• Early Progressivism

    Progressives beleived that major governmental intervention was the only institution powerful enough to stop the corrupt political machines. Also were trying to get rid of the two party system.They felt that party rule could only be broken by more power to the people or more power to non-partisans. Important successes included the secret ballot printed by gov't.
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    Progressive Successes

    Progressives tried to increase the power of the electorate to gain momentum in the movement. To do this they instituted:
    -Initiatives - allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by submitting new legislation directly to voters
    -Referendum - provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval
    -direct primary - gives the choices to the people, not the bosses
    -recall - right to remove public officials in a special election
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    Progressive sbelieved in the philosophy that sociey was capable of great things if society banded together. Very optimistic outlook. Progressives believed:
    -antimonopoly - didn't like the power of concentrated businesses
    -social cohesion - individuals are all interconnected in society
    -knowledge - scientific and social principles can be applied to society
    -gov't - gov't should have a large role in organizing society rather than corrupt political machines
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    Urban Machine - Power and Corruption

    Urban bosses of immigrant descent would be voted into power due to the immigrant vote. These machines were corrupt and had incredible power over their regions. They were possible because of immigrant voters, the link between political organizations and the wealthy people that profitted from them, and the weakness of the city government.
  • Settlement Houses (Hull House)

    There was this belied that the environment infleunced individual developement. Therefore, ignorance, poverty, and criminality were negativley affecting the people who lived in these poor environments. To combat immigrant housing, reformers made settlement homes (in particular the Hull House made by Jane Addams) to help immigrant families adapt to America in language and customes. Mostly staffed by college women because this allowed them a freedom to excercise thier intelligence in womanly ways.
  • Social Gospel

    The movement within religion (mainly christian protestants) to act on their moralistic outrage due to a sense of responsility to the less fortunate. Organizations popped up, like the Salvation Army, to provide spiritual and material aid to the poor.
  • Immigration

    People were at loss of how to deal with the influx of immigration. There was increasing pressure to close american gates as the idea of eugenics spread. There was also the sentiment that the newer immigrants were unable to assimilate and should be restricted.
  • The New Woman

    Women were finding themselves with little to do now that money was made outside the home and children were going to school. As a result, women began attending clubs to talk about political and social reforms and going out at night by themselves to have fun (flappers).
  • New Forms of Governance

    There were two new progressive plans that were popping up in local governements. The first was the city manager plan in which outside experts were elected to take charge. The second was the commission plan in which progressive reformers were put in office.
  • La Follette of Wisconson

    La Follette became a major progressive leader. He turned his state into a progressive laboratory with progressive ideals and power directly to the people.
  • Muckrakers

    Journalists began to direct public attention toward social, economic, and governmental injustices. Began investigating to find out the truth, inspiring people to take action through social unity.
    -Ida Tarbell - Standard Oil Company practices
    -Lincoln Steffens - Urban Machine corruption including boss rule and boodlers
  • Professionalism

    There were new requirement s for important professions so that only those qualified could practice
    -Doctors - American Medical Association and med school
    Lawyers - Bar Association and law school
    Businessmen - business school
    Farmers - National Farm Bureau Federation to spread farming techniques, marketing, etc
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    Socialism in America

    People were ebcoming disilusioned with Capatilism and the ideas of socialism appealed greatly to germans, jews, and intellectuals. There were varying ideas on how to change the economy, howeer, whether it be moderate reform, working through the system, militancy, or straight marxism.
  • McKinley Assassination

    President McKinley was shot and killed so his elected VP, T. Roosevelt, became president by default. TR was energetic and passionate, which scared the republicans somewhat.
  • National Reclamation Act

    Public reclamation and irrigation projects were given federal funds to open land to cultivation. TR was out-doorsy and he felt very strongly that nature should be admired. He was a conservationist which didn't mean that he didn't want the land to go unused, merely that it would be carefully developed.
  • TR's Unbiased Views

    TR felt that it was, like the progressives also felt, the government's responsibility to aid toward the public good. That meant he wasn't against economic concentration, just when it was negativley and inappropriatley affecting the public.To regulate corporations he created the Department of Commerce and Labor, invoked the Sherman Anti Trust Act (1902), and frequently sided with the workers and the owners (United Mine Workers Coal Strike - arbitration).
  • Interstate Commece Act (1887) Invoked

    The act was an early effor to restrict monopolies but it has been cut down by the SC over the years. Roosevelt, however, asked that the gov't be given more power and used this act.
  • Railroad Regulation Act

