History timeline #1

  • Tuskegee Institute is established.

    Founded by Booker T. Washington. A private, historically black University in Tuskegee, Alabama.
  • Grandfather Clause

    A legal tearm used to descrive a situation in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply for all future ones. Tearm orgininated by U.S southern states, which created new literacy and property restrictions on voting, but excepted those whose ancestors had right to vote before civil war.
  • Alfred T. Mahan and "Sea Power" strategy

    U.S navy flag officer, geatratigist, and histrian, who was called "the most important american strategist of the 19th Century" Came up with a concept based on the idea the countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact. Enormous influence on naval strategies during WW1. title "sea power" concept.
  • Queen Liliolukahlani Gets overthrown from Hawaii

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    Filipino Revolution

    Emilio Aguinaldo leads Filipinos against Spain and the Americans during Phillipe-Amer War, in order to resist spain and american occupation.
  • U.S.S Maine, gets sunk in the Havana Harvor.

    The U.s Navy's 2nd Commissioned pre-dreadnought battleship. Best known for loss in Havana harbor. Sent to Cuba to protect U.S. Interests during Cuban revolt against Spain. When it suddenly exploded, the US blamed Spain, was one of the events that helped start the Span- Amer War.
  • Teller Amendement

    an amendement to a joint resolution of the U.S congress. In reply to Pres. Mckinley's war message. Placed a condition of the U.S military in Cuba. The US could not annex cuba, but only leave "control of the island to it's people"
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    Boxer Rebellion

    A.K.A. Boxer Uprising. A proto-nationalist movement by "The Rightous Harmony society" opposing foreign imperialism and christianity. Took place in response to forgeign spheres of influence in China.
  • John Hay adopts Open Door Policy Idea

    An american states man, diplomate, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistan to abraham lincoln. adopted the Open Door Policy in China which was a contributing factor to the Boxer Rebellion, and prep. for Panama Canal. allowed multiple imperial powers to access China, with none of them in control of that country.
  • Pres McKinley gets Assasinated

    Gets shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz. Dies 8 days later from Gangreen in his wounds. His VP Theodore Roosavelt takes over.
  • Socialist party of America is Created

    A multi-tendency democratic-socialist political party. formed by a merger between the 3 yr. old social democratic party of America and dissafected unionists, progressive social reformers, populist, farmers, and immigrant communities. created by Eugene V. Debs.
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    Theodore Roosevelt Presidency

    26th President of the US, led the progressive movement, leader of republican party and founder of "bull-moose" party. Went to harvard. Led a small regiment in cuba called Rough riders, and was nominated for Medel of Honor. took office at 42 as youngest pres. in U.S history. "speak softly, carry a big stick"
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    National Bureau of Standards

    a measurement standards laboratory which is a non-regulatory agency of the US department of commerce. Promotes US innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in was taht enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.
  • Bureau of Corporations

    Roosevelt wanted a strong executive branch that could be capable of defining public interest and its powers expand to protect that interest. BoC colected information about the private behaviors of buisiness corporations, and make determinations about the public interest with regard to corporations.
  • Anthracite Coal Strike

    Strike by United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields in Pennsylvania. Miners asking for higher wages, shorter workdays, and the recognition of their union. Threatened to shut down winter feul supply. Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike and miners recieved more pay for fewer hours.
  • Panama Canal Zone Established

    Was a 553 square mile unorganized U.S territory located in Panama. Excluded Panama city and Colon. Created with the signing of Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty.
  • Hepburn Act.

    Gave the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates. Led to discontinuation of free pases to loyal shippers. could also view the financial racords. Name for sponsor William Hepburn, organized by Roosevelt.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act Passed

    Federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonus patent medicines.
  • Payne- Aldrich Tariff

    A bill lowering certain tariffs on goods entering the US. Tje 1st change in tariff laws since tingley acts of 1897. Taft called congress into a special session almost immediatly after inauguration. the bill was substituted by aldrich for fewer reductions and increases in tariffs.
  • New Nationalism Idea is Presented

    Roosevelt presented this Idea in a speech in Osawatomi, Kansas. He argued Gov't protection of human welfare and property rights, and argued the welfare was more important than property rights. He insisted that only a federal gov't could regulate the economy and guarantee social justice.
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    The Great Migration

    Movement of 6 million blacks from the south to northeast and midwest. Afterwards more than 80% lived in cities.
  • New Freedom Idea and the presidential campaign.

