History of English Literature

  • 400

    ANCIENT OR CLASSICAL LITERATURE

    ANCIENT OR CLASSICAL LITERATURE
    Which enjoyed enormous prestige as part of the foundations of European civilisation, for example the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote "The Poetics" discussing the purpose and nature of tragic drama.
  • Period: 449 to 1066

    OLD ENGLISH LITERATURE OR ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD

  • 800

    "Beowulf"

    "Beowulf"
    (Unknown writer). Was an epic Germanic poem. Was a legendary hero who kills powerful and frightening creatures and becomes a king.
  • 800

    Anglo-Saxon chronicles

    Anglo-Saxon chronicles
    Alfred the great was the most important king of this Anglo-Saxon period. Was also a scholar and writer too. He supported the Anglo-Saxon chronicles describing the life, history and language of this time.
  • 1066

    MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    MEDIEVAL PERIOD
  • 1320

    Dante Alighieri

    Dante Alighieri
    Was an Italian poet, written "The Divine Comedy", work of transition in medieval to Renaissance thought, is one of the masterpieces of universal literature.
  • 1360

    William Langland

    William Langland
    Written "Pierce Plowman", Middle alliterative poem. The poem takes the form of a series of dream visions dealing with the social and spiritual predicament of England. The imagery is powerful and direct. Realistic and allegorical elements are mingled in a phantasmagoric way.
  • 1375

    The first encyclopedia

    The first encyclopedia
    This encyclopedia was written by a London clerk named James le Palmer, compiled and wrote out "Omne bonum", an encylopedia of universal knowledge, on 1100 folio leaves, with roughly 1,000,000 words. Le Palmer also commissioned over 800 illustrations from various manuscript illuminators. This was the earliest encyclopedia with its entries arranged in alphabetical order. Its illustrations, covering the widest range of subjects, are a major iconographical source for the time (Circa).
  • 1375

    Sir Gawain and the Green KnightLate.

    Sir Gawain and the Green KnightLate.
    was one of the most famous romances in medieval English literature. It tells of the adventures of Sir Gawain, a knight of King Arthur's Round Table.
  • Period: 1387 to 1400

    Canterbury tales

    Written by: Geoffrey Chaucer who is considered to be the father of English poetry because he wrote in English rather than in French or Latin. His Canterbury Tales records the imagined conversations of
    pilgrims as they journeyed from London to Canterbury
  • 1455

    Gutenberg Bible

    Gutenberg Bible
    Johann Gutenberg’s Bible is probably the most famous Bible in the world. It is the earliest full-scale work printed in Europe using moveable type.
    Gutenberg’s invention allowed the mass production of books for the first time and changed the world. Before Gutenberg, every book (outside of Asia where some printed books had been produced much earlier) had to be copied by hand
  • 1469

    Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round Table)

     Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round Table)
    This manuscript tells the famous legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, centring around their quest for the mystical Holy Grail. It was written by Thomas Malory, while he was imprisoned for a series of violent crimes.
  • 1500

    RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION

    RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION
    The Renaissance and reformation was a period of prosperity, successful, sea voyages, and cultural activities. The Reformation of the Church in England from Catholic to Protestant. In literature it started with a renewed interest in the classical Greek and Roman learning. The invention of the printing press and the weakening of the Catholic Church’s influence on the daily lives of the people, among other things, enabled Renaissance writers to express their beliefs in new ways.
  • 1510

    Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More

    Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More
    These two Renaissance humanist writers and two main leaders of the Protestant Reformation, both argued for open-mindedness, moderation and tolerance, as well as the enhancement of public welfare. Thomas More wrote "Utopia" (it word describes a perfect imaginary world). More's book imagines a complex, self-contained community set on an island, in which people share a common culture, on the other hand criticizes the bad effects of unregulated early capitalism on the social conditions.
  • 1524

    William Tyndale

    William Tyndale
    Was who translated the bible to English for the first time.
  • 1564

