Little Rock Nine

  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board first argued.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board re-argued.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    U.S. Supreme court calls for desegregation of public schools in Brown vs. Board case.
  • Central High's Board of Education

    Little Rock’s Central High School board sends out a policy statement agreeing to comply with ruling.
  • NAACP vs. Little Rock School Board

    NAACP petitions the Little Rock School Board for
    immediate integration.
  • Little Rock School Board

    May 24, 1955:
    The Little Rock School Board announces they will have gradual integration starting in the High School, starting in the school year of 1957. The integration of younger grades is planned to occur during the next six years.
  • Aaron vs. Cooper

    Aaron vs. Cooper is dismissed stating that Little Rock has complied in "utmost good faith".
  • Governor Faubus

    Governor Faubus signs four school segregation laws passed by the state legislator.
  • Mother's League of Central High

    Mother's League of Central High, a pro-segregation
    group holds its first public meeting. They file a
    motion for temporary injunction against school
  • Chancellor Murray Reed & Federal Judge Ronald Davies

    Chancellor Murray Reed grants the injunction motion filed two days prior claiming segregation could lead to violence.
    Federal Judge Ronald Davies nullifies the injunction and orders Little
    Rock's School Board to proceed with the desegregation plan.
  • Governor Faubus

    Governor Orval Faubus orders the Arkansas National Guard to prohibit African American students from entering Central High in a
    televised speech.
  • Mother's League of Central High & Judge Davies

    Mother's League of Central High & Judge Davies
    The Mother's League gathers at Central High in the morning for a "sunrise service". The citizen's council, parents and students all join. African American students are ordered to stay home by the superintendent. Judge Davies orders integration to proceed the next day.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    Little Rock Nine and one other African American student attempt to attend Central High but are turned away by the National Guard.
  • Judge Davies vs. Faubus

    Federal Judge Ronald Davies rules that Faubus is not using the
    National Guard troops to preserve law and order and orders them to be removed. Faubus removes the gaurdsmen and the Little Rock Police Deptartment moves in.
  • First Try, Eisenhower Calls Situation Disgrace

    Over 1,000 angry whites gather at Central High while the nine African American students are escorted inside. Four African American newscasters are attacked. The Little Rock Police Department end up removing the nine students for their safety. President Eisenhower calls the rioting "disgraceful" and orders federal troops to Little Rock.
  • Mayor Woodrow Mann, Eisenhower and the Screaming Eagles

    Woodrow Mann, Little Rock's mayor, asks Eisenhower for help. Eisenhower sends 1,200 members of the 101st Airborne Division, the "Screaming Eagles", come to Little Rock. The Arkansas National Guard is placed under federal orders.
  • Little Rock Nine's First Day

    The 101st Airborne soldiers escort the "Little Rock Nine" into Central High for their first full day of classes.
  • 101st Airborne Leave, Little Rock Nine Attacked

    The 101st Airborne are replaced at Central High
    by Arkansas National guardsmen. The Little
    Rock Nine are immediately attacked more.
  • 101st Airborne Returns, Hanging At School

    The 101st Airborne is ordered to return to Little Rock. About 75 white students walk out of school to hang an African American dummy in a
    vacant lot from a tree.
  • 101st Airborne Leaves, National Guard Takes Over

    The gradual withdrawal of the 101st Airborne completed. For the rest of the year, the National Guard handles security.
  • Minnijean Brown Suspended

    Little Rock Nine's Minnijean Brown suspended
    for dumping chili on two boys.
  • State Legislator Helps Faubus Avoid Integration

    The state legislator passes a law allowing Faubus to close public schools to avoid integration and to lease the closed schools to private schools.
  • Minnijean Brown Returns

    Minnijean Brown returns from suspension.
  • Minnijean Brown Expelled

    Minnijean calls a harasser "white trash". She is
    expelled for the rest of the school year.
  • Ernest Green Graduates

    Ernest Green Graduates
    Ernest Green becomes first African American to
    graduate from Central High School.
  • Cooper vs. Aaron

    Due to many discipline problems during the school year, the school board asks the court for permission to delay the desegregation plan in Cooper vs. Aaron.
  • Judge Harry Lemley Delays Integration for Years, NAACP Appeals

    Judge Harry Lemley grants the delay of integration at Central High until January 1961. He states that although African American's have
    the right to attend white schools, "the time has not come to enjoy [that right]". The NAACP appeals.
  • U.S. Supreme Court Pushes Desegregation

    Under appeal, U.S. Supreme Court rules that Little Rock must continue with desegregation process.
  • Governor Faubus Closes Schools

    Governor Faubus Closes Schools
    Governor Faubus orders four Little Rock High Schools closed as of 8 a.m. while pending outcome of the public vote.
  • WEC Pushes to Reopen Schools

    The Women's Emergency Committee to Open Our Schools forms and begins to advocate to reopen the schools on an integrated basis.
  • Votes Against Integration, Schools Stay Closed

    Votes Against Integration, Schools Stay Closed
    Citizens vote 19,470 to 7,561 against integration
    and the schools remain closed.
  • Youth March

    Youth March
    Young African Americans march in Washington, D.C. to support integration.
  • School Board Evenly Divided

    A new school board is elected, evenly divided
    with segregationists and integrationists.
  • High Schools Reopened

    The new school board announces it will reopen
    the high schools.
  • Chamber of Commerce Reopens Schools

    Little Rock Chamber of Commerce votes in favor of reopening the closed schools on a plan of minimum integration.
  • Segregation in the School Board

    Segregationist school board members vote to not renew the contract of 44 teachers and administrators that supported integration.
  • "STOP" Formed

    The WEC and local businessmen form Stop This Outrageous Purge (STOP) and ask for signatures to recall the three segregationist board members.
  • STOP Wins Election

    STOP wins the recall election in close victory. Three segregationists are voted off the school board and three moderate members are
  • Little Rock's High Schools Open, Faubus & Segregationalists angry

    August 12, 1959
    Little Rock public high schools reopen, nearly a month early. Three African American students attend Central High and three attend Hall High despite protesters. Segregationists rally at the State Capitol where Faubus advises them that it was a “dark” day, but they should not give up the struggle. They then march to Central High School were the police and fire departments break up the mob. Twenty-one people are arrested.
  • All Schools Integrated

    All public schools in Little Rock are finally integrated.