. The stike was the "first step to sovietizing the country."(Henry Cabot Lodge) With this statement Governor Coolidge sought higher pay and better conditions, though they weren't put into account until later on.
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    Steelworkers Strike

    During this time,many workers faced difficult working conditions and poor pay. The largest stirke was the Steelworkers Strike of 1919, it involved around 350,00 workers. The Strike ended up being a large failure for the workers. The companies portrayed the workers as radicals who threatend the American way of life. This tactic fed into the American fears of communism. Government officials then used Netional Gaurd troops and federal troops to close down the strike.
  • John Reed's Books

    John Reed's books, Ten Days that Shook the World and Red Russia are published. These accounts were based off of Reeds firsthand experiences with the 1917 revolution. Reed and his partner, Benjimen Gitlow, form the Communist Labor Party, in America. This party competed with the Communist Party of America for a few years.
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    Palmer Raids

    Attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States.
  • League of Nations

    The League of Nations is established. It is later dissolved in 1946, after the creation of United Nations.
  • Wall Street Bomb

    A bomb explodes on Wall Street, killing 30 people and injuring many others. Anarchists are blamed for this threat.
  • End of Russian Civil War

    The Red Army defeats the White Army of Cossacks, and other counter revolutionaries, ending the Russian Civil War.
  • American Communist Party

    The Communist Party of America joins John Reed's Communist Labor Party to form the American Communist Party.This merger occured at a convention in Woodstock, New York.
  • USSR

    The USSR is officially formed. The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR created a centralized federal government in Russia.
  • Death of Lenin

    Vladimir Lenin, head of the government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, dies due to a stroke. He is then succeeded by Josef Stalin.
  • FBI

    J. Edgar Hoover was the first director the FBI to oversee the mass roundups and deportations of suspected communists during the Red Scare.
  • Death of Anarchists

    Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, anarchists, are electricuted to deth for robbery and murder, charges from 1921.Their trial and executions become rallying points for American Progressives.
  • Dies Committee

    Dies Committee
    The Dies Committee or House Un-Amerian Activities Committee is formed. It first targeted Nazi sympathizers, but eventually focuses almost entirely on the Communist threat to America.
  • Smith Act

    Smith Act
    The Smith Act was passes by Congress to make it illegal to assist any groups "who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of the government of the United States by force or violence." This helped prevent the failure of America's democracy, which they feared.
  • Yalta

    Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin meet in Yalta, a Soviet town to make plans for the post war era. Roosevelt tries to convince Stalin and Churchill to sign on to a statement affirming the principles of democracy so the communist government doesn't spread.
  • Roosevelt Dies

    Roosevelt Dies
    Franklin D. Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage 82 days into his fourth term as president. Harry S. Truman takes the presidency.
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    Iron Curtain Speech
    Former Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech from a college in Missouri. "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic," Churchill declares, "an Iron Curtain has descended across the Continent" of Europe. This speech made Americans fear the spread of the iron curtain, communism, in Europe.
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    Red Menace

    A term used to describe the Soviet Union. or any "international communist conspiracy" during the Cold War.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine is passed and declares that any Communist victory is a threat to American security.
  • Executive Order 9835

    Harry S. Truman signed this "Loyalty Order" to help root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government and rally public support for this cause.
  • Congress issues comtempt citation for Hollywood Ten

    After the investigation by the HUAC found 10 suspected leftists in the industry, Congress issued a citation for ten directos, writers, and actors in Hollywood.
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    Hollywood Blacklist

    This blackliist was announced by the MPAA and declared that anyone they employed suspected to be a communist would be discharged without compestation and not re-hired until they proved they were not a communist. Over 320 people were added to the list in total.
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    Hollywood Blacklist

    The Hollywood Blacklist was a list that comprised of screenwriters, actors, directors, and other entertainment professionals that were believed to be communist sympathisers or members of the Communist Party.
  • MPAA Annouces discharge of Hollywood Ten

    The MPAA annouced the discharge of the Hollywood Ten (consisting of writers, directors, and actors) the day after Congress inssued comtempt citations for them.
  • Czech Government

    Czech Government
    Czechoslovakia installs a communist government, leading America to fear that communism will take control of Eastern Europe.
  • Soviet Atomic Bomb

    Soviet Atomic Bomb
    The Soviet Union denotes their first atomic bomb. The loss of its atomic monopoly comes as a terrible shock to the United States.
  • Mao's Victory in China

    Mao's Victory in China
    Chairman Mao delcares victory in the Chinese Civil War. This creates the Communist People's Republic of China. As Communism spread to Asia, the red scare began to grow in America.
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    Def: Making accusations of treason without proper regard for evidence.
    McCarthyism originated in the United States during the Second Red Scare due to the heightened political repression against communists. Many people were accused of being communists or communist sympathisers.
  • Red Channels

    Red Channels
    The release of a pamphlet of "Red Channels" to the public, named 151 people in the entertainment industry classified as communist or red-fascist sympathisers and listed all "communist influence in radio and television". This became known as the Hollywood Blacklist and all on it were put out of work and not to be re-employed.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    Communist North Korea send troops into South Korea marking the start of the Korean War. Communism continued to spread which made Americans fear it more.
  • Dennis v. United States

    Dennis and other petitioners wer convicted to knowingly conspiring to organize a Communist Party in the United States. The previous Smith Act made it illegal to plan or advocate the overthrowing of any government in the United States. The Court found the Petitioners guilty and they were convicted.
  • Dennis v. United States decision

    Dennis was convicted for conspiring and organizing the overthrow of the United States government through force and violence.
  • Second HUAC investigation of Hollywood begins

    After coming up with the Hollywood Ten, the HUAC began a second investigation on Hollywood.
  • Communist Party of the Soviet Union

    The Bolsheviks chanegd their name again to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. They were dedicated to achieving the dictatorship
  • Joseph Stalin Dies

    Established communist governments in Eastern Europe and exploded an atomic bomb.
  • Rosenbergs Sentenced to Death

    Rosenbergs are sentenced to death for espionage. It was claimed that they passed information onto the Soviets about American nuclear weaponry.
  • Joseph McCarthy

    During the spread of Communism people feared communists in the United States. Republican Senator Joseph P. McCarthy of Wisconsin spent nearly five years trying to expose communists. His accusations caused many Americans to believe that their government was filled with spies and traitors. McCarthy finally earned the censure of the US Senate in 1954 for his actions when he attacked the Army.
  • Army-McCarthy Hearings

    Joseph McCarthy challenged the loyalty of the U.S. Army. He didn't have much hard evidence so he lost public support quickly,