    William Shakespeare

    William Shakespeare
    He was an English dramatist, poet and actor. Shakespeare is considered the most important writer in the English language and one of the most celebrated in world literature.
  • Edmund Spenser

    Edmund Spenser
    Written "The Faerie Queene" an epic poem with a fantastic allegory that paid tribute to the house of Tudor and to Elizabeth I of England. He is recognized as one of the first architects of modern English verse and is considered one of the best poets in the English language.
  • Christopher Marlowe

    Christopher Marlowe
    Written Doctor Faustus, This play tells the story of the man who sells his soul to the devil in return for 24 years of power and knowledge. The play was extremely controversial at the time, as it explores the paths human beings can take when they allow the devil into their lives.
  • Hamlet

    Hamlet
    Was written by Shakespeare. Is a tragy about the Prince Hamlet and his revenge against his uncle, Claudius, who has murdered Hamlet's father in order to seize his throne and marry Hamlet's mother. This longest play is considered among the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others" in addition is a most important work written in English language.
  • Othello

    Othello
    Written by: Shakespeare. Is a tragedy of incomprehension, pure love, pride, jealusy, revenge and in the end, the protagonist as a true tragic hero, aware of it degradation killed his love.
  • King Lear.

    King Lear.
    Written by Shakespeare. The tragedy describe the consequences of the irresponsibility and errors of the trial of king Lear. The tragic end comes as a results of handing over power to his evil daughters in equals parts and no to Cordelia, who manifest a love capable of redeeming evil for good.
  • Ben Jonson

    Ben Jonson
    Was an English playwright, poet, actor and literary critic, who artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of homour. He is best know for "the Volphone or the fox". He is generally as the second most important English dramatist after William Shakespeare.
  • John Smith

    John Smith
    Published A Description of New England an account of his exploration of the region.
  • John Donne

    John Donne
    He is considered the most important and representative of the metaphysical English poets. His works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poems, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs, satires and sermons.

    John Donne, England's leading Metaphysical poet, becomes dean of St Paul's.
  • THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION AND RESTORATION

    THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION AND RESTORATION
    In 1640, a revolutionary struggle, The Civil War between the King's army and Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentary forces ,began. In 1660, the bourgeoisie decided to restore the monarchy and Charles II (the son of executed Charles I) returned from exile in France.
  • John Milton

    John Milton
    Is best known for "Paradise Lost", widely regarded as the greatest epic poem in English. Together with Paradise Regained, it formed his reputation as one of the greatest English writers. In his prose works he advocated the abolition of the Church of England. His influence extended through the English civil wars and also to the American and French revolutions.
  • Samuel Pepys

    Samuel Pepys
    Is probably the most famous diary in the English language. it offers a richly detailed account of some of the most turbulent events of the nation’s history, including the coronation of King Charles II, the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London.
  • Aphra Behn

    Aphra Behn
    The first English woman to make her living as a professional writer, was employed as a spy by Charles II before embarking on her career as a dramatist, poet and novelist. her most famous play "The Rover" features powerful female characters who argue wittily for their rights.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    English philosopher whose works lie at the foundation of modern philosophical empiricism and political liberalism. He was an inspirer of both the European Enlightenment and the Constitution of the United States. He is commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". He published his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, arguing that all knowledge is based on experience.
  • ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD

    ENLIGHTENMENT PERIOD
    This century is the time of the "Age of Reason",when all branches of science were developed and resulted in great technical progress.
  • The Spectator

    The Spectator
    was a periodical published daily by Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele, both politicians, which was one of the bestsellers of the 18th century. Its 500 issues sold up to 4000 copies a day, and carried news and comment, but especially comments on manners, morals and literature. The publication pretended to be the reports by a Mr Spectator on the conversations of a club comprising representatives of the country squirearchy, the town, commerce and the army.
  • Daniel Defoe

