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History of The War On Drugs

  • Lincoln

    During an attempt at alcohol prohibition, then-attorney Abraham Lincoln states: "Prohibition makes a crime out of things that are not crimes...A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principles upon which our government was founded."
  • Period: to

    History of the War on Drugs

  • Cash Crop

    Cannabis makes up about half of all medicines sold in America. No one reports serious problems with use.
  • Medicinal Use

    Cannabis prescribed as the prime medicine for more than 100 separate illnesses or diseases in U.S. Pharmacopoeia.
  • Cali Bans Opium

    California, in a blatant act of racism, bans Opium smoking by Chinese. Large, well-run opium houses ran out of business,
    replaced by smaller, less reputable houses. Usage increases.
  • Philadelphia Hash Fair

    Turkish Hashish exhibition at Philadelphia's Centennial Exhibition was most popular. Fairgoers encouraged to return again and again to "enhance" their enjoyment of the fair.
  • First Federal Law Against Drugs

    First Federal law against drugs. Congress heavily taxed smoking Opium. First time taxation was used to legislate morality, instead
    of raise revenues. Controlled by Treasury Department
  • Corporations get 14th Amendment protections

    Supreme Court decision making corporations artificial persons. Gives corporations 14th amendment protections.
  • US Bans Opium

    Using 1883 Opium taxation law as precedent, Federal government banned certain types of Opium from being imported, and banned Chinese from importing Opium at all. Government now surrenders revenue raising in favor of controlling "morality."
  • Indian Hemp Study

    Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report released to British. Study done in India. Judged the physical, mental, moral effects of smoking Cannabis, urges against any prohibition based on "no appreciable physical injury of any injurious effects on the mind,...(and) no moral injury whatever."
  • Spanish American War Begins

    Spanish American war starts, with William Randolph Hearst's "Yellow Journalism" fueling the fires. Hearst begins his long campaign of racism against Hispanics, Orientals, and Africans, and the things they do in their cultures.
  • "Cannabis Americana"

    1900 - Eli Lilly and Parke Davis, in a joint venture, develops strain of Cannabis called "Cannabis Americana." Strain is a very potent Cannabis Indica, to be used in their medicines. Mellon bank, 6th largest in America, finances very successful oil "gusher" in Spindletop, Texas.
  • Pure Food and Drug Act

    Pure Food and Drug Act (Wiley Act) passed. Opens door for government intervention into food and medicine production.
  • Wiley Act Am.

    Wiley Act amended, giving government right to determine if a substance is "harmful."
  • Pancho Villa, Mexican freedom fighter, recovers 800,000 acres of Sonora, Mexico from W.R.Hearst

    Villa and his men are great smokers of "Canamo" (Cannabis). Hearst, in retaliation, starts slur campaign against Cannabis, using Mexican slang word "Marihuana," and claiming it causes Mexicans to be lazy and thieving. By 1920 Hearst applied Cannabis to Blacks, claiming that after smoking it, Black men were insolent and wanted to rape white women.
  • Anti-Narcotics act, requiring taxation and permits to sell "narcotics.

    "American Medicine" magazine editorializes that since passage, narcotics use has risen with sinister consequences resulting from the character of places addicts needed to go to procure drugs, and the people they had to associate with. associate with. The New York Times says Cannabis has "Practically the same effect as Morphine and Cocaine."
  • USDA issues bulletin 404, urging the use of Hemp paper.

    Department issues a dire warning about the dangers of using wood pulp paper: "Our forests are being cut three times as fast as they is advisable to investigate the paper-making value of the more promising plant materials before acritical situation arises." Since Hemp produces over four times more paper per acre than trees, without the need for hazardous chemicals such as sulfuric acid and dioxins, USDA urges more use of Hemp for paper.
  • Alcohol prohibition starts.

    It's likely that certain interests like duPont, Standard Oil, and others created alcohol bans to prevent production of non-petroleum fuels for the burgeoning automobile industry. duPont begins production of rayon, continues research into synthetics. Secretary of Treasury reports underground drug trafficking flourishing, "dope peddlers" had established a nation-wide organization, smuggling was rampant, and use of forbidden substances was increasing.
  • Hemp is most efficient of thebiomass fuels.

