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HIST 473 Timeline

  • Mar 21, 1542

    California Coast

    Juan Cabrillo sails up the California Coast and was attacked by a Native American with a spear (first contact with Native Americans)
  • 1551

    Debate at Valladolid

    Debate at Valladolid where Spain determined that Indians should be civilized, human, and not slaves. It was the duty of the Spanish to protect Indians until they became civilized
  • 1577

    Sir Francis Drake

    Queen Elizabeth I orders Sir Francis Drake to see what the Spanish were doing across the Pacific Ocean
  • Jun 17, 1579

    Drake and the Miwok

    Sir Francis Drake arrives at present-day Point Eyes where the Miwok tribe attacked and retreated. They attempted dialogue to which Drake thought the Native Americans saw them as superior beings
  • Period: to

    The Spanish Era

    The Spanish Era of California encompasses the establishment of Spanish presence in California through the building of California Missions. Led by Junipero Serra, presidios and missions spread Spanish settlement along the California Coast. This also marked the beginning of Native American genocide. Exposure to Europeans greatly decreased the number of natives found in California.
  • First California Mission

    Father Junipero Serra founded the first missions in California with the first being Mission San Diego de Alcala. California colonized by the Spanish.
  • Mission Camel

    Establishment of Mission Camel (San Carlos)
  • Mission San Antonio de Padua

    Establishment of Mission San Antonio de Padua
  • Mission San Gabriel

    Establishment of Mission San Gabriel
  • Presidio

    Spanish army officer Jose Francisco Ortega, along with 7 officers, 34 soldiers, and 10 Indian attendants, established Presidio
  • La Perouse's Expedition

    La Boussole, commanded by Captain de Langle, and L'Astrolabe, commanded by Jean Francois Galaup de La Perouse departed from the French Port of Brest on an expedition to explore land, find trade, and find out more information about different European powers.
  • La Perouse at Monterey

    La Perouse reached Monterey and wrote about the Spanish Missions, including the living environment and attitudes of monks, soldiers, and Native Americans.
  • Third Northwest Ordinance

    The Third Northwest Ordinance stimulated how territories can become states. Their steps included having people move into the frontier with a population of about 5000, the continual growth of the population, and a large white male voting population that can petition for statehood
  • Naturalization Act of 1790

    The Naturalization Act of 1790 made it so only "free, white persons" have the privilege to naturalize and become citizens of the United States. This barred people of color from becoming citizens.
  • Search for La Perouse

    National Assembly issued a decree to alert ambassadors, consuls, agents, and residents in other countries to the disappearance of La Perouse and his men.
  • Voyage de La Perouse autour du Monde

    "Voyage de La Perouse autour du Monde" was published followed by English translations and abridged excerpts
  • Measles

    Beginning of the Measles epidemic in California
  • Cortes of Cadiz

    Spain convenes Cortes of Cadiz and outlines plans for indigenous freedom and full citizenship throughout the Spanish empire
  • Spanish Constitution

    The Spanish Constitution states that Indigenous and colonial born subjects are granted full citizenship
  • Mission San Francisco Solano

    Establishment of Mission San Francisco Solano
  • Mexican Independence

    Mexico gains independence and Mexican secular government officials take over the government in California
  • Period: to

    The Mexican Era

    The Mexican Era of California demonstrates a time after Mexico won its independence. Under Mexican rule, grants were made for ranchos, free trade emerged, and increased efforts to "secularize" the missions. Life during the Mexican Era composed of ranchers in cattle farms and the experiences of natives, Californios, and foreigners.
  • Land Grant Codification

    Mexico codifies the land grant process but states that there are to be no transfers to missions, infringement on non-Christian tribal land, and people were limited to 50,000 acres
  • Start of Chumash War

    Beginning of Chumash War
  • End of Chumash War

    Chumash war ends with only a few hundred Chumash remaining in Yokut territory
  • Colonization Act

    The Colonization Act promised colonists land if they were willing to move to California and establish a new life out in the West.
  • Remains of La Perouse's Expedition

    An Irish merchant named Peter Dillon landed on Tikopia and found the remains of La Boussole and L'Astrolabe
  • Start of Estanislao’s War

    Beginning of Estanislao’s War where he leads 4000 Indian revels in raids
  • End of Estanislao’s War

    Estainislao’s War ends and he is pardoned to return to Yokut territory
  • Secularization