    Daniel Defoe
    Robinson Crusoe, with its detailed realism, can be seen as the first English autobiographical novel. it has a story that will be familiar to many: that of the sailor Crusoe, who finds himself shipwrecked on a remote island and must carve an existence for himself out of the few resources that are available to him.
  • Jonathan Swift

    Jonathan Swift
    uses his black humour and irony in his satirical pamphlets (The Battle of Books) . His most famous work is Gulliver's Travels a satire on British society. But particularly in A Modest Proposal, which attack on the British government's inability to solve the problem of poverty in Ireland is one of the literary canon's most famous examples of satire.
  • David Hume

    David Hume
    Publishes his Treatise of Human Nature, in which he applies to the human mind the principles of experimental science. Conceived of philosophy as the inductive, experimental science of human nature. Hume tried to describe how the mind works in acquiring what is called knowledge.
  • Period: to

    INDUSTRIALISM.

    Began in the middle xviii and the begining of xix century.Become more advanced, it required more technically educated workforce in any case.
  • Robert Blair

    Robert Blair
    "The grave" is a blank verse poem, it is a sarcastically poem about the life and is related were that he lived too for away. Is a reflection on human mortality in mortuary imagery. The grave no is a poem about self-pity, its sermonizing as a Shakespeare rhytms with a certain natural cheerfulness.
  • Henry Fielding

    Henry Fielding
    Masterpiece, Tom Jones ,is a novel about a rather controversial character of an adventurous sincere boy, who had no respect for the
    moral codes of society, but had a natural sense of justice.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    was one of the 18th century's most important political thinkers. His work focused on the relationship between human society and the individual, and contributed to the ideas that would lead eventually to the French Revolution. The most important work was "Social Contract", with its famous opening sentence 'Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains', stated instead that people could only experience true freedom if they lived in a civil society.
  • Edward Gibbon

    Edward Gibbon
    English rationalist, historian and scholar best known as the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Called the first modern historian of ancient Rome. it is a literature facts about the past become evidence in modern history writing. It provides historically facts significant and relevants in time to comes.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment, also known as ''The Father of Economics'' or ''The Father of Capitalism''. Smith wrote one classic work "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations".
  • Robert Burns

    Robert Burns
    Written "to a mouse" it is one of his most famous poems, the one that gave us. The poem contains some of the most memorable lines of poetry and yet its deeper meaning risks being lost, on the toher hand describes his feelings after disturbing a fieldmouse in its nest. His apology becomes a reflection on a life of struggle with little reward at the end.
  • Thomas Paine

    Thomas Paine
    most famous work, The Rights of Man, 2 years after the French Revolution. In it he defended the values of the Revolution - those of 'Liberté, Égalité, fraternité' (the French for 'liberty, equality, brotherhood'). Paine explored the idea that government based on true justice should support not only mankind's natural rights (life, liberty, free speech, freedom of conscience).
  • Mary Wollstonecraft

    Mary Wollstonecraft
    Was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. She published a passionately feminist work," A Vindication of the Rights of Woman", in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.
  • Thomas Paine

    Thomas Paine
    He completed and published "Age of Reason", an attack on conventional Christianity.
  • ROMANTIC PERIOD

    ROMANTIC PERIOD
    was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. Romantics were distrustful of the human world, and tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
  • William Blake

    William Blake
    was an artist, poet, mystic, visionary and radical thinker. Working at a time of great social and political change, his work explores the tensions between the human passions and the repressive nature of social and political conventions. He wrote "Songs of Innocence", a volume of his poems with every pages were illustrated by himself. It combines text and hand-coloured illustrations, on the nursery rhymes, chapbooks and popular ballads that Blake would have encountered during his childhood.
  • Hans Christian Andersen

    Hans Christian Andersen
    Was a prolific writer of plays, travelogues, novels, and poems, Andersen is best remembered for his fairy tales. Andersen's popularity is not limited to children: his stories express themes that transcend age and nationality. His most famous fairy tales include "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Little Mermaid", "The Nightingale", "The Snow Queen", "The Ugly Duckling", "The Little Match Girl" and "Thumbelina".
  • George Gordon, Lord Byron