    A step in the direction of regulation but was consolatory and ineffective.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (Meat Inspection Act)

    After the release of The Jungle, TR wanted to make sure that food production was more sanitary. Shows how much power the muckrakers really had in society.
  • Hetch Hetchy Controversy

    A major controversy over the Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite. NAturalist wanted to keep the land untouched where as CA residents wanted to turn the valley into a dam (especially after they experienced an earthquake). Head of COnservation Gifford Pinchor decided in favor of CA.
  • NAACP (Niagra Movement)

    Du Bois, a calissically educated african american, felt very strongly that blacks were just as capable as whites and shouldn's settle for simple agricultural work. Du bBois and supporters met at Niagra Falls and and created the NAACP that relied on the best and the brightest to further its goals.
  • The Panic of 1907

    America's industrial production outran the capacity of either dometic or foreign markets. To save the economy, TR grudgingly consented that he would do nothing to stop JP Morgan from enlargening his coroporation by buying three major corporations that would help the financial situation.
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    Taft tried to please both the conservatives and the progressives like TR, but he didn't have nearly as much success as his predecessor. With the Payne-Aldrich Tariff that the progressives had been calling for to lower tariffs, Taft barely cut them to please conservatives. There was also a controversy with a conservationalist as interior secretary that resulted in Pinchot's resignation.
  • WIlson Lowers Tariffs and Creates Federal Bank

    Wilson's first success was in lowering tariffs (Underwood Simmons Tariff) and implementing a income tax to make up for lost money. Wilson also created the Federal Trade Commission (Act) which created a regulatory agency that would help business detwemine in advance if their actions were suitable.
  • Political Machine Adaption

    Some political machines remained powerful because they recognized they must change in order to survive and allow their machines to become vehicles of social reform.
    -Tammany Hall - used some of its substantial staet and national power to improve working conditions
  • Roosevelt Returns

    Roosevelt is upset that his handpicked successor has not turned out as he hoped. He wants to reunite the party through governmental action.
  • Progressives Gaining Stem

    Elelctions for congress proved that the party was gaining steam as the democrats who embraced the progressives won both the house and senate. At this point Roosevelt decides (after La Follette decides not) to run for president.
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire

    146 workers died in a fire because all the emergency exists had been cut off in the factory. A public investigation was set forth because of public pressure (especially from Tammany Hall). The subsequent report called for major reforms in the conditions of labor.
  • Taft vs. Roosevelt

    Taft won the republican nomination so Roosevelt decided to run as a third party. The two of them ended up splitting the republivan vote, leading to a democratic victory. Woodrow Wilson became president.
  • Dillingham Report

    federal commission of experts argued that newer immigrant groups were unable to assimilate and should be restricted.
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    Wilson Presidency

    WIlson was a genuine progressive with an intellectual past. He proposed the policy of new freedom which focused more on getting rid of big business rather than simply regulating it.
  • The Threat of Consolidation

    Progressives felt that the greatest threat to the economy was sorporate centalization and consolidation because the entire system was weighted in favor of the people with money. Brandeis wrote of the curse of the bigness and that it threatened efficiency and freedom.Croly wrote that it was the government's duty to protect against the abuse of power
  • 16th Amendment and 17th Amendment

    The 16th amendment was income tax, and accounted for all the money lost when he lowered the tariff in the Underwood SImmons Tariff. The 17th Amendment concerned direct election of senators.
  • Progressives Lose Steam

    Democrats have major loses in the house so WIlson decides that, if he is aiming for re-election, he needs more reform.
  • Wilson's Feelings on Monopolies change

    Wilson no longer wants to destroy monopolies, as outlined in the Clayton Anti-trust act. instead, he just wants to regulate them under the Federal Trade Commission Act.
  • Brandeis Appinted

    As an act of redorm, Wilson appoints Brandeis, another progressive, as the first jewish Supreme Court Justice
  • Keating-Owen Act

    Wilson creates more reform, a federal law regulating child labor.
  • The 19th Amendment - Women's Suffrage

    Women, to get men on ther side, appealed to the idea that women would lend a nurturing, peaceful feel on politics. The seperate sphere would not be challenged but embraced, furthering community service and temperance.
  • The Temperance Movement

    The Temperance movement had been building since 1873 with the Women's Christian Temperance Union led by Frances Willard. Progressives felt that the only way to restore society was to get rid of things that made it unorganized, like alcohol. Women and employers a like didn't like alcohol because it meant the men were shrugging their responsibilities.