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Human Origins

  • Paleolithic Age

    Paleolithic Age
    2.5 million to 8000 B.C.-The earlier and longer part of the Stone Age ,called the Old Stone Age also .The oldest stone chopping tools date back to this era. Much of the Paleolitihic age occured during the period known as the Ice Age.Included Nomadic groups of hominids called Hunter-gatherers. Who used spears to hunt and sticks to dig up plants. Artistic expression included necklaces made from seashells and lion teeth,beads made from polished Mammoth tusks ,small sculptures and cave paintings.
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  • Australopithecines

    4 million to 1 million B.C.- Australopithecines, believed to be the first hominids, walked up right and had opposable thumbs. Brain size of 500 cm3. Footprints discovered in East Africa by Anthropoligist Mary Leakey in 1978 and full skeltel remains found in Ethopia by Donald Johnson in 1974.
  • Homo habilis

    Homo habilis
    2.5 million - 1.5 million B.C.- Homo habilis appeared in East Africa before the Australopithecines vanished. Homo habilis means "man of skill" becuase he was believed to use tools to cut meat and crack open bones.Their brain size was 700 cm3. Fossils of this hominid found in 1960 by Louis and Mary Leakey in northern Tanzania , Africa.
  • Homo erectus

    Homo erectus
    About 1.6 million - 30,000 B.C. Homo erectus which means "upright man" was believed to appear in East Africa. With a brain size of 1,000 cm3 Homo erectus was more intelligent and developed technology such as sophisticated tools for hunting. Migrated from Afirca to India , China , Southeast Asia ,and Europe. Beleived to be the first Hominids to use fire and develop language.
  • Neanderthal

    200,000-30,000 B.C.- in 1856 fossils of this Hominid were disscovered in the Neander Valley, Germany. Bones also discovered in Europe and Southwest Asia. Developed religious beliefs and performed rituals such as funerals. Dwellled in caves or temporary shelters of wood and animal skins.Had larger brains , 1450 cm3 .Fashioned more advanced tools for cutting and scrapping.A Bone flute discovered in 1996 by a team of reaschers from Canada and the United States hints of gifts of musical expression.
  • Cro-Magnon

    40,000-8,000 B.C. - Identical skelton to modern humans, probably strong and about 5 and 1/2 feet tall with a brain size of 1,400 cm3. Migrated from Africa to Europe and Asia. Unlike Neanderthals they were able to plan more difficult projects and stalk there prey allowing them to survive more easily. Cave drawings have been disscovered datting back to 35,000 years ago, depicting their rituals and daily life.
  • Neolithic Age

    Neolithic Age
    8,000 to 3,000 B.C.- Also called the New Stone Age .People who lived during this second phase of the Stone Age learned to polish tools, make pottery, grow crops , and raise animals. This age included Homo sapiens. In 1991 two German hikers discovered a Hominid from ths era nicknamed the "Ice man" because he had been preserved in ice for some 5,000 years. Near him was a tool kit including, a bow and arrows, dagger, an ax, and a medicine bag.
  • Jarmo

    7,000 B.C.- Jarmo, a city located near the Zargos Moutians in northeastern Iraq is believed to be the birthplace of agriculture. Archeologist, Robert Braidwood, led an archaeological dig in the 1950's and suggests that 9,000 years ago the land of Jarmo was vastly different. It is said to have sustained wild goats, pig, sheep, and horses along with wild wheat and barley. While now the land is mosty eroded and barren. Jarmo and other villages like it laid the foundation for modern life.
  • Farming Develops in Many Places

    Farming Develops in Many Places
    In a few thousand years many other regions turned to farming especially those near fertile rivers.
    Africa- Over time, The Nile River Valley became an important agricultural center for cultivating crops such as wheat, barley, and others.
    China- Farmers along the middle of the Yellow River grew a grain called millet about 8,000 years ago. And about 1,000 later, they first domesticated wild rice in the Chang Jiang River delta.
    Mexico and Central America- Farmers here grew corn, beans, and squash.
  • Catal Huyuk

    Catal Huyuk
    About 8,000 years ago, at its peak, Catal Huyuk the village's population was about 5,000 to 6,000 people that settled in about 1,000 homes. In 1958, archaeologists found the agricultural village located in south-central Turkey. It raised sheep and cattle and produced large amounts of crops leaving surpluses which led to specialized workers. Its success led to a varied cultural life. Including wall paintings and shrines. Some disadvantages of large villages were natural disasters, and diseases.
  • Bronze Age

    Bronze Age
    Around 3,000 B.C. the Bronze Age began in Sumer but the date may vary in other regions such as parts of Asia and Europe. The revolution started when atrists began to use bronze instead of copper and stone. They used bronze to make goods such as tools, and weapons.
  • Civilization Emerges in Ur

    Civilization Emerges in Ur
    About 3,000 B.C Ur, one of the oldest cities in Sumer appeared. It was located along the Euphrates River in southern Iraq. About 30,000 people lived there and was considered a highly sophisticated city. Ur had a very advanced culture. According to Leonard Wooly, who led an archaeological dig, the people of Ur lived among very defined social classes. Rulers, priests and priestesses had much power. Rich merchants collected a great deal of money from foreign trade. And artists made many goods.