    George Gordon, Lord Byron
    Was a British poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential. He represents the so−called "Revolutionary Romantics".His work is concerned with the freedom of the individual as well as nations (The Prisoners of Chillon).
  • William Wordsworth

    William Wordsworth
    Was a major English Romantic poet. Wordsworth's "magnum opus" is generally considered to be "The Prelude", a semi-autobiographical poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published by his wife in the year of his death, before which it was generally known as "the poem to Coleridge".
  • Walter Scott

    Walter Scott
    Wrote his poem "Lady of the Lake" brings tourists in unprecedented numbers to Scotland's Loch Katrine.
  • Jane Austen

    Jane Austen
    was an English novelist. Her works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century literary realism. Pride and Prejudice, is the second of Jane Austen's novels, is a romantic novel. It charts the emotional development of the protagonist Elizabeth Bennet, who learns the error of making hasty judgments and comes to appreciate the difference between the superficial and the essential.
  • Sir Walter Scott,

    Sir Walter Scott,
    Written Rob Roy is one of Sir Walter Scott’s most famous novels. Its title character is based on a real person: the folk hero Rob Roy McGregor, sometimes referred to as the Scottish ‘Robin Hood’, an outlaw and a rebel whose story embodied for Scott an ideal of courage, independence and romance.
  • Mary Shelley.

    Mary Shelley.
    Frankenstein conjures up ghoulish images of a green-skinned, square-headed monster. Yet the novel that gave rise to this enduring cultural image is much more complex, and much more striking, than this. Frankenstein,which is the most well−known of the Gothic novels with the horror genre that we are so familiar with in film sand on TV today.
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley

    Percy Bysshe Shelley
    Is often thought of as a rebel and revolutionary. It is appropriate, then, that ‘Ozymandias’ one of his most famous poems iis a warning about the arrogance of great leaders. The poem is thought to have been inspired by a gigantic statue of Rameses II.
  • John Keats

    John Keats
    This English poet published Ode to a Nightingale, inspired by the bird's song in his Hampstead garden. The poem is one of the most frequently anthologized in the English language. Ode to a Nightingale" is a personal poem which describes Keats's journey into the state of negative capability. The tone of the poem rejects the optimistic pursuit of pleasure found within Keats's earlier poems and, instead, explores the themes of nature, transience and mortality.
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley

    Percy Bysshe Shelley
    He wrote a lyrics poem "Hymn Of Apollo".
  • University College London.

    University College London.
    There, began teaching and included on its staff Britain´s first professor of English Language and Literature.
  • The vote

    The vote
    Middle-class men had been granted the vote by the "reform Act. But women and those who owned no property, the vast majority of the population, were still excluded.
  • VICTORIAN AGE.

    VICTORIAN AGE.
    In this period (QueenVictoria ruled from 1837 − 1901), novels in which writers described English society with all its characters became the most popular literary form.There were many talented women writers.
  • Charles John Huffam Dickens

    Charles John Huffam Dickens
    Wrote novels where heroes and villains were taken from the hustle and bustle of Victorian London. 24-year-old Charles Dickens begins monthly publication of his first work of fiction, "Pickwick Papers".
  • Robert Browning

    Robert Browning
    was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets.His poems are known for their irony, characterization, dark humour, social commentary, historical settings, and challenging vocabulary and syntax, the most recognized was Porphyria´s lover ( a dramatic monologue which is deals with tha abnormal psychology of the lover). In this poem the speaker is confessing to a murder.
  • Charles Dickens

    Charles Dickens
    Wrote his first novel, Oliver Twist. Charles Dickens often wrote about the poverty and hardship that he had seen in the Victorian London in which he lived. Not many people realize that before he became a famous writer. Oliver Twist tells the story of a poor orphan and highlights the cruel reality and injustice of life among the needy at the time.Oliver Twist to draw attention to many social ills that were rife in Victorian London.
  • The working-class campaign.