    California mission begins secularization process of shifting control of the California frontier from missionaries to Spanish secular government
  • John Sutter and New Helvetia

    John Sutter established New Helvetia in 1840. By 1845, he had about 600 Indians working on ranch. It has been reported that he would march around a quasi-militia force of Indians and white men.
  • Preemption Act of 1841

    The Preemption Act allowed individuals to claim up to 160 acres of federal land as their property as a response to squatters in the Western states.
  • Taos Trappers

    Taos trappers arrive in California and establish themselves as butchers, soapmakers, cabinetmakers, house joiners, sawmill operators, stonemasons, carpenters, boatbuilders, and ferry operators.
  • Major Fremont's Trip to California

    Major John C. Fremont makes his third trip to California even though he was banned by the Mexican government in 1842. After being caught, he states that he "accidentally" made it to California. He was really on a surveying expedition on behalf of his father-in-law Thomas Hart Benton, the U.S. senator of Missouri.
  • Major Fremont's Return to California

    After being expelled from California in 1845, Major John C. Fremont returns in 1846 and stays at Sutter's Fort. He resigns his commission and takes control of US military forces in the Mexican War. Fremont and his men demanded more land and were upset at the amount of land given to Californios
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    A group of American settlers in California marched to Mariano Vallejo's house to proclaim they have taken over the California frontier. They were rebelling against the Mexican government.
  • Fremont's Excursion to the Upper Sacramento River

    Fremont took a group of men to the upper Sacramento River in order to rescue Kit Carson from imprisonment. When he stumbled upon an Indian village, he and his men began firing upon them. There were 1000 Wintun Indian casualties with 300 or more women and children drowning while crossing the river. There were no injuries to the Americans. As Fremont continued along the Klamath region, he exterminates more Indians.
  • Start of the Mexican War

    The Mexican War begins after Mexican troops attacked a group of U.S. soldiers and killing a dozen of them. Mexican troops then attacked an American fort stationed along the Rio Grande, although American troops were able to defeat them at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. The war started due to tensions about territory. After Texas won its independence of Mexico, Polk set his sights on also gaining California, New Mexico, and much of the Southwest
  • Start of the Donner Party

    The infamous Donner Party starts their trip to California. Due to issues such as dangerous terrains, the start of winter, lack of food, and internal conflicts, most of the Donner Party did not make it to California. After being stranded by a snowstorm, many of them resorted to cannibalism. Only 49 members made it out alive.
  • California Gold Rush

    James Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill while building a sawmill for the property. This marks the steady beginnings of the California Gold Rush
  • Period: to

    The Gold Rush Era

    The Gold Rush Era allowed California to change its economy and environment, transform its demographic, and launched it into statehood. During this era, cities such as San Francisco and Sacramento increased in population as foreigners arrived with hopes of gold. Unfortunately, with diversity came discrimination and violence towards Latin Americans, Asians, Native Americans, and Californios.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo placed the Rio Grande as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Mexico also recognized Texas as U.S. territory while also selling the rest of the territory north of the Rio Grande to the United States. This included California.
  • Clear Lake Massacre

    The Pomo and Wappo tribe were being held as unfree laborers, worked to death, raped, and killed. As a response, the natives killed the white ranchers who held them. The following year, the U.S. army and vigilantes killed 1000 or more Indian people on the island.
  • California Becomes a State

    California becomes the 31st state and enters the Union as a free, non-slavery state after to the Compromise of 1850
  • Foreign Miner's Tax of 1850

    The Foreign Miner's Tax of 1850 imposed a tax upon all foreign miners. This meant that any non-white miners had to give up a certain amount of their earnings while on the frontier. Although it was repealed in 1851, it was reinstated in 1852.
  • Mariposa War

    The Mariposa War began because Shasta California miners killed 15 Wintu Indians and burned down their tribal meeting house.
  • Act for the Government and Protection of Indians

    The Act for the Government and Protection of Indians gave penalties for Indian orphans and loiterers. Loiterers composed of any Indians in town who were unemployed. Orphans consisted of men 18 years or younger and women 15 years or younger. These Indians were often forced into servitude and at least 1000 Indians were enslaved this way.
  • California Land Act of 1851

    The 1851 Land Act was made to review the validity of land grants given in the Treat of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It gave everyone three years to make their claims. The process required a large sum of legal costs and many legal documents to be submitted in English.
  • Divorce Laws in 1851

