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JGarcia AAdesuyi APUSH Timeline

  • Zenger Trial

    Zenger Trial
    Description: NYC editor indicted for seditious libel due to the printing of anti-gov. articles in New York Weekly Journal. Andrew Hamilton was Zenger's attorney (most famous lawyer in Philadelphia) Important People: John Peter Zenger, Andrew Hamilton Significance: case provided with precedent for greater freedom of press SOURCE: Textbook and http://www.ushistory.org/us/7c.asp
  • Albany Congress

    Albany Congress
    Description: Albany, New York. Discuss Indian relations (Iroquois Confederacy deny British alliance) and settlement of the West. Adopted Benjamin Franklin's Plan of Union which called for a chief executive, Grand council, and raising money by taxes for defense. In the end, Rejected b/c assemblies thought it gave too much power to Crown and Crown thought it gave too much power to assemblies. Important People: Benjamin Franklin Significance: shows that colonies aren't united SOURCE: TEXTBOOK
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    Seven Years' War

    Description: AKA French & Indian War. Belligerents were Britian allied with Prussia versus France, Austria, and Spain. It commenced the vivid disagreements and began the slow separation between Britian and the British Colonies. Important People: Benjamin Franklin, George Washington Significance: This was the last war of the Imperial Wars. It finalized who had control of the land between Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. SOURCE: Textbook
  • Treaty Of Paris

    Treaty Of Paris
    Description: Formal end to hostility between France and Spain. England obtains French Canada and Florida; Spain obtains the land west of Mississippi and Louisiana; France loses all possessions; Britain becomes undisputed power in North America. Important People: Britain, Spain, France, England Significance: Ended 7 Years' War and made Britain dominant power in America. SOURCE: Textbook
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    Pontiac's Rebellion
    Description: Due to the dissaproval of Indians when British gave their land away and didn't keep the gift-giving way. Indian confederacy attack British forts in the West, killing more than 2,000 settlers. Also spread smallpox by the distribution of infected blankets. Ended as a stalemate. Important People: Ottawa chief Pontiac (leader) Significance: British realize that Indians have to have separate but controlled land; leads to Proclamation of 1763 SOURCE: Textbook
  • Sugar Act

    Sugar Act
    Description: Made to raise revenue in American colonies due to the debt made my the war costs after the French and Indian war. Placed duty on imported sugar, which affected mainly merchants. Starts movement of nonimportation. Important People: George Grenville (decided upon Sugar Act), James Otis Jr ('no taxation without representation") Significance: beginning of taxing and indpendence conflict between British and colonies SOURCE: Textbook
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    Description: Grenville's addition to the complaints of "no taxation without representation". Affected all colonists; requires taxed, stamped paper for legal documents, publications, and playing cards in order to raise revenue. Later repealed. Important People: George Grenville Significance: started "actual representation" movement and nonimportation movement SOURCE: Textbook
  • Repeal of Stamp Act

    Repeal of Stamp Act
    Description: Stamp act is repealed by Parliament due to the expansion of the nonimportation movement. Also led to the reducing of duties under the Sugar Act and was accompanied by the Declaratory Act. Important People: British merchants and Parliament Significance: Ends the immediate conflict of stamp act, yet opens doors to more acts brought upon colonista to pay off debt. SOURCE: Textbook
  • Declaratory Act

    Declaratory Act
    Description: Followed the repeal of the Stamp Act; states that Parliamennt had authority to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever". Important People: Parliament Significance: established absolute paliament supremacy over colonies and showed that conflict between them was only postponed. SOURCE: Textbook
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Desciption: British troops fire American civilians in Boston who were rioting against unfair work interference hours. News of massacre spreads across colonies by circulation of Paul Revere's print. Townshend Acts were repealed that same day also. Important People: Paul Revere, Crispus Attucks (1st person to die- African American background), John Adams (defended the soldiers) Significance: reminds colonists of how much the relationship with British had deteriorated SOURCE: Textbook
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    Description: Permits East India Company to sell through the agents in America without paying duty collected in Britain, thus reducing its retail price; colonies move toward movement of nonconsumption and also carry out Boston Tea Party Important People: Parliament Significance: The riots lead British to plan out Coercive Acts and the Quartering Act. SOURCE: Textbook
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    Description: Colonists response to Tea Act; 50-60 men disguised as Indians gather to dump 45 tons of tea into harbor; 1st tea party Important People: Samuel Adams Significance: Served as example for othe tea parties to take place (ex- Sons of Liberty in New York dump tea in harbor too). Shows resistance against unfair British actions. SOURCE: Textbook
  • Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) ( see picture)

    Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) ( see picture)
    Description:A series of acts passed by Parliament, including: the Quartering Act (allowing soldiers to reside in personal homes as a means of Bitish enforcement),Quebec Act (authorized a permanent authoritarian gov. in France). Boston Port Bill banned (un)loading of ships in Boston Harbor. There also a termination of self-rule in Massachusetts.
    Important People: General Thomas Gage, Governor Dunmore
    Why Significant: Were made to punish Massachusetts and strengthen British hand.
    Source: Textbook
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    Description: General Gage sent troops to Boston to seize cannon and ammunition from the MA militia. Committee of safety was formed to call up militia. Minute-men were utilized as special units formed Oct 15 to be called whenever needed. King George believed war was imminent. Important People: Paul Revere Will Dawes Why Significant: First shots fired initiated Revolutionary War with first causualties. Source:Textbook
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    Description: Town meetings and colonial assemblies chose reps for this and they mostly wished avoid war and favored a policy of economic coercion. They passed a Declaration and Resolves and led nonimportation and consumption and the prohibition of export to Britain or its colonies.
    Important People: Samuel & John Adams, Patrick Henry, George Washington, Christopher Gadsden, John Dickinson, Joseph Galloway, John Jay , James Duane
    Why Significant:It was the first continental congr. Source:Textbook
  • Fort Ticonderoga

    Fort Ticonderoga
    Description:This is the location of where a ''small force armed New Englanders under the command of Ethan Allen of Vermont suprised the Biritish Garrish." It is located on Lake Champlain. They demanded that "in the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress" they must surrender.
    Important People: Ethan Allen
    Significance: This event was not planned by the Continental Congress and rather made them "distressed." It was a violation of their "territorial sovereignty."
    Source: Textbook
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    Description: It represented 12 of the British colonies on mainland North America. May 15, it resolved to place the colonies in a "state of defense." On June 15, George Washington becomes nominated as commander-in-chief. Important People: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson
    Significance: The congress moved slowly towards independence.
    Source: Textbook
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    Description: June 17th, British ships began firing at the "American position." The British were horribly outnumbered by nearly 1 to 2, ratio-wise. Gage then launched a frontal assault on the Americans. The location was Breed's hill AKA Bunker Hill. Important People: General Gage
    SIgnificance: The British succeeded in routing Americans but at the cost of large casualities. English response put them against Americans with no return.
    Source: Textbook
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    Description: This took place during the Second Continental Congress. It was written by John Dickinson of Pennsylvania and it was a document "in which they professed their attachment to King George and begged him to prevent further hostilities." Important People: John Dickinson Significance:Many people denied that they wanted independence. It was a "so-called" document almost as a facade.
    Source: Textbook
  • "Common Sense"

    "Common Sense"
    Description: This was a piece of literature written by Thomas Paine explaining that a monarchy and aristocracy were neither relevant to the American colonies; it was not suitable for them there. He blamed King George for the oppression of the people and called him a "royal Brute."
    Important People: Thomas Paine
    Significance: "It was the single most important piece of literature during the Revolutionary era." It "reshaped popular thinking and put independence squarely on agenda."
    Source: Textbook
  • Virginia Declaration of Rights

    Virginia Declaration of Rights
    Description: "That all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights...the enjoyment of life and liberty." It stated that sovereignty is within the people. States followed lead.
    Important People:George Mason(author)
    Significance:"One of the most important innovations of the state constitutions was a guarantee of rights patterned on the Virg. Decl of Rights." They practically set the basis for the Bill of Rights containing many similar aspects.
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    Declaration of Independence

