International and Global Health Meetings, Organizations, and Resolutions 1851-1995

  • Begining of Civil Registration in England

    Begining of Civil Registration in England
    Cause of death is now reported.
  • 1st International Sanitary Conference

    1st International Sanitary Conference
    1st sanitary conference held in Paris. Fails to produce intl sanitary convention (not enough states ratify). Inspired by Cholera epidemics and geared towards prevending disease transmission via trade.
  • Period: to

    1st-11th Intl Sanitary Conferences

    from first recognition of cholera as an international issue to the acceptance of waterborne spread of cholera via V. cholera.
  • Period: to

    Crimean War

    One of the earliest examples of nursing interventions on battlefront. Russians, British, French, and Ottoman Turks alike are treated by Mary Seacole. Florence Nightingale reconizes importance of sanitation, nutrition and healthcare staffing.
  • John Snow: Cholera is H2O borne

    John Snow: Cholera is H2O borne
    John Snow demonstrates Cholera to be a water borne illness through a case study of the broad street pump.
  • Second Intl Sanitary Conference

    Second Intl Sanitary Conference
    Held in Paris and included no medical delegates. Lasted 5 months at the end of which a new draft convention was agreed upon by a majority of the delegates. Despite this no other action was taken.
  • Founding of ICRC

    Founding of ICRC
    Founded by Henri Dunant to protect victims if intl and ntl armed conflicts.
  • 3rd Intl Sanitary Conference

    3rd Intl Sanitary Conference
    Max von Pettenkoffer revises 1855 proposal of airborne spread of cholera, but maintaines theory of airborne transmission. Filippo Pacini’s isolation of Vibrio cholerae in 1854 is ignored.
  • 4th Intl Sanitary Conference

    4th Intl Sanitary Conference
    All four so far focused on Cholera. Still no intl document produced.
  • 5th Intl Sanitary Conference

    5th Intl Sanitary Conference
    US convenes in Washington, DC to persuade intl community to require ships leaving their home ports and traveling to US to carry a certified bill of health, The motion fails. On a more positive note, US delegate Carlos Findlay brought attention to yellow fever proposing an "intermediate agent" involved in the spread of the disease.
  • ARC founded

    ARC founded
    Clara Barton, a nurse that provided medical care to soldiers on both sides of the Battle of Bull Run founded this society based on the ICRC model.
  • NIH established in USA

    NIH established in USA
    Charged by congress to screen passengers arriving in USA for infectious diseases. The NIH is a major funder for research in the USA and for global health research via the Fogarty Intl Center est in 1868 by US president Lundon B Johnson.
  • 7th Intl Sanitary Conference

    "Delegates unanimously approved an international treaty for the first time in 41 years to establish maritime quarantine regulations for ships traveling from East to West via the newly built Suez Canal." The focus here still Cholera. Pacini's views still ignored.
  • 10th Intl Sanitary Conference

    2nd intl convention signed. this time the focus was on plague.
  • Alexander yersin, plague bacillus.

    Alexandre Yersin discovers etiologic agent for Plague.
  • Intl Sanitary Bureau of the Americas is established

    Intl Sanitary Bureau of the Americas is established
    "International Sanitary Bureau of the Americas is established in Washington, D.C., as the world's first permanent international health organization. The organization will later become PAHO (1958) , the WHO Regional Office for the Americas. International Central Bureau for the Campaign against Tuberculosis is founded in Berlin.
  • 11th Intl Sanitary Conference

    The International Sanitary Conferences provided a forum for medical administrators and researchers to discuss not only cholera but also other communicable diseases. Ultimately, this spirit of international cooperation inaugurated in 1948 the World Health Organization, an agency of the United Nations, to direct and coordinate intergovernmental health activities. In 1965, the Judicial Commission of the International Commission on Bacteriological Nomenclature, responsible for the naming of bacteria
  • OIHP created in Paris

    Office International d'Hygiène Publique (OIHP) is created in Paris by the Rome Agreement, signed by 12 European countries. The new organization includes a permanent secretariat and committee of senior public health officials. In 1946 it is dissolved and its epidemiological service is absorbed into the WHO.
  • Rockafeller Foundation Global Health Initiative

  • Founding of IFRC

    Founding of IFRC
    Coordinates activities between Red Cross and Red Cresent societies. Five founding member societies: Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States. Based in Geneva, Switzerland
  • Final Intl Sanitary Conference in Paris

    Final International Sanitary Conference is held in Paris. Conseil Sanitaire, Maritime, et Quarantenaire (forerunner to the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office) in Alexandria is handed over to Egypt.
  • UN charter signed

  • WHO constitution rattified

    Obligates member nations to promote health among other human rights as a way of achieving peace among nations.
    "The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic, or social condition”
  • WHO convens first WHA in Geneva, Switzerland

    24 June
  • UN Declaration of Human Rights

    UN Declaration of Human Rights
    1 Everyone has the rt to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, and medical care and necessary social services, and the rt to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2 Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children . . shall enjoy the same social protection.
  • WHO issues revised intl sanitary regs

    First issued in 1892 7th Intl Sanitary Conference.
  • Period: to

    McKeown publishes his seminal papers on "Medical issues in historical demography".

    Discusses the primacy of wealth over medicine and public health as determinants of health.
    4 studies published from 1955 and 1972
  • MSF formed

    Largely in response to Biafrian ceccesion and dissatisfaction with WHO and Intl Red Cross seeming complicity with Nigerian gov't.
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights (1976)

    Recognizes "the right of everyone to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health."
  • Last confirmed case of Smallpox in Somalia.

  • Alma-Ata Declaration

  • Bellagio 'Health and Population in Development' conferece

    The birth of 'selective primary care.' Conference based on the Julia Walsh and Kenneth S. Warren paper titled "Selective Primary Health Care, an Interim Strategy for Disease Control in Developing Countries."
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Obligates "states parties [to] recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health."
  • William H. Gates Foundation founded

  • 1st edition of World Health Report published

  • Stop TB Partnership established

  • GFATM founded

  • PEPFAR initiative begins

  • GAVI alliance is constituted

    GAVI alliance
    - World Health Organization, WHO
    - United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF
    - The World Bank Group
    - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
    - Governments of donor countries
    - Governments of developing countries
    - Vaccine industry of developing countries and industrialised - countries
    - Research and technical health institutes
    - Civil society organisations
    - Independent individuals
    (via Wikipedia August 3, 2010)
  • The BMGF launched (formerly William H. Gates Foundation)