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Immigration Issues from U.S. and Arizona History - GCU 113

  • 14th Ammendment ratified

    14th Ammendment ratified
    The 14th Ammendment to the Constitution was ratified on this date. It grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States". It is sometimes referred to as the "Birther" ammendment. There is argument over whether this applies to the children of illegal immigrants.
  • Mexican Revolution

    Mexican Revolution
    The Mexican Revolution was due to a governmental revolt and poor economic opportunities for citizens of Mexico. Thousands of Mexicans moved north across the U.S.-Mexico border because the U.S. offered a wealth of jobs and better wages.
  • U.S. Border Patrol established

    U.S. Border Patrol established
    The U.S. Border Patrol was established to help secure the borders between inspection stations. The early Border Patrol agents patrolled the border on horseback with a revolver.
  • Mexican Repatriation

    Mexican Repatriation
    Due to the Great Depression in the U.S., over the next 10 years up to 2 million people of Mexican descent were forced to leave their homes and return to Mexico without due process.
  • Bracero Program begins

    Bracero Program begins
    With the U.S. men off fighting in WWII the government realized that they needed help supporting their economy. The Mexican and U.S. government collaborated and the Bracero Program began. It brought 5 million Mexican temporary workers into the U.S. to work on farms and railroads. "Bracero" means migrant worker. This program lasted 22 years.
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) signed

    Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) signed
    The IRCA grants amnesty to qualifying immigrants who entered the U.S. illegally before Jan. 1, 1982. The IRCA also created more border enforcement and established employer sanctions for those who knowingly hire undocumented workers.
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
    NAFTA created a free trade market between the U.S., Mexico, and Canada thereby improving the economic opportunities for all three countries. This same year the Mexican economy collapsed. This event brought 13 million more illegal immigrants into the U.S. over the next 15 years.
  • Arizona Proposition 203 passed

    Arizona Proposition 203 passed
    Prop 203 banned the use of bilingual education and required English immersion programs to be in instituted in schools.
  • The DREAM Act

    The DREAM Act
    First introduced in the Senate by Dick Durbin and Orrin Hatch. The DREAM act would provide a path to citizenship for undocumented youth who have graduated high school, attended at least 2 years of college or served 2 years in the military. This bill did not pass in 2001. It was reintroduced in 2007, 2009, and 2011 without any success.
  • September 11th Terrorist Attacks

    September 11th Terrorist Attacks
    The terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon prompted the U.S. government and Department of Defense to expand the military presence along the borders.
  • Arizona Proposition 200 passes

    Arizona Proposition 200 passes
    Prop 200 denied public benefits to illegal immigrants. Food stamps were not affected as that was a federally run program. Also, in order to vote, AZ residents had to show proof of citizenship.
  • Minuteman Project begins

    Minuteman Project begins
    The Minuteman Project recruited civilians to patrol the U.S.-Mexico border. They were called vigilantes by some and heros by their supporters.
  • Secure Fence Act

    Secure Fence Act
    President George W. Bush signed the Secure Fence Act into law to help secure our borders. It promised the construction of 700 more miles of border fence. This act also allowed for surveillance technology to be used at the border.
  • Employer Sanctions Bill signed into law

    Employer Sanctions Bill signed into law
    Governor Janet Napolitano signs into law the Employer Sanctions bill. It fines employers who have hired illegal immigrants. It is considered the toughest law of its sort in the country. On May 26, 2011, this law was upheld in the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • Arizona SB 1070 signed into law

    Arizona SB 1070 signed into law
    SB 1070 was considered the country's most restrictive anti-immigration bill. It stirred up a national debate over immigration. SB 1070 required immigrants to carry paperwork proving their immigration status at all times. AZ law enforcement were required to check the immigration status of anyone they "reasonably suspected" to be in the country illegally. Also, it was a state crime to be in the country illegally. On July 28, 2010, U.S. District Judge Susan Bolton blocked parts of SB 1070.
  • Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is announced

    Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is announced
    The DACA memorandum was announced by President Obama and implimented by the Department of Homeland Security Secretary, Janet Napolitano. It allows undocumented immigrants who came to the U.S. as children to stay in the country. These illegal immigrants will not be deported if they came to the U.S. before age 16, have lived here for 5 years, are in school or the military, have clean criminal records and are under age 30.
  • U.S. Supreme Court ruling on SB 1070

    U.S. Supreme Court ruling on SB 1070
    The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the "show me your papers" provision of the AZ law, but rejected 3 other provisions.
  • Gov. Brewer's Executive Order

    Gov. Brewer's Executive Order
    Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signed an executive order to block DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) recipients from being eligible to apply for drivers licenses in Arizona. There are lawsuits being handled in the U.S. court system about whether this action was constitutional.
  • U.S. Supreme Court strikes down Prop 200 requirement

    U.S. Supreme Court strikes down Prop 200 requirement
    The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the "evidence of citizenship" requirement in Prop 200 that required those submitting a voter registration application to show documented proof of citizenship.