P1, Matthews, APES Timeline Activity

  • Jan 1, 1000

    Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    10,000 years ago
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
  • Thomas Mathus predicted that exponential population growth would outpace linear food production, leading to starvation.

  • John Muir 1838-Why was he important?

    John Muir 1838-Why was he important?
    John Muir showed a new perception of land use to people all across the nation. In 1892, he founded and became the president of the Sierra Club in which it serves as the watchdog of the environment as a whole. Muir held a lot of influence over both citizens and government officials. In the year of 1903 after a meeting with Muir at Yosemite, Theodore Roosevelt went on to establish 148 million acres of National Forest (five national parks and 23 National Monuments).
  • Walden by Henry David Thoreau

    Walden by Henry David Thoreau
    "Walden" is an American novel written by HDT, explaining his experiences while he spent two years, two months, and two days in a cabin constructed near a body of water known as the Walden Pond. By doing this, he hoped to gain a better understanding of human society and other parts of life that he can gather by surrounding himself with nature. It is a book about personal independence, social experimentation, and self-reliance.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    During the time of the Civil War, the Homestead Act caused the acceleration of settlement in the western territory providing adult citizens who have not against the will of the American government, with 160 acres of land and a minimal registration fee, plus five years of continuous use of the piece of land.
  • Yellowstone National Park founded

    Yellowstone National Park founded
  • American Forestry Association founded

    American Forestry Association founded
    The American Forestry Association is an organization that was created for the purpose of promoting forest conservation. It is the oldest nonprofit conservation national group known to the United States. The organization was led by physician and horticulturalist, John Astor Warder. Years later, in 1992, the conservation expanded to just being known as American Forests.
  • Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks founded

    Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks founded
  • General Revision Act

    General Revision Act
    The General Revision Act granted the president by the Forest Reserve Act the ability to create forest reserves on public land whenever needed. It was most often by used by Harrison, Cleveland, and Roosevelt. It also caused for the repeal of the Timber Culture and Preemption Acts.
  • Sierra Club founded

    Sierra Club founded
    The Sierra Club was founded in 1892 by John Muir. The goals of the organization is to protect the environment, promote better stewardship within the economy, and educate the people about the effects of individual actions against the earth.
  • Lacey Act

    Lacey Act
    By the Lacey Act, people are prohibited from exporting, importing, selling, or acquiring wildlife, fish, or plant materials. It was created to protect the biotic factors of the environment. In 2008, the Lacey Act was amended in which there was a wider variety of prohibited plants and animals that the public had access to.
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    Golden Age of Conservation (Theodore Roosevelt)

  • First national wildlife refuge established

    First national wildlife refuge established
  • Audubon Society founded

    Audubon Society founded
    The purpose of the Audubon Society is to provide protection for the waterbird populations, particularly gulls, terns, egrets, and herons. It continues to persevere to this day in restoring and protecting waterbirds and their habitats.
  • U.S. Forest Service founded

    U.S. Forest Service founded
    The U.S. Forest Service is an agency attributing to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to manage the public lands in national forests and grassland biomes. It is also the world's largest forestry research group and provides aid to other forestry agencies. According to their website, the Chief of the organization is convinced that the mission of the program is, "to provide the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people in the long run."
  • Aldo Leopold

    Aldo Leopold
    In the year of 1905, Aldo Leopold attends the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. He is regarded as the father of wildlife conservation in the nation. Leopold was one of the first leaders of the American wildlife movement. He lived from 1887-1948.
  • Gifford Pinchot

    Gifford Pinchot
    Gifford Pinchot is known as the first Chief of the U.S. Forestry Service. He quoted the mission of the organzation as, "to provide the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people in the long run." With the permission of President Roosevelt, Pinchot completely changed the management of the national forests and increased the amount of space that they take up total. He is regarded as the "father" of American conservation because of his need to protect the environment (forests).
  • Antiquities Act

    Antiquities Act
    Signed by Theodore Roosevelt, the Antiquities Act was the first law executed in the United States that would guarantee protection towards a natural or cultural resource. It established that archelogical sites on public lands are significant resources for other uses. The law also requires that federal agencies to preserve and protect lands for future use.
  • Congress became upset because Roosevelt was waving so much forest land so they banned further withdrawals.