    Description:Lee proposed motion to the CC for independence for the colonies. After drafting, the final vote on July 2nd was 12 for with NY abstaining.It was revised and passed finally, July 4th.
    Important People: John Adams, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Lvingston (all prepared rough draft of Declaration).
    Significance: It was a written document declaring independence from Britain that also committed treason from the Crown and empire.
    Source: Textbook
  • Battle of Long Island

    Battle of Long Island
    Battle of Long Island Description: General Washington's Continental Army defend New York City from British General Howe's troops; Splits army half in Manhattan and half in Long Island; thinks British will attack Manhattan, sends more reinforcements but mistaken b/c British attack Long Island outnumbering them 2:1; Washington retreats. Important People: American General Washington; British General Howe Significance: "First major battle in American Revolution following the Declaration of Independence."
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    Battle of Saratoga Description: 2 battles, 1st British defeat American troops, 2nd American troops defeat British. Fought near Saragota, New York. British troops want to gain control of Hudson River Valley in order to eastern New England colonies from southern colonies. Important People: British General Burgoyne; American General Gates. Significance: 1st battle the British surrendered in. Turning point.
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    Ratification of Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation Description: AOC sent to be ratified to individual states in 1777; VA and MD delay ratification for 4 yrs; finally ratified in 1781; called for uniting states as collection of sovereign states. Important People: all states Significance: unified states under United States of America; However, later replaced by Constitution due to problems
  • Valley Forge

    Valley Forge
    Description: in Pennsylvania; Washington's army camped at this military location during the American Revolution after the Battle of White Marsh. Over the lapse of a year changed into a family holding camp. Many diseases and starvation. Continental Congress unable to provide for sick. Important People: George Washington Significance: Continued the Revolutionary War; showed weakness of Continental Congress. SOURCE: Valley Forge Source
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    Battle of Yorktown
    Description: American forces led by Washington and French forces led by Comte de Rochambeau join to get rid of British forces led by Lord Cornwallis that had occupied New York City. Planned the attack further south at French's advantage and blocked sea-escape route, outnumbering British and deafeating them.
    Important People: Generals Washington, Comte de Rochambeau, Comte de Grasse, and Cornwallis.
    Significance: "Last major battle of American Revolution." ; 2 forces join together for 1 purpose.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    Treaty of Paris 1783
    Description: British accepts American colonies as free states; establishes a boundary between United States and British; British frees American prisoners Important People: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and Henry Laurens(captured and held captive) Significance: formally ended American Revolution
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    Land Ordinance of 1785
    Description:This "provided for the survey and sale of western lands." There was an organized system to prevent chaos in which land was divided into townships containing 36 sections of one square mile each (approximately 640 acres). Congress enacted this plan as a source of revenue and forcibly took land from the Indians.
    People: Jefferson
    Significance:It had a very significant impact on the NA landscape because from an aerial view, the patchwork pattern is prominently evident.
    Source: Textbook
  • Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom

    Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom
    Description: As name states, it was a bill for establishing religious freedom. It was opposed in Virginia and did not pass until 1786 due to resistance to change.
    Important People:Jefferson
    Significance:Showed resistance to change.
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

    Northwest Ordinance of 1787
    Description: Followed the Land Ordinance 1785. Established by Congress, was "a system of government for the territory north of the Ohio." Prohibited slavery.The Northwest Territory: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, MIchigan, Wisconsin. Governor would have absolute power of veto on all territorial legislation.
    Peope:Congress, Arthur St. Clair(1st gov.)
    Signficance:major achievement of Confederation gov. thus leading to beginnings of a national bureaucracy during the time Congress lead Rev
  • George Washington Inauguration

    George Washington Inauguration
    Description: He was "counted among the Nationalists" although he stated he was satisfied with "a plain republican tite."He rode aroundon a carriage. He refused to use the veto power except when ABSOLUTELY necessary and tried to stick strictly to the Constitution. Appointed T. Jefferson as sec. of State, Hamilton the Treasury. By the end of his term the cabinet was formed.
    Important People:George Washington
    Significance:First U.S. presidnent