    In 1851, California established that women and men were able to sue for divorce due to cases such as adultery, cruelty, desertion, neglect, fraud, felonies, or natural impotency.
  • Indian "Rancheria" System

    The Federal Indian commission negotiates a "Rancheria" system with 100 other tribal representatives. However, after hearing that 1/8th of the land would be dedicated to Indian ranch areas, Californians and the U.S. Senate rejects the negotiation.
  • Bridge Gulch Massacre

    In the Bridge Gulch Massacre, 150 Wintu Indians were killed after being blamed for the murder of a local resident named Colonel John Anderson. It appears that his murderer was not among the Indians killed.
  • Yontocket Massacre

    In the Yontocket Massacre, Indian hunters surrounded a collective prayer ceremony of the Tolowa Indians. By the end of the massacre, 450 of the Indians present were killed.
  • Indian Reservations

    The E.F. Beale's Peace Commission comes up with the idea for Indian reservations. There were a total of 7 reservations created under federal authority that were about 20,000 acres each. Indian life was regulated by the military authority.
  • People v. Hall 1854

    George Hall was convicted of murder for killing a Chinese miner by the name of Ling Sing. The Supreme Court of California overturned the ruling by expanding on a statute that made it illegal for Blacks to testify against Whites. Now all non-whites were unable to testify against Whites in court.
  • Pacific Mail Steamship Company

    The Pacific Mail Steamship Company began servicing between Asia and San Francisco. They also published a newspaper to promote "Pacific commerce and travel"
  • Dred Scott Decision

    The Dred Scott decision ruled that African Americans that lived in a free state or territory were not entitled to freedom. It made it so no person of African descent could ever be a citizen of the United States.
  • Amelia's Body

    The body of sixteen-year-old Amelia Kuschinsky was found. She was a servant of a local merchant by the name of August Stiller. It was believed that she was impregnated by her employer and a victim of a botched abortion that eventually caused her death.
  • Pacific Railroad Act

    Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act to grant financial support through land grants, bonds, and loans to the railroad project. It was then that the CPRR and UP were selected to finish the First Transcontinental Railroad.
  • Period: to

    The Railroad Era

    The Railroad Era in California marked a transition from an economy based on gold from the Gold Rush era, to an economy based upon industry. Immigration, especially from Asia, aided in industrial growth by offering workers. Much of the state's immigrants came from China. Chinese immigration assisted in the development of the economy and the building of the railroad.
  • The "Big Fill"

    The "Big Fill" was an effort in which 350 railroad workers had to fill a gully a thousand feet long and 53 feet deep in the middle. Tracks were then laid on top of it. This project was located near Auburn.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 made it so African Americans would have "birthright citizenship". Although this negated some issues of the Nationality Act, it still did not address other people of color within the United States.
  • "The Strike" of Railroad Chinese

    Three thousand Chinese men working on the CPRR Railroad stopped work from Cisco to Truckee. They demanded wages to increase to $40 per month, reduced workdays from 10 to 11 hours, and shorter shifts in the tunnels. During the strike, the men peacefully stayed at the camps and survived on existing supplies. The strike ended after one week without the Chinese getting their demands.
  • 14th Amendment

    The ratification of the 14th amendment gave citizenship to everyone born or naturalized in the United States as well as equal protection under the law.
  • Arrival of the Great Republic

    The Great Republic, a side-wheel steamship, made its way from Asia to San Francisco. Onboard there were 5000 tons of cargo and almost 1300 Chinese who, most likely, arrived for railroad work. The spectacle demonstrated how poorly Chinese immigrants were treated by officials who were brutal towards them for no reason.
  • Memphis Convention

    Plantation Owners met up and talked about replacing slaves with Chinese workers because of their work habits. The emancipation of African Americans made it so plantations in the south severely lacked workers. This led to the increased importation of Chinese workers.
  • Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad

    The steam engines of the CPRR and UP meet in Promontory, Utah to nail in the last spike of the First Transcontinental Railroad. This marked the bonding of the east and the west.
  • Creation of the Ghost Dance

    The Northern Paiute and Washoe leader named Tavibo creates the Ghost Dance. It was based on the millenarian0like belief that enemies would be vanquished if one was religious enough. The religious ceremony would come with days of dancing as the Indians prayed that their white enemies would disappear. The Ghost Dance spread quickly across the United States.
  • Los Angeles Massacre