    The working-class campaign.
    Powerful movements cause panic among the property-owning classes for the vote it mean Freedom. One of those mean was "education".
  • Robert Browning

    Robert Browning
    Published a vivid narrative poem about the terrible revenge of "The Pied Piper of Hamelin".
  • Charles Dickens

    Charles Dickens
    A Christmas Carol: the miserly Ebenezer Scrooge is one of Charles Dickens’s most famous and enduring characters, and his story will be familiar to many, thanks to countless stage and screen adaptations. The story is unashamedly sentimental, but its depiction of the contrasts between rich and poor and between miserliness and generosity draw on very real concerns about the nature of human society, and were undoubtedly influenced by Dickens’s own early experiences of poverty
  • The sister Bronte.

    The sister Bronte.
    They are well known as poets and novelists. Like many contemporary female writers, they originally published their poems and novels under male pseudonyms: Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. Their stories immediately attracted attention for their passion and originality. The three Brontë sisters jointly publish a volume of their poems and sell just two copies.
  • Charlotte Brontë

    Charlotte Brontë
    Becomes the first of the Brontë sisters to have a novel published "Jane Eyre".
  • Emily Brontë

     Emily Brontë
    Emily Brontë's novel "Wuthering Heights" follows just two months after her sister Charlotte.
  • Friedrich Engels

    Friedrich Engels
    German socialist philosopher, the closest collaborator of Karl Marx in the foundation of modern communism. Friedrich Engels, after running a textile factory in Manchester, published "The Condition of the Working Class in England".
  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
    Wrote: "The Communist Manifesto". It formed the basis for the modern communist movement as we know it, arguing that capitalism would inevitably self-destruct, to be replaced by socialism and ultimately communism.
  • Charles Dickens

    Charles Dickens
    Wrote "David Copperfield", his own favourite among his novels. Referring to the dark times of his youth when his family moved to London. This novel is a description of his life until middle age, with his own adventures and the numerous friends and enemies he meets along his way. It is his journey of change and growth from infancy to maturity, as people enter and leave his life and he passes through the stages of his development.
  • Alfred Tennyson

    Alfred Tennyson
    Wrote "In Memoriam", is an elegy for a friend. He captures perfectly the Victorian mood of heightened sensibility. The poem is an account of all Tennyson's thoughts and emotions as he grieves over the death of a close friend. He views the cruelty of nature and mortality in light of materialist science and faith.
  • Alfred Tennyson

    Alfred Tennyson
    He published a long narrative poem," Maud", a section of which ('Come into the garden, Maud') becomes famous as a song. The poem was inspired by Charlotte Rosa Baring, younger daughter of William Baring.
  • Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin
    Wrote "On the Origin of Species", the result of 20 years' research. He argued that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection. He first put forward this theory in his book 'On the Origin of Species'.
  • John Stuart Mill

    John Stuart Mill
    Wrote "On Liberty" makes the classic liberal case for the priority of the freedom of the individual. He emphasizes the importance of individuality, which he conceived as a prerequisite to the higher pleasures the summum bonum of utilitarianism. Furthermore, he criticizes the errors of past attempts to defend individuality where, for example, democratic ideals resulted in the "tyranny of the majority".
  • Lewis Carroll.

    Lewis Carroll.
    Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is of the best loved children’s books of all time. This is the original manuscript of the book, titled Alice's Adventures Under Ground. The story tells of a young girl who falls down a rabbit hole into a hallucinogenic world populated by talking packs of cards, and animals who look at pocket watches, smoke pipes and have tea parties.
  • George Elliot (Mary Ann Evans).