    Congress became upset because Roosevelt was waving so much forest land so they banned further withdrawals.
  • U.S. National Park service founded

    U.S. National Park service founded
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    Dust Bowl

    Series of dust bowls occurred during the 1930s.
  • Civilian Conservation Corps founded

    Civilian Conservation Corps founded
    The CCC was one of the first New Deal programs created. Its goal is to promote environmental conservation within an area and the building of good citizenship through interactive work outside. The organization was greatly supported by Theodore Roosevelt.
  • Soil Conservation Service founded

    Soil Conservation Service founded
    The SCS is now known as the Natural Resources Conservation Services. As part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, its mission as a whole is to give technical aid to farmers and other private landowners in order to improve, protect, and conserve natural resources on private lands by bonding with other agencies.
  • Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act

    Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
    The Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act makes clear that waterfowl hunters the age of 16 years or older must attain a permit or otherwise known as a federal hunting stamp. It is commonly regarded as "the Duck Stamp Act."
  • Taylor Grazing Act

    Taylor Grazing Act
    The Taylor Grazing Act was enacted to strive for the management of the federal grazing lands to improve the rangeland conditions and create a balance for the western livestock industry.
  • Fish plus Wildlife Service founded

    Fish plus Wildlife Service founded
    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service strives to work together in preserving, conserving, and protecting fish, wildlife, plants, and habitats in the environment so as to create a stabilized ecosystems. They focus most on migratory birds, endangered species, marine animals, and fish.
  • Jane Goodall

    Jane Goodall
    During that time, Jane Goodall traveled all the way to Gombe, Tanzania in East Africa to study the chimpanzees and the way they interact with both themselves and the environment around them. With her actions, things proved to be more successful than she or others ever imagined.
  • Silent Spring published by Rachel Carson

    "Silent Spring" sparked lists of controversies that arose from the message of the novel, which was concluded from the effects of pesticide use. Mostly the author, Rachel Carson, wanted to warn the public about the harmful results of utilizing pesticides in the environment. The publication of her book led to government regulation on the situation.
  • Wilderness Act

    Wilderness Act
    The Wilderness Act serves to protect the wilderness of areas known throughout the country. It is considered one of America's biggest conservation accomplishments made in the past. In addition, the National Wilderness Preservation System was formed to manage the areas that we are assigned to.
  • Clean Air Act

    The Clean Air Act was signed into a law by Lyndon B. Johnson. It is used to protect the people and environment from various types of air pollutions and seek ways to prevent it.
  • The Clean Air Act

    The Clean Air Act of 1963 was amended by the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act.
  • Garret Hardin introduced the Tragedy of the Commons

  • Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

    Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
    The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act protects the free-flowing rivers across the nation.
  • NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act)

    NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act)
    The NEPA suggests that federal agencies take into fact the environmental values when making decisions by looking through a different perspective and considering the environmental impacts involved in making the choice (Environmental Impact Statement).
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    Richard Nixon

    In 1969, Richard Nixon stopped all the dumping in the Great Lakes. In 1970, he created a cabinet-level coucil on the environmental quality. Throughout 1970-1972, he formed EPA, which then led the Clean Air Act. The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 were both also passed for the benefit of the U.S.
  • Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio, caught fire

    Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio, caught fire
    Sparks from a passing train car caused the surface of the river that was covered with oil and chemical coated trash. The railroad bridge was caught on fire as a result. More people became aware of its bad condition, which was good for the river because it led to regulations.
  • Clean Air Act

    Due to more amendments, the 1970 Clean Air Acts required much more federal enforcement and expanded the federal mandate, creating more regulations for pollution sources.
  • First Earth Day

    First Earth Day
  • Environmental Protection Agency established

    Environmental Protection Agency established
    Signed by Richard Nixon, the purpose of EPA is to protect human health and sustain the environment by creating regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

    The goal of FIFRA is to provide federal control over pesticide use. The act was rewritten in 1972 when it was changed by the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act.
  • Endangered Species Act

    Endangered Species Act
  • OPEC oil embargo

    OPEC oil embargo
    Arab oil producers called for an embargo that greatly affected the amount of oil that could be shipped to the United States since they relied for most of their energy from Middle Eastern countries. This led to many problems in America.
  • Sherwood Rowland and Molina Announce that CFCs are depleting the ozone layer

    The constant use of chlorofluorocarbons are causing for the degradation of the ozone layer that protects us from an excess amount of ultraviolet radiation. As the layer thins out, more problems follow behind it.