    Alcohol prohibition begins, just as Ethanol is about to compete with petroleum. Hemp is most efficient of the
    biomass fuels. Mellon has a hand in it.
  • Tobacco cigarettes are banned in 14 states.

    Tobacco cigarettes are banned in 14 states.
  • Heroin is Banned

    Heroin importation or manufacture was banned, despite it's pain killing qualities that are superior to Morphine. Nevertheless, illegal use increases.
  • Herbert Hoover sets up Chemical Advisory Committees

    Herbert Hoover sets up Chemical Advisory Committees with Fraternity member. Irenee duPont speaks publicly about creating a race of supermen with drugs.
  • Wiley act moved to it's own bureau, "Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration."

    Given further powers to ban "harmful additives." No real criteria established as to how to make a legitimate
    determination of what is harmful and what is not. Government has responsibility to prove substance is harmful.
  • duPont Funds Hoover's Presidential Campaign

    duPont contributed major money to get Herbert Hoover elected president. duPont and Anaconda Copper subsidized campaign of
    Catholic liberal Al Smith.
  • Ford Motor Company biomass fuels project, finds Hemp most efficient.

    "Great Depression" causes hundreds of suicides over financial losses. Ford Motor Company works on biomass fuels project, finding Hemp is most efficient. Plans to build car from plant material, especially Hemp.
  • Report on Soldier's use of Cannabis

    Siler Commission report on soldier's use of Cannabis in Panama released. Indicates alcohol, not Cannabis causes problems. "Use of the drug (sic) is not widespread's effects on military efficiency and upon discipline are not great. There appears to be no reason for renewing the penalties formerly exacted."
  • Firearms Tax Act, legal precedent for Marijuana Tax Act.

    Firearms Tax Act, legal precedent for Marijuana Tax Act. Avoided constitutional clash over regulating personal possession of something the government claimed was bad. Hemp decorticator developed, reenabling industry to run.
  • Formulating plans for making Hemp illegal.

    Meetings between duPont and Treasury department. Formulating plans for making Hemp illegal.
  • Marijuana Tax Act passed by Congress

    Marijuana Tax Act passed by Congress, providing for required permits, rarely given out, to grow Hemp. "The World's Most Profitable and Desirable Crop" article in Mechanical Engineering magazine published reporting a resurgence of Hemp industry, alas too late. Nylon and sulfuric acid paper process both patented by duPont, after Marijuana Tax Act in place. Ford continues, in spite of law, to

    grow Hemp for fuel, plastics, etc.
  • "Billion Dollar Crop"

    "Billion Dollar Crop" article printed in "Popular Mechanics" magazine about the benefits of Hemp, published after Marijuana tax act of 1937. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic act passed. Shifted burden of proof of safety to manufacturer of a substance.
  • Marijuana Smokers as American Prison Labor

    Standard Oil of New Jersey and I.G. Farben of Germany opens the slave labor camp Auschwitz to develop artificial rubber and gasoline from coal. Hitler’s government supplied Jews and political dissidents for the laborers, who were worked to near death and then murdered. Perhaps the forerunner of the plan to imprison peaceful Marijuana smokers as American prison labor?
  • Ford Motor Company has a car built mainly of Hemp

    Popular Mechanics issue of December reports Ford Motor Company has a car built mainly of Hemp, wheat straw, and Sisal
    fibers. More durable than steel, lighter weight, and furthers Ford's belief that he can "grow automobiles from the soil."
  • Does not develop addiction or tolerance

    New York Mayor LaGuardia issues his report on Cannabis smoking. "Does not lead directly to mental or physical deterioration, does not develop addiction or tolerance...and is not a direct causal factor in sexual or criminal misconduct."
  • WWII Ends

    WWII Ends. Siebert given go ahead on using Nazis for counter intelli-gence, but "under his own authority."
  • Crack Down on Non-Prescription Barbituates

    Law enforcement crack down on non-prescription barbituates triggers 800% increase in use.
  • U.S. Narcotic Control Act provides death penalty for selling Heroin to minors.