    George Elliot (Mary Ann Evans).
    Was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of Victorian Age. She wrote seven novel as a Daniel Deronda, Adam Bede...
  • Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain,

    Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain,
    was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), the latter often called "The Great American Novel".
  • Robert Louis Stevenson

    Robert Louis Stevenson
    Wrote an adventure story, "Treasure Island", features Long John Silver and Ben Gunn.
  • Robert Louis Stevenson

    Robert Louis Stevenson
    he wrote about dual personality in his novel "The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde"
  • Arthur Conan Doyle

    Arthur Conan Doyle
    Wrote his first novel "A study in Scarlet" where the main character is Sherlock Holmes.
  • Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Wilde
    Was a poet and playwright. He is best remembered for his epigrams and plays, his novel "The Picture of Dorian Gray" in which the ever-youthful hero's portrait grows old and ugly.
  • REALISM LITERATURE

  • Oscar Wilde

    Oscar Wilde
    Wrote his comedy "Lady Windermere's Fan" is a great success with audiences in London's St. James Theatre.
  • MODERNIST LITERATURE

    This period is characterized by a very self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction. Modernists experimented with literary form and expression. This literary movement was driven by a conscious desire to overturn traditional modes of representation and express the new sensibilities of their time.
  • Ivor Armstrong Richards

    Ivor Armstrong Richards
    was an English educator, literary critic, and rhetorician whose work contributed to the foundations of the New Criticism, a formalist movement in literary theory, which emphasized the close reading of a literary text, especially poetry. The literary methodology of the New Criticism are presented in the books "The Meaning of Meaning": A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism (1923).
  • H.G. Wells

    H.G. Wells
    published "The Time Machine", a story about a Time Traveller whose first stop on his journey is the year 802701
  • Bram Stoker

    Bram Stoker
    This English author published "Dracula", his gothic tale of vampirism in Transylvania.
  • H.G. Wells

    H.G. Wells
    Published his science-fiction novel "The War of the Worlds", in which Martians arrive in a rocket to invade earth.
  • James Matthew Barrie

    James Matthew Barrie
    was a novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. He Peter Pan is a fictional character whit a free-spirited and mischievous young boy who can fly and never grows up. Peter Pan spends his never-ending childhood having adventures on the mythical island of Neverland.
  • Upton Sinclair

    Upton Sinclair
    was an American writer who wrote many works in several genres. Sinclair was well known and popular for his classic novel "The Jungle". Sinclair acquired particular fame because exposed labor and sanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry, causing a public uproar. Many of his novels can be read as historical works. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized America from both the working man's and the industrialist's points of view.
  • Virginia Woolf

    Virginia Woolf
    She was one of the most famous writers of the modernist era and wrote many best-selling books also a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device . Ones of her important and first novel was "The Voyage Out" the innovative narrative style, the focus on feminine consciousness, sexuality and death.
  • James Joyce

    James Joyce
    Is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for "Ulysses". Joyce perfected his stream-of-consciousness style and became a literary celebrity. The explicit content of his prose brought about landmark legal decisions on obscenity.
  • Women's suffrage

    Women's suffrage
    Women gain right to vote in parliamentary elections. The Act granted some women the right to vote in parliamentary elections for the first time, but not on an equal basis to men, who gained universal suffrage.
  • Agatha Christie

    Agatha Christie
    Was an English writer. She is known for her 66 detective novels and 14 short story collections, particularly those revolving around her fictional detectives the Belgian detective Hercule Poirot features in first book "The Mysterious Affair at Style".
  • Period: to

    Decades of changes.