    Whites and Californios enter Chinatown in San Francisco with the intent of scaring immigrants away. Many Chinese immigrants were injured with about 25-30 Chinese immigrants killed.
  • Chinese Massacre of 1871

    The massacre was the first lynchings of Chinese men in Los Angeles as a response to the supposed "killing" of a white man. Whites and Mexicans captured Chinese women, children, and men to lynch them. Chinatown was burned because the police officers did nothing to stop the riots. The Chinese community sued, but only eight individuals went to jail before receiving bail.
  • Beginning of the Modoc War

    The Modoc War begins with an uprising from the Modoc people rounded up and deposited at a Klamath reservation. Led by Kintapuash, 50 warriors along with 180 total Modoc leave the reservations and return to their homelands. They hide at the Lava Beds.
  • End of the Modoc War

    Negotiators try to convince the Modoc to return to the reservation, but they stood their ground. After months-long standoffs, General Edward Canby, 75 whites, and 5 Indians are dead. Kintapuash surrenders on June 1st and is executed along with 5-6 of his warriors.
  • The Page Act

    The Page Act prohibits the immigration of people coming to the United States under contracts to work or prostitution. This reduced Chinese women's immigration because of the sexist, racist, and misogynistic attitudes towards Chinese women as prostitutes. The lack of Chinese women reduced Chinese families in the United States.
  • 15 Passenger Bill

    The 15 Passenger Bill made it so no more than 15 passengers of Chinese background could be on a ship heading to the United States. Eventually, the bill was vetoed because it violated the Burlingame treaty.
  • The Six Companies

    The establishment of The Six Companies was a coalition of mutual aid associations that represented Chinese immigrants. These associations would provide assistance to the Chinese whether that be a shelter, work, food, etc. The Six Companies had to repeatedly defend themselves against accusations of "indentured servitude"
  • 20 Year Exclusion Act

    The Exclusion Act was renewed, but changed to 10 years after an initial veto. The act became a law on May 6th, 1882, and advocated for the exclusion of immigrants and naturalization.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    President Chester A. Arthur signed the Chinese Exclusion Act that made it illegal for Chinese workers to come to America and for Chinese immigrants to become citizens.
  • Eureka Chinatown

    A mob of angry white Californians in Eureka descended upon Chinatown yelling for their murder. Chinatown was eventually burned and all Chinese residents were pushed out of Eureka.
  • Yick Wo v. Hopkins 1886

    San Francisco passed an ordinance that disallowed for anyone to use a wooden stick for laundry unless they had a permit. Evidently, the Chinese were unable to get these permits. Song Lee was arrested for going against the ordinance, but was backed by the Six Companies and the Laundry Company because the arrest went against the 14th amendment. In the end, the courts ruled that the 14th amendment called for equal protections to all people including immgirants.
  • The Statue of Liberty

    The Statue of Liberty was opened in New York Harbor. It was met with mixed feelings from minority groups because of its representation of freedom despite the lack of freedom granted to them.
  • Scott Act of 1888

    The Scott Act made certificates of return to the United States void which stranded many Chinese Americans in China. The Chinese sued, however, the Scot Act was upheld in 1889 because the political branch was allowed to choose who they let into the country.
  • Massacre at Wounded Knee

    The Sioux gather to practice their Ghost Dance ritual, however, the U.S. Government had banned the dance due to the belief system that was associated with it. The U.S. Army surrounds the Sioux and a fight breaks out. In the end 25 whites and 150 Indians were dead.
  • Geary Act

    The Exclusion Act was re-upped with the Geary Act that made it so every Chinese person would have to carry a photo I.D. card. Lack of such an I.D. would mean deportation. The Chinese decided not to respect the law and organized a boycott that called for the Chinese not to register for the card. They went to court, but lost.
  • Free Harbor Fight

    From 1896-1907, LA businessmen worked to prevent the Santa Monica long wharf from becoming the central port because they believed it was a way for the Southern Pacific to monopolize transportation. At the same time, there was the development of the LA port and the building of a breakwater.
  • Citizenship for Native Born

    When Wong Kim Ark, a native-born Chinese American, was denied entry back into the United States, the question was raised whether a Chinese American born of immigrant parents be considered a citizen. Citing the citizenship clause of the 14th amendment, Wong Kim Ark's case ruled that all native-borns are U.S. citizens. This secured citizenship for all children of immigrants.
  • Graft Trials