    U.S. Narcotic Control Act provides death penalty for selling Heroin to minors.
  • F.D.A. halts legal production of L.S.D.

    Congress passes legislation increasing F.D.A.'s ability to limit drug sales. F.D.A. halts legal production of L.S.D. causes
    skyrocketing use by 1970.
  • Amphetamine enforcement intensifies.

    Amphetamine enforcement intensifies. Causes a "boom in Cocaine smuggling" by 1969.
  • Syntex begins biochemical research to develop urine tests for controlled substances.

    Syva division of Syntex begins biochemical research to develop urine tests for controlled substances.
  • Tenacity of "Dirty Hippies"

    Anti-war, anti-nuclear, pro-environment, pro-"Marijuana" groups, women, gays, and others now suffer the same treatment as communists and blacks. Author Frank Donner describes it by saying: "...The New Left COINTELPRO was an undisguised assault by the self-appointed defenders of the American way of life against an entire millieu..."The
    government, however, did not count on the dedication and tenacity of what they considered "dirty Hippies."
  • Electronic Evidence Must Be Noted

    New York City increases drug arrests by 9000. No impact on drug availability. The Supreme Court rules in the Alderman case that in a criminal proceeding, the court must be notified of evidence overheard through electronic monitoring. If the court rules the evidence was illegally obtained, the defendant has the right to review the evidence to determine if the illegally gathered evidence tainted the entire case. A refusal by the government to reveal the surveillance results in a dismissed case.
  • Nixon declares drugs "Public Enemy Number One"

    Nixon declares drugs "Public Enemy Number One"
  • President Nixon, refuses to accept the results of his own Cannabis studies.

    Shafer commission report issued. Finds no reason that Cannabis should remain criminal. Urges decriminalization, falls just short of calling for relegalization. Finds no physical, mental, or moral problems with the smoking. President Nixon, who commissioned report, refuses to accept findings. Nixon calls drugs "America's public enemy #1." Congress passes $1 Billion dollar anti-drug bill. Little effect noted.
  • "We have turned the corner on drug addiction in America."

    Nixon declares "We have turned the corner on drug addiction in America." Nelson Rockefeller's tough anti-drug bill passes in New York. Little effect noted. Nixon's staff, upset by the counter demonstrations at Nixon rallies, puts out the false news story that foreign and communist money financed anti-Nixon efforts. The CIA is still unable to provide any proof, as none existed.
  • No long term physical, mental, moral problems from Cannabis smoking.

    Rubin, Comitas study "Ganja in Jamaica" released. Finds no long term physical, mental, moral problems from Cannabis smoking. Budget for drug enforcement reaches $292 Million dollars. $462 Million earmarked for demand reduction and treatment. SISS publishes 400 page report claiming Marijuana traffic constitutes an unprecedented threat to nation's security by New Left groups trying to ruin this
    country's morals.
  • F.D.A. controls all "medical devices."

    F.D.A. powers expanded to control all "medical devices."
  • First Emit Cannabinoid test developed.

    Costa Rica studies released on Cannabis. No distinguishable harm found from use of Cannabis. First Emit Cannabinoid test developed. With aggressive marketting to industry, government, military, Emit is the fastest growing of the tests, though accuracy is next to nothing.
  • Drug control now costs $1.5 Billion dollars

    U.S. Military begins forced urine testing of military troops. Drug control now costs $1.5 Billion dollars.
  • Seal unloads a shipment of Cocaine in Nicaragua.

    Seal unloads a shipment of Cocaine in Nicaragua. He had picked up the load in Columbia and was ordered by the DEA to stop in Nicaragua.
  • Urine tests

    Milton, Wisconsin high school students forced to submit to weekly urine tests. Baseball commissioner Peter Uberroth orders all personel, except union players, submit to urine tests. By 1990, even ball players are forced to be tested. American industry, labor unions are encouraged by government to begin wholesale drug testing. Many comply.
  • Nearly half of all major American industry is now forcibly urine testing employees.