    Presented by Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign. Called for less gov't, but new controls such as federal reserve system and Clayton Antitrust Act. focused on 3 types of reform: Tariff, Buisiness, and Banking
  • 17th Amendement is Passed

    Said that the senate shall be composed of two senators of each state, elected by the people there of 6 years, and each senator shall have one vote.
  • Underwood-Simmons tariff

    Re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the 16th amendement and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%. signed by Woodrow Wilson.
  • The Harlem Hellfighters

    39th infantry regiment, formerly 15th N.Y national Guard regiment. Infantry regiment that saw action in WW1 and 2. 1st af. amer. regiment to serve with the amer. expeditionary force. nicknamed harlem hellfighters.
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    Woodrow Wilson Presidency

    28th President of US. Leader of Progressive Movement. Ran against Bull Moose Party candidet Teddy Roosevelt and William Howard Taft (Republican). Was elected President as a Democrat. Had full control of Amer. Entry into WW1.
  • Federal Trade Commission Established

    independent agency of the US gov't, established in 1914 by the federal trade commission act. Promotes consuper protection and the elimination and prevention of what regulators perceive to be harmfully anti-competitive buisiness practices. established by woodrow wilson.
  • Clayton Anti-trust Act is passed

    Adding to the antitrust law, by seeking to prevent anticompetittive practices in their incipency. Started with Sherman anti trust act. the Clayton Act specified particular prohibited conduct, and 3 level enforcement scheme, the exemptions and remedial measures.
  • Linear Pledge

    a.k.a the arabic pledge, a promise made by german empire during WW1 to limit unrestricted Sub WArfare. Cause of the sinking of Lusitania, then the British passenger liner the Arabic. The germany broke pledge in 1916 when torpedoed the sussex.
  • Keating-Own Child Labor Act

    Prohibited the sale in interstate commerce of goods manufatured by children in the U.S, giving the congress the task of regulating interstate commerce. Signed by Wilson.
  • Unrestricted U-Boat Warfare, and sinking of Lusitania

    a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink marchant men without warning. A major reason that brought the Us into WW1 by sinking of the Lusitania in 1917.
  • "Peace Without victory"

    address given by Woodrow wilson. Proposed peace terms about ending the war and defined the traditional use of cictory as being anathema to the establishment of peace among nations. addressed the 14 points.
  • Volstead Act

    National Prohibition Act, the enabling legislation for the 18th amendement which established prohibition in the US. The anti- saloons leagues, Wayne wheeler Drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew Volstead.
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Top allied leaders "The Big Four" who met at Paris after WW1 to set peace terms for the defeated Central Powers. Met with more than 29 nations. Came up with a series of Peace Treaties that reshaped Europe, and put war guilt, and stiff financial penalties on Germany. "The Big Four" consisted of David Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, Vittorio Orlando, and George Clemenceau.
  • Cher Ami

    a registered black check cock homing pigeion which had been donated by Britian to US Army signal corps in France during WW1 and had been trained by pigeoneers. Helped save lost batallion of 77th division in battle of arone.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    One of the Peace treaties at the end of WW1. Ended the starte of war between Germany and allied powers.
  • irreconcilables

    bitter opponents to the treaty of versailles in the US. Term refers to about 12-18 senators both republicans and democrats who fought intensly against hte ratification of the treaty. they succeeded and the US never ratified the treaty and never joined the League of NAtions.
  • Boston Police Strike

    Boston Police went on strike in order to acheive recognition for their trade union and improvements adn wages and working conditions. faced EDwin Upton Curtis, who denied that police officers had any right to form a union. It failed.
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    The League of Nations

    Founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, and Idea presented by Wilson. 1st permanet International organization whose mission was to obtain world peace. Never worked out, Wilson didnt sign amer. onto league of nations. Ended at the start of WW2.
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    The Red Scare

    about the worker socialist revolution and political radicalism. Followed the Bolshevik Russian Revolution.
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    Warren G. Harding Presidency

    29th president of the US. Republican. Influencial newspaper publisher, conservative, affable manner, and "make no enemies strategy." Return nation to "normalcy" encouraged industrialization and a strong economy independent of foreign influence. Departed from progressive movemnt. Put Cabinet members as his friends, who were later tried with bribary.
  • Fordney- McCumber Tariff

    Raised Amer. Tariffs in order to raise factories and farms. Congress had a very Pro-buisiness attitude.
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    Calvin Coolige presidency

    30 Pres. of the US. A small- gov;t conservative also known as a mand who spoke very little. Many believed he supported a Laissez Faire govn't. VP to Warren Harding, and became pres. after his death.
  • National Origins Quota Act.

    limited annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from the country of the US.
  • "the man nobody knows"

    second book by bruce fairchild barton. presents jesus as the founder of modern buisiness, in an effort to make the christian story accessible to buisiness ment of the time. topped the nonfiction bestseller lsit. painted a strong picture of jesus.
  • Stock Market Crash

    a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of parper wealth. crash on wallstreet
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    Herbert Hoover Presidency