    In 1906 and 1907, there were many public investigations and trials of city officials, political leaders, and the Spring Valley water company because of their involvement in building clay pipes rather than iron pipes. This mistake led to the lack of water to put out fires after a major earthquake.
  • Asiatic Exclusion League

    The establishment of the Asiatic Exclusion League called for the exclusion of all people of Asian descent, although it did primarily attack the Japanese.
  • San Francisco Earthquake

    An earthquake and fire struck San Francisco and destroyed the largest and oldest Chinatown in North America. The Chinese refused to relocate and began rebuilding to reclaim the area. As a result of the earthquake, the Paper Sons system picked up and allowed more Chinese to enter the country.
  • Gentlemen's Agreement

    The Gentlemen's Agreement was between the United States and Japan who agreed to limit immigration to those who had preexisting ties to the country after 1907
  • Angel Island

    Immigration services built a station on Angel Island that was supposed to be better, modern, and cleaner than other immigration stations. In reality, sending Chinese immigrants to Angel Island made it easier to keep the Chinese further away from people they knew. More than 100,000 Chinese immigrants went through this station from 1910-1940.
  • Progressive Election Successes

    During 1910 and 1911, Progressives took over the state government and passed the initiative, referendum, recall, direct election of Senators, and women's suffrage.
  • Southern Pacific’s Literary Club

    The Southern Pacific’s Literary Club under the Public Utilities Commission was created to regulate the railroad. This was a professional takeover of the railroad business.
  • First Alien Land Act

    The Alien Land Act prevented aliens ineligible for citizens from gaining or owning land. This prevented the Japanese from farming, although they did find loopholes by filing land under a company or their native-born children's names.
  • Immigration Act of 1917

    The Immigration Act was based on the Chinese Exclusion Act and encompassed every Asian nation east of Turkey and west of the islands of Japan. It called for Asiatic Exlcusion.
  • 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote and they shall not be denied the ability to vote because of their sex.
  • Second Alien Land Act

    The Second Alien Land Act addressed the loopholes that allowed Japanese immigrants to register for land in their child's name or with a company. Closing these loopholes made it difficult for any Japanese to obtain land.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed into the United States based on established quotas. The act also prevented entry to any immigrants in the "Asiatic Barred Zone".
  • The Great Depression

    After the U.S. stock market crashed, California began receding into a period of Great Depression. Companies, such as manufacturing plants, were unable to sell their products and had to begin laying off workers. Workers would then be unable to find employment, make money, or care for their families.
  • Period: to

    The Great Depression Era

    The Great Depression Era of California demonstrated a decrease in the economy as compared to the previous era. Migration existed between states and many Americans came to California with the hopes of life improvement. Migration soon changed to encompass a large percentage of people from the Dust Bowl wanting to take refuge from the economic turmoil of the Depression.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl marked a period of drought and dust storms. It began as a result of farming practices that deprived the soil of nutrients. As a result of the Dust Bowl, many families from Oklahoma, Texas, and neighboring states migrated to California to find new opportunities. "Okies" faced mistreatment as a result of the migration.
  • FDR's New Deal

    During the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated The New, a series of programs that intended to restore the United State to its original prosperity. Each program and project essentially changed the federal government through the expansion of its size, scope, and role in the economy.
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation

    The Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) created residential security maps with color codes to represent the people living in each district. The "red districts" housed foreign-born, low-class, or African American citizens. This later became known as "redlining". People who lived in redlined areas experienced increased crime, lack of transportation, dropped property values, and loss of business.
  • The National Housing Act of 1934

    As part of FDR's New Deal, the National Housing Act of 1934 introduced many ideas such as the 30-year mortgage and low-fixed, interest rate. This allowed lower-income people to afford homes.
  • Period: to

    World War II Era

    During World War II Era, California grew in regards to agriculture, industry, and population. The establishment of industry meant a new wave of available jobs for a diverse population. Factories built during this era account for the large military presence in California. As diverse populations gained opportunity, Japanese Americans were removed for internment.
  • Second Great Migration