    In twentieth centuries new technology appeared such as cinema (Mickey Mouse), radio and telephone also cultivated and made important change in people life. It represented an era of change and growth. Both were decades of learning, specially for some teachers: I.A Richards, F.Q Leavis and IA Richards taught the first English literature course at Cambridge and were the most influential, saw the rise of "mass civilisation" as a threat to what they called "culture".
  • John Galsworthy

    John Galsworthy
    was an English novelist and playwright. Notable works include a joint collection under the title The Forsyte Saga and its sequels. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932.
  • Thomas Stearns Eliot

    Thomas Stearns Eliot
    "one of the twentieth century's major poets" was also an essayist, publisher, playwright, and literary and social critic. published "The Waste Lan" an extremely influential poem in five fragmented sections, a central work of modernist poetry.
  • Lewis Sinclair

    Lewis Sinclair
    was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwrightecame the first writer from the United States to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, wrote ones of his best books "Babbitt", Where it lashes out against the middle class. The forcefulness with the writer denounces the hypocrisy of that society is brutal, but also in the sense of Lewis does not leave the title with the head and attacks against ways of thinking, conventions and attitudes.
  • Wallace Stevens

    Wallace Stevens
    Was an American modernist poet. Ones of his most important books was "Harmonium" is a book of poetry his collection, comprises 85 poems, ranging in length from just a few lines. "Literature as the imagination pressing back against the pressure of reality.".
  • Virginia Woolf

    Virginia Woolf
    Published her novel Mrs Dalloway, in which the action is limited to a single day.
  • Evelyn Waugh

    Evelyn Waugh
    Succeeds with a comic first novel, "Decline and Fall" is based, in part, on Waugh's schooldays at Lancing College, undergraduate years at Hertford College, Oxford, and his experience as a teacher at Arnold House in north Wales. It is a social satire that employs the author's characteristic black humour in lampooning various features of British society in the 1920s.
  • Agatha Christie

    Agatha Christie
    Miss Marple makes her first appearance, in "Murder at the Vicarage".
  • Virginia Woolf

    Virginia Woolf
    published the most fluid of her novels, "The Waves", in which she tells the story through six interior monologues.
  • Ernest Hemingway

    Ernest Hemingway
    Was an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer,Had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later generations, he wrote his most recognized story "The old man and the sea" and he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954.
  • Emily Dickinson

    Emily Dickinson
    was an American poet.is known posthumously for her innovative use of form and syntax. After her death , made a full compilation "The Poems of Emily Dickinson".
  • Alfred Hitchcock

    Alfred Hitchcock
    Made his masterpiece "Psycho" is a non-fiction book and with spectacular artist effects. Is widely regarded as one of the most influential films of the second half of the twentieth century.
  • English speaking.

    English speaking.
    Onward increased consciousness of English as the universal language, specially millions of people of all races all over the world, had the massive expansion of higher education in the English-speaking world.
  • Emerging culture

    Emerging culture
    CULTURE such as more permissive attitude toward sex a general relaxation of constraints on personal behaviour as well as literary and artistic expression. Norms and desire to challenge received opinions and conventional ideas.
  • Chloe Ardelia Wofford, o Toni Morrison

    Chloe Ardelia Wofford, o Toni Morrison
    Author and educator and the first African American woman to receive the Nobel Prize in literature. Morrison began to write fiction, she published her first novel, The Bluest Eye.
  • Iris Murdoch

    Iris Murdoch
    Was a British novelist and philosopher. Murdoch is best known for her novels about good and evil, sexual relationships, morality, and the power of the unconscious, published "The Sea, the Sea" is ones of her best works. She won the 1978 Booker Prize.
  • Julian Barnes

    Julian Barnes
    Published a multi-faceted literary novel, Flaubert's Parrot provides the reader with an initial hint as to its purposes. It opens with an epigraph, taken from one of Flaubert's letters: "When you write the biography of a friend, you must do it as if you were taking revenge for him."
  • Irvine Welsh

     Irvine Welsh
    Scottish author, published his first novel, Trainspotting about revolving around various residents who either use heroin, are friends of the core group of heroin users, or engage in destructive activities that are implicitly portrayed as addictions that serve the same function as heroin addiction.
  • Joanne Rowling

    Joanne Rowling
    British author, creator of the popular and critically acclaimed Harry Potter series, about a young sorcerer in training. Potter becoming the best-selling book series in history. The first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.