Reconstruction and Race- Kayley McIntyre

  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    The Black Codes were a set of laws designed to help control African Americans after being freed from slavery. Even though the slaves had been set free, these laws made it seem to them that they were still slaves. The codes made it easy for a white employer to take advange of the African Americans, it prohibited blacks from owning farms, and it also gave officials the ability to arrest or charge jobless African Americans with a fine. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 ended the Black Codes.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act was created by the Radical Republicans to try to defend against against the black codes. The law would grant citizenship to African Americans, and it would also give the government permission to get involved with the states to protect African American's rights. The bill was originally vetoed by President Johnson who refused to sign anything that was not of Southern representartion, but the Republicans in Congress were able to override the veto and pass the bill as a law,
  • First Reconstruction Act

    First Reconstruction Act
    10 of the past Confederate States had not ratified the 14th Amendment by 1867. This forced Congress to pass the First Reconstruction Act, which stated that the states must form new state governments. The Act divided the 10 states into 5 military districts governed by army generals who did not serve as Confederate generals. The states had to submit a new Constitution for Congress to approve, and the act enabled African Americans to vote in State Elections.
  • Second Reconstruction Act

    Second Reconstruction Act
    The Second Reconstruction Act let the army have voters in each of the districts to help manage state constituional conventions. Because of African Americans being able to take part in the conventions, many white southerners refused to participate. Even though the white men refused to participate, African Americans still voted. Their votes favored the Republican side, so the Republicans took control of the Southern governments. 7 were admitted by 1868 and the last 3 states were in by 1870.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment was soon created after the 13th Amendment due to exceeding violence toward African Americans in the South. The 14th Amendment stated that all people born or naturalized in the states, were a legal citizen of the United States and their individual state. It also stated that nobodys property, life, or rights could be taken away without going through a process of law. In order to become a part of the Union, all Southern States were required to ratify this Amendment.
  • The Fifteenth Amendment

    The Fifteenth Amendment
    By the year 1868, the presidential election had been held, and Republican Ulysses S. Grant was elected into office. To further secure the idea of equal voting opputunites, Congress proposed the 15th Amendment. This amendment said that no male citizen would be denied the right to vote becasue of their race, color, etc. In 1870, the states ratified the 15th Amendment, and Congress belived that they had done their job well and all problems were resolved. This proved untrue in later events.