    31st president of US. promoted parternships between government and buisiness under rubric "economic modernization." believed in efficiency movement. during depression, tried to bring economy back with volunteer efforts, public works projects (Hoover Dam), tariffs (Smoot- Howley tariff), increase in top tax bracket from 25%-63%. increases in corporate taxes.
  • Smoot- Hawley Tariff

    sponsored by reed smoot and willis c. hawley, raised US tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to recored levels. many economists believed it had a negative affect.
  • Committee on Unemployment Relief

    created by pres. herbert hoover commissioned to help us citizents who lost their jobs due to great depression. purpose was to coordinate local wellfare agencies without spending govern't money. ended june 30, 1932
  • Bonus Expeditionary Force

    The Bonus army WW1 veterans demanded immediate cash payment redemption of their service certificates. Led by Walter W. Waters.
  • Federal Emergency Relief Act.

    new name given by the roosevelt administration to the emergency relief admin. was replaced by works progress admin. created jobs for people.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation

    independent agency of US gov't during hoover admin. modeled after war finance corperation of WW1 gave 2 billion in aid to state and local govn't and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage assoc. and other buisinesses.
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    Huey Long

    nicknamed the kingfish. noted for radical populist policies. backed FDR in 1932 pres. election created shar our wealth program in 1934 with motto "every man a king." proposing new wealth redistribution measures in form of a net assex tax.
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    "the four horsemen"

    nickname given by the press to 4 consecutive members to supreme court, who opposed the new deal agenda of franklin roosevelt. justice pierce butler, james clarck mc reynolds, george sutherland, and willis van devanter.
  • 18th Amendement is passed

    Band the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohal. Repealed by 21st Amendement in 1933. Only Amendement that has ever been repealed.
  • Emergency Banking

    headed by Franklin D. Roosevelt during Great Depression allowed only federal reserve approved banks to opperate in US.
  • Civil Works Administration

    established by the new deal during the great depression to create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed. jobs were temporary. Harry L. Hopkins in charge of organization.
  • Home Owners Loan Act.

    Passed as part of Franklin D. roosevelts new deal during the great depression to help those in danger of loosing their homes. provided mortgage assisstance to home owners or would be home owners by providing them money.
  • Public Works Administration

    part of new deal, a large scale public works construction agency in US headed by secretary of interior herold l. ickes. created by national industral recovery act. built large scale public works such as dams and bridges, warchips, hospitals, and schools.
  • National Industrial Recovery Act

    american statute which authorized the president to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, established a national public works program.
  • Tennesee Valley Authority

    a federally owned corporation in the US created by congressional charter in may 1933 to provide navigation, food control, electricity generation, fetilizer manufacturing, and economic development in Tennessee valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
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    Franklin Roosevelt Presidency

    32nd pred. of US only president to be elected for more than 2 terms. very persistant and optimistic, brought up american spirits during depression. developed the new deal.
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    Civilian Conservation Corps

    a public work relief program for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 18-25. provided unskilled manuel labor jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal state and local governments. provided jobs for young men during great depression.
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    the "new deal"

    a series of economic programs bassed by congress during FDR;s 1st term. response to GReat Depression, and focused on 3 R's: Relief, Recovery, and Reform. Some programs were declared unconstitutional and repealed during WW2.
  • Securities Exchange Act.

    a law governing the secondary trading of securites. related statutes from the basis of regulation of the financial markets and their participants in the US. also established securities and exchange commissionl, the agency primarily responsible for enforcement of US federal securities law.
  • Rural Electrification Administration

    one of the new deal agencies, with primary goal of promoting rural electrification.
  • Agricultural ADjustment Act

    US federal law of the NEw deal, which restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsides not to plant part of their land and kill off excess livestock.
  • social Security Act

    taxes on higher income levels, gifts, estates, and corporations, but introducing "wealth tax." a new graduated tax that took up to 75% of the highest incomes in taxes, starting at incomes above 50,000.
  • Social SEcurtiy Act

    passed by congress as part of NEw Deal. An attempt to limit what were seen as dangers including old age, poverty, unemployment, and burdens of widows and fatherless children.
  • National Labor Relations Act.

    limits means in which employers may react to workers in private sector who create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take part in strikes and other forms of activity
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    National Youth Administration

    a new deal agency in the US that focused on providing work and education for americans between ages 16 and 24. operated as parts of the works progress administration.
  • Alfred Landon

    known for being republican parties nominee for pres., defeated by a landslide by FDR
  • Judiciary Reorganization

    frequently called the court packing plan a legislative initiative to add mor justices in the US supreme court. purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding new deal legislation taht had been previously ruled unconstitutional.
  • Works Progress ADmin.

    largest 3 most ambitious new deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects. fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. almost every US community had a park, bridge, or school constructed by the agency, which benefited rural and western areas.