    The Second Great Migration was a movement of about 350,000 African Americans to California during the war years. They were appealed to by job opportunities in defense, transportation, commerce, and the military. Many African Americans also migrated to flee from Jim Crow Laws in the south.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an order that bans racial discrimination in war employment. Despite the executive order, there was still segregation within jobs and the military.
  • War Production Boards

    Franklin D. Roosevelt established War Production Boards. They plan for what would be needed for the United States to overtake a major defense effort during World War II. In general, the War Production Boards were in charge of production and favored California because of its vast land.
  • War Manpower Commission

    The War Manpower Commission was established to manage industrial, military, and farm labor. They had the power to keep workers in "essential" jobs because of the constant movement of workers to get better wages. They were also in charge of supervising wages and hours of work. Their unpaid "Women's Advisory Board" allowed the Commission to seek women workers.
  • Mexican Farm Labor Agreement

    The United States and Mexico sign the Mexican Farm Labor agreement in 1942 which lasts until 1964. The agreement allowed for paid-Mexican workers to come to the United States. They generally did agricultural, railroad, and other hard labor jobs. Despite the hard labor, they received minimum wages, housing, and health care. Non-discrimination clauses offered some protection against American discrimination. After their term, Mexican workers were expected to go back to Mexico.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Franklin D. Roosevelt's order calls for the removal of all people of Japanese descent from "Special Military Exclusion Zones" on the West Coast into internment camps. This targeted mainly Californians although it did affect Japanese residents in Oregon and Washington. Calls for internment sprouted from racism and the belief that people of Japanese heritage were "untrustworthy".
  • Zoot Suit Riots

    The Zoot Suit Riots were started by white sailors who invited Latino areas in Los Angeles to attack young men wearing Zoot suits. They would strip men of their clothes, beat them, and burn their suits. When the LAPD "Vengence Squad" arrived, they arrested the victims instead of the sailors. After five nights of rioting, 150 Mexican Americans were injured and 500 Latino youth were arrested. This led to action from the Mexican Consulate, Imperial Japan, and the National Lawyers' Guild.
  • Port Chicago Disaster

    The Port Chicago Disaster was an explosion that occurred while loading ammunition and ordnance. 320 sailors and soldiers were killed and about 400 were injured. 65% of those workers were African American. The incident occurred because of unsafe conditions, continual orders to "speed up", and inexperienced white bosses.
  • Port Chicago Mutiny

    After the Port Chicago Disaster, black sailors refused to return to the site and were arrested and convicted of mutinity. 50 were sentenced to 15 years of hard labor and another 60 were given dishonorable discharges. After appeals litigated by Thurgood Marshall, 47 sailors were released after about a year in the Navy brig.
  • Mendez v. Westminster 1944

    Gonzalo Mendez sues Westminster schools after his children were denied entry because of their race. After the case makes it to the Supreme Court, Mendez wins the case and all California schools were made to desegregate.
  • GI Bill

    The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, known as the GI Bill, became law. It provided home and farm loans, educational and training benefits, medical care, and unemployment compensation for returning veterans.
  • United Nations

    The first meeting of the newly created United Nations took place at the San Francisco Opera House
  • Indian Land Commisions

    The U.S. Indian Lands Commission was created to listen to the claims of any Indian groups against the United States
  • House Committee on UnAmerican Activities 1947 Hearing

    The House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC)Hearings were held across the United States from the later 1930s to the early 1960s. They were an attempt to expose members of the Community Part-USA. At the 1947 hearing, the "Hollywood 10" denounced the Committee's work openly which sent each man to prison and a ban from the industry.
  • Lakewood Housing

    When the sales offices opened in 1950, 200,000 people came to visit model homes in Lakewood during the first month. The first Lakewood houses were made to be affordable for all families. Like most developments, the houses in Lakewood had interchangeable plans, but were kept mostly the same. The neighborhoods lacked fences, backyards, and landscaping. Buyers of color were discouraged from buying in the Lakewood suburbs.
  • Period: to

    The Modern Era

    The Modern Era describes the state of California after World War II. Established industries and residential developments created new communities, agricultural regions flourished, and California's reputation attracted new migrants. The Progressive-era also pushed liberalism and led to the development of many California projects. On the other hand, political conservatism was restrictive. California's demographic continues to shift.
  • Operation "Wetback"

