Origins of the Cold War

  • Sovietisation

    Happened during 1945-1948.
    -Seizure of control of Eastern European governments by local communists back by Soviet troops which were currently occupying the various countries. Impact:
    -did not result in shigt of Soviet-controlled territory.
    -Jan 1946, Truman concluded they shuld not compromise any longer.
  • Kennan's Long Telegramme

    Kennan's analysis of Soviet foreign policy emphasized the role of ocmmunist ideology. He saw the Soviet leadership as suspicious and aggresive; insecurities that stemmed from their view of the outside world as fatally anti-communist. Given this outlook, there could be no compromoise with USSR.
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    Iron Curtain Speech
    Some of the themes discussed in the Long Telegramme and privately discussed by officials were now aired in public, for the first time.
    Just as the Long Telegramme shaped the attitude of the political elite towards the USSR, the Iron Curtain Speech hardened the attitude of the American public.
  • Clifford-Elsey report

    Clifford-Elsey report
    The report highlighted examples of Soviet aggression in Iran and Manchuria, as well as identified ideology and not seurity concerns as the driver of Soviet foreign policy. The report reflects the US perception of the USSR which had crystallisd by the points in time. It acted as a justification for the US perspective of the Soviets.
  • Truman Doctrine

    no immediate response from or any change in american relations with USSR. However, important as it laid the foundation for the formation of the Marshall Plan
  • Marshall Plan

    2 aims: contain communism and create a captive Eurpoean market for American goods. Initially, sovits willing to join (sent 100-man delegation) but then realised they had to give up exclusive control of their own economy. -> saw this as an attempt to create an informal empire Marshall plan cemented the economic schism. Russians created their own version of Marshall plan - molotov plan
  • Berlin Blockade

    Berlin Blockade
    In early months of 1948, the US and British sought agreement on aplan to introduce a new German currency that would circulate freely in all four zones. When this met with Soviet resistance, the 3 Western powers proceeded in the June 1948 to establish the Deutche Mark. Stalin intepreted the creation of a single currency as the signal for the establishment of the new Germany in the West. In June 1948, Russia blocked roads and rail routes to berlin.
  • Berlin Blockade p2

    Berlin Blockade p2
    This blockade came close to the first armed clash between the two sides and represented a point where the Cold War might have turned hot. It also increased the feeling of military insecurity in northern, western and southers Europe. There was pressure for a common military force to defend the region and can be argued to have contributed to the formation of NATO in 1949. Germany was split into the two states of East -> resulted in a microcosm of the division in Europe.