    Nearly half of all major American industry is now forcibly urine testing employees.
  • U.S. Senate adds $2.6 Billion to federal anti-drug efforts.

    U.S. Senate adds $2.6 Billion to federal anti-drug efforts. Little effect noted. Congress recreates the office "Drug Czar" and requires annual "National Drug Control Strategies" be presented, complete with short term and long term goals. The Marijuana Movement, now encompassing the industrial and medical benefits of the plant, reassembles in response to stepped-up prosecution.
  • Drug budget for this year is $9.7 Billion dollars

    Drug budget for this year is $9.7 Billion dollars...and rising every year.
  • NIDA reports drug testing more for surveilance than safety.

    NIDA reports drug testing more for surveilance than safety. Drug Budget: $10.9 Billion dollars.
  • Bill Clinton elected President

    Steps up "War on Drugs." Drug budget: $11.9 Billion dollars.
  • Dr. Joycelyn Elders, U.S. Surgeon General, calls for discussion on relegalizing drugs.

    Dr. Joycelyn Elders, U.S. Surgeon General, calls for discussion on relegalizing drugs. President Clinton quickly reins her in. Elders son is arrested and charged with possession of Cocaine. Drug budget for FY 1993: $12.1 Billion dollars.
  • Drug budget up to $12,184,400,000

    drugs," as unwinnable and too costly, proposes what he terms depenalization" of drugs. Supreme Court invalidates controlled substances

    excise taxes as being in violation of double jeopardy points in Constitution. Estimates are that Cannabis is America is a $24 billion dollar

    a year crop, while still illegal. Estimates of the nation's largest legal crop, corn, are $16 billion. Police departments across the country
    run ads, otherwise encourage citizens to turn in drug users, with a
  • Drug budget: $13.2 Billion dollars

    Drug budget: $13.2 Billion dollars.
  • Drug budget: $13.4 Billion dollars

    California passes Proposition 215 which permits Californians to possess and grow Marijuana under a doctor’s order. Arizona passes Proposition 200 which allows a doctor to prescribe a variety of currently illegal drugs. California Attorney General Dan Lungren tries every stalling tactic possible until the U.S. Justice Department can intervene and arrest people on Federal charges. Lungren runs for Governor, loses.
  • Federal Abuse

    Nearly 642 thousand arrests are made in 1996 for Marijuana. 545 thousand were for simple possession. The

    Clinton Administration is responsible for about 2.1 million Marijuana arrests. One person was arrested every 49

    seconds on a Marijuana charge.
  • Marijuana now rakes in $10 billion dollars annually

    Marijuana becomes the nation's fourth largest crop, in spite of being illegal. The industry by now rakes in $10 billion dollars annually. Nearly 700 hundred thousand arrests for Marijuana were reported in 1996. 87% of those were arrested on
    simple possession charges...the remaining 13% on sales or cultivation charges. Under the Clinton administration,
    nearly 2.8 million Marijuana arrests have been made. Yet another study showing very little risk of having an automobile
    accident after havi
  • Air Force forbids using Hemp seed oil products

    A U.S. Air Force directive in February forbids all personnel from using Hemp seed oil products, claiming that military drug tests can not distinguish between legal Hemp products and Mairjuana. It is revealed that California Against Marijuana Planting Employees testified to the environmental and human damage caused by the government's aerial eradication programs.
  • The annual budget for the War On Some Drugs request is the highest ever: $19 Billion.

    Congress is debating spending up to nine billion additional dollars to arm the nation of Columbia in the War On Some Drugs. Many fear a repeat of the Vietnam fiasco. As of February 15, two million people are behind bars in America. Of the two million, approximately 61% are jailed on drug charges. Of that group, approximately 82% are in on Marijuana charges. approximately 82% are in on Marijuana charges. Of that subset, 65% are for mere possession cases.