    Operation Wetback was the largest mass deportation of undocumented workers in the history of the United States, forcing 1.3 million people out of the country. Military-style tactics were used to remove Mexican immigrants, regardless of whether they were American citizens. The Mexican government also wanted the return of Mexican nationals to combat the labor shortage in Mexico. "Wetback" was the term used to describe Mexicans who illegally entered Texas through the Rio Grande River.
  • Burns-Porter Act

    The Burns-Porter Act of 1959 was a $1.75 billion bond measure that established one of the largest water redistribution systems. Its goal was to provide water to Southern California, the Bay Area, and the central coast. It led to 21 dams, more than 700 miles of canals, and pipes. It is still in operation to this day.
  • 1959 Freeway and Expressway Act

    The 1959 Freeway and Expressway Act allowed for $10.5 billion to be spent on transportation. Freeways were constructed with federal funds.
  • Fair Employment Practices Act

    The Fair Employment Practices Act was passed in 1959 and prohibited employers and labor unions from discriminating against workers.
  • Unruh Civil Rights Act

    Unruh Civil Rights Act of 1959 prohibited discrimination by businesses and provided for victims to sue for damages in state court. Discrimination included acts done against race, sex, sexual orientation, ancestry, color, religion, medical status, and disability.
  • State Water Project

    The State Water Project of 1960 was a Pat-Brown initiative that hoped to improve the state's water infrastructure. The Water Project led to suburban growth, especially in the Bay Area and Southern California. It also provided a majority of the region's drinking water, 80% of industrial water needs in urban areas, and additional irrigation for farms.
  • 1960 Donohoe Act

    As a result of the 1960 Donohoe Act, the Master Plan for Higher Education in California was put into action. This created a system of higher education with clearly defined functions at each level and specific admissions requirements. The three tiers composed of California Community Colleges, California State Universities, and Universities of California.
  • House Committee on UnAmerican Activities 1960 Hearing

    The House Committee on UnAmerican Activities 1947 Hearing resulted in the forcible removal of protestors. The police turned fire hoses on protestors, dragged people outside, and made arrests. This event was critical to the formation of a youth protest movement in the Bay Area.
  • Bay Area Rapid Transit System

    The Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART), was a public transportation system used to transfer people from the outer suburbs into San Francisco in an attempt to reduce freeway traffic. Its first services opened in 1972. The BART system connects the suburbs of the Bay Area to Oakland and San Francisco to airport extensions. It is an integrated system that includes buses, carparks, Cal Train, Amtrack, and ferries.
  • Rumford Fair Housing Act

    Rumford Fair Housing Act of 1963 prohibited discrimination in public housing and in apartment buildings with more than 5 units. It did not ban discrimination in single-family housing or other private housing, thus, it did little to address redlining.
  • 1964 Free Speech Movement

    During the 1964 Free Speech Movement, 800 students came together to protest the university's restrictions on "political activity". Many different organizations were involved. During a night sit-in in Sproul Hall, students were forcibly removed by Alameda Country sheriff deputies. As a result, the students went on strike and the faculty senate voted to support the protesting children. In 1965, the limits on political activities were removed.
  • 1965 Immigration Act

    The 1965 Immigration (Hart-Cellar) Act eliminated the old national origins quotas of the 1924 Immigration Act that used to favor Nothern and Western Europeans over all other immigrants. Immigration was opened on an annual per capita basis, meaning 20,000 people could immigrate each year from each country in the nation. Certain categories were granted additional immigrants above the limit.
  • The Watts Riot

    The Watts Riot was the first of many urban riots in the 1960s. It led to six days of rioting after a police car pulled over two black men and beat them before their arrest. A crowd forms and turned into a riot. As outrage and violence intensified, 14,000 troops were brought in. In the end, there were 34 deaths, more than 1000 injuries, over 4000 injured, and over $40 million in damages. It is said that the violence started because of black residents' dissatisfaction with poor living conditions.
  • Farmworkers’ 1966 March

    Led by Cesar Chavez, 10,000 strikers from the National Farm Workers' Union marked from Delano, San Joaquin Valley to Sacramento. It took 25 days to walk the 300 miles to the Capitol Building. They marched to demand that the state create its own regulatory agency to ensure farmworkers' rights.
  • Summer of Love

    Summer of Love was the largest migration of young people in the history of America. Participants believed in "finding a new way for humanity" and were drawn into San Francisco because of the city's hippie counterculture of peace and life. Many of those who attended ultimately came for drugs rather than a spiritual awakening.
  • Human Be-In