    In 1975, there was a Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Control Act extention. The FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel was formed at that time.
  • RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)

    The purpose of RCRA is to create a better environment to live in for both animals and humans, protect human health and environments from waste disposals, conserve and preserve natural resources as well as energy, and to manage waste safely.
  • Clean Water Act

    The Clean Water Act establishes the need for the regulation of pollutant disposal into bodies of water and improving the quality of water. It used to be called the Federal Pollution Control Act until the year of 1972 when it was expanded.
  • Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

    Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
    The primary goal of the act is to regulate the environmental effects of coal mining in the country.
  • Love Canal, NY and Lois Gibbs (toxic waste leaks into residential houses)

    The Love Canal had formerly been used as a site to bury 21,000 tons of toxic waste by Hooker Chemical. Under the leadership of Lois Gibbs, those who wanted justice, continued to demand for relocation and compensation. Lois Gibbs inspired others to fight the environmental problems harming their communities.

    The Federal Pesticide Act of 1978 was created. With the 1978 amendments, Congress limited the amount of people who could receive such information and how it would be used by the those who know.
  • 3 Mile Island Nuclear Accident

    3 Mile Island Nuclear Accident
    Near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, part of the core melted in the number two reactor which caused the malfunction to occur. Days later, radioactive gas entered into the atmosphere, but not enough to permanently harm anyone. There were no noted harmful effects from the accident.
  • Alaskan Lands Act

    Alaskan Lands Act
    Signed by Jimmy Carter, it protected about 100 million acres of federal lands in Alaska, increasing the size of the national park and refuge center and tripling the amount of land used for wilderness.

    The act put a tax on the chemical and petroleum companies and gave Federal authority to directly deal with any hazardous events that could harm the people and the environment.
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    Ronald Reagan

    During his time in office, Ronald Reagan signed 43 bills that added more than 10 million acres of federal wilderness in 27 states. Though he is more pro-industry more than anything.
  • Bhopal, India (chemical toxic cloud kills 2,000 people)

    Bhopal, India (chemical toxic cloud kills 2,000 people)
    More than 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas leaked from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, causing the deaths of more than 3,800 people plus future damages for generations to come.
  • Chernobyl

    The chemical disaster that occurred in Ukraine was due to an impaired reactor design along with some mistakes made by some operators. It released 5% of its radioactive core, killing two workers and 28 people in the upcoming weeks, causing for a relocation of all people to obtain safety.

    The organization, CERCLA was amended by the Superfunds Amendments and Reauthorization Act on October 17, 1986.
  • World population reaches 5 billion

    World population reaches 5 billion
  • Montreal Protocol

    Montreal Protocol
    The Montreal Protocol was executed so as to reduce the consumption and the creation of ozone depleting substances in order to protect the thin layer of ozone layer in the atmosphere.

    The amendments made during this time allowed for EPA to direct the pesticide reregistration program, which is a review on the human health and effects of pesticides to make sure that things meet requirements.
  • Exxon Valdez

    Exxon Valdez
    Near Prince William Sound, Alaska, the oil tanker, Exxon Valdez hit Bligh Reef, spilling a total of approximately 11 million gallons of crude oil. The spill was the largest ever to be recorded in U.S. history. It tested our ability to react in an efficient way to a situation at that kind of level.
  • Clean Air Act

    More amendments were made that created an even more drastic change in the environment for the better.

    CERCLA was amended by the Oil Pollutions Act in1990.
  • Energy Policy Act of 1992

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set goals, implemented regulations, formed mandates, and other means of balance to increase and effective and clean energy use in the United States.
  • Desert Protection Act

    Desert Protection Act
    With the passing of the bill by Bill Clinton, it would preserve 1.6 million acres with two new national monuments, five wilderness areas, and any other means of protection for the environment. It established the Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve.
  • Julia Butterfly Hill sat in tree "Luna" for 700+ days to protest deforestation

    Julia Butterfly Hill sat in tree "Luna" for 700+ days to protest deforestation
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    Kyoto Protocol

    The Kyoto Protocol was an international agreement in which industrialized countries would reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2%.
  • World population reaches 6 billion

    World population reaches 6 billion
  • World population reaches 7 billion

    World population reaches 7 billion