    The Gathering of the Tribe, also known as the Human Be-In, occurred before the Summer of Love. 20,000 participants gathered together just to be in each other's company. They rejected the traditional paths of success.
  • Fair Housing Act of 1968

    The Fair Housing Act of 1968 encouraged equal housing opportunities for everyone regardless of race, religion, or national origin. It was meant to protect future homeworkers and renters, but it was unable to fix the damage already done. In the end the Fair Housing Act was rarely enforced.
  • San Francisco State Strike

    The San Francisco State Strike, done by the students at San Francisco State College, was the longest student strike in the history of the United States. They wanted to expose racism and authoritarianism found on campus while also demanding an increase in student of color representation. The students' demands were later met in March of 1969 with support from the faculty and the community. Agreements were signed between representatives of multiple organizations on campus
  • Indian Occupation of Alcatraz Island

    Indian people arrived at Alcatraz island led by Richard Oakes and a group of Indian supporters who wanted to symbolically claim the island for Indian people. There were three different periods of occupation on Alcatraz Island. The occupation eventually ended on June 10, 1971, when armed federal marshals, FBI agents, and special forces swarmed the island and removed the members.
  • Chicano Moratorium

    The Chicano Moratorium was a protest march against the Vietnam War. About 20,000 young, mostly Mexican American, students protested the inequalities of their public schools. Many participants were veterans who served in Vietnam. Chaos erupted when deputies broke up a rally at Laguna Park and people fought back when attacked by the police. The march inspired future Chicano activists.
  • Defeat Bakke Protest 1978

    The Defeat Bakke Protest 1978 prevented the University of California system from using affirmative action as a deciding factor in university admissions.
  • Rodney King Riots

    Four LA policemen were acquitted for the beating of Rodney King, an African American man who suffered skull fractures, broken bones and teeth, and permanent brain damage. In response, there was a five-day riot fueled by tensions due to unemployment, the drug epidemic, and gang activity. The five days of arson, looting, and destruction resulted in 50 deaths, 2000 injuries, 6000 arrests, 1000 damaged buildings, and millions in damage.
  • Proposition 197

    Proposition 197, also known as the "Save Our State" Initiative, made it possible for local and state officials to investigate the immigration status of those receiving public aid. Because immigration is a federal issue, the proposition was removed a couple of years later.
  • Period: to

    The 21st Century

    The 21st Century currently represents the events of California to this day. We are only 20 years into the century and many more events pertinent to California are sure to pop up.
  • Comprehensive Second Hand Smoke Control Ordinance

    The Comprehensive Second Hand Smoke Control Ordinance bans smoking in all public places whether that be indoor or outdoor.
  • Introduction of the iPhone

    Steve Jobs first introduced the original iPhone in a keynote at the Macworld Conference & Expo in San Francisco, California.The iPhone was a large contributor to the continued notoriety of Apple. Because of Apple, many advances have been made in the field of technology.
  • California Drought

    Although California experienced many periods of droughts, the longest drought occurred from 2011 to 2017. Drought occurs because of the lack of rain, snow, and water storage in California.
  • Proposition 67

    Proposition 67, also known as the Single-Use Carryout Bag Ban, was passed and prevented most grocery stores, retail stores, convenience stores, food marts, and liquor stores from providing single-use plastic bags to customers.
  • Thousand Oaks Shooting

    A mass shooting in Thousand Oaks, California at the Borderline Bar and Grill resulted in the death of 13 individuals including the shooter.
  • California Wildfires

    2020 was California's worst fire season on record making its way across 4.1m acres. By the end of the season, the wildfire killed 31 people and damaged more than 10,000 buildings. The North Complex fire was the main culprit, taking over 300,000 acres of land and killing 16 people.
  • Black Lives Matter

    In response to the death of George Floyd, the Black Lives Matter movement reignited in California. Many came together to protest long-standing racial discrimination and to address the actions of the police force.
  • Coronavirus

    The first confirmed case of COVID-19 was found in California. As a result of the global pandemic, California issued stay-at-home orders that affected all citizens. Workers, students, and residents had to adjust to a socially distant and remote lifestyle.
  • Asian American Hate

    As a result of the stigma against Covid-19, there was an increase in Anti-Asian American sentiment in California. Many of the victims were elderly Asian Americans. There are many "Stop Asian Hate" rallies and marches as a response.