• 3500 BCE

    First Egyptian Dynasty

  • 2900 BCE

    Fourth Egyptian Dynasty

  • 2000 BCE

    The Call of Abraham, Father of the Jewish People

  • 2000 BCE

    Hammurabi Unifies Babylonia and writes his famous Laws

  • 1800 BCE

    The Israelites settle in Egypt

  • Period: 1800 BCE to 1580 BCE

    The Hyksos or Shepherd Kings rule in Egypt

  • Period: 1580 BCE to 1328 BCE

    The Tell el Ararna Period

    The eighteenth Dynasty rules in Egypt. Egypt is at the height of its power.
  • Period: 1460 BCE to 1420 BCE

    The Five Books of Moses are Composed

  • 1415 BCE

    The Exodus

    The Israelites leave Egypt under Moses, wander in the desert for forty years, and finally settle under Josue in the Promised Land.
  • Period: 1400 BCE to 1100 BCE

    Judges rule over Israel

  • 1200 BCE

    Trojan War

  • Period: 1100 BCE to 1011 BCE

    Samuel and Saul

  • Period: 1013 BCE to 973 BCE

    Reign of King David

  • Period: 1013 BCE to 973 BCE

    Compositions of the Psalms of David and the Book of Ruth

  • Period: 973 BCE to 933 BCE

    Reign of King Solomon

  • Period: 973 BCE to 933 BCE

    Composition of Proverbs and the Canticle of Canticles

  • Period: 973 BCE to 933 BCE

    The Reign of Hiram

    Hiram rules over the flourishing maritime kingdom of Tyre in Phoenicia.
  • 933 BCE

    The Kingdom of David is Divided

    The Kingdom of Israel in the North with Samaria as the capital, including ten tribes. The Kingdom of Juda in the South with Jerusalem as the capital, comprised of the tribes of Juda and Benjamin.
  • 931 BCE

    Invasion of Israel and Juda

    Sisac invades Juda and Israel.
  • Period: 800 BCE to 585 BCE

    Isias, Micheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, and Jerimias Prophesy in Juda

  • Period: 800 BCE to 585 BCE

    Writing of Job

  • Period: 780 BCE to 722 BCE

    Amos and Osee prophesy in Israel, Jonah to the Ninivites

  • Period: 780 BCE to 722 BCE

    Composition of the First and Second Books of Kings

  • 753 BCE

    Founding of Rome

    Romulus and Remus create Rome.
  • 750 BCE

    Phoenician Alphabet is Founded

    The Phoenician alphabet is founded, bringing the knowledge of writing back to the Greeks.
  • Period: 750 BCE to 600 BCE

    Greece Begins Colonizing

    Self-governing, Greek colonies spring up from the Mediterranean to Ursa Minor, to North Africa to the Black Sea.
  • 722 BCE

    The Assyrians Destroy Israel

    The Kingdom of Israel is destroyed by the Assyrans. Sargon II takes Samaria. The people are led away to Babylon and Ninive. The Book of Tobias narrates an episode of the captivity.
  • 701 BCE

    The Assyrians beseige Jerusalem

    Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, besieges Jerusalem in the reign of Ezechias
  • Period: 693 BCE to 639 BCE

    Manasses becomes King of Judah

    Manasses becomes King of Judah as a vassal of Senacherib of Assyria.
  • Period: 689 BCE to 668 BCE

    Assyria at its Pinnacle of Power

  • Period: 688 BCE to 663 BCE

    Revival of Egyptian Power

  • Period: 663 BCE to 609 BCE

    Psammeticus I, Pharaoh of Egypt

  • 645 BCE

    Psammeticus overthrows Assyria Rulers

  • 641 BCE

    Amon, king of Juda

  • 639 BCE

    Josiah becomes King of Judah

  • 630 BCE

    Lycurgus Gives Laws to Sparta

  • 626 BCE

    Scythian hordes overrun western Asia

  • 626 BCE

    Jeremiah and Sophonias begin their Ministry

  • 621 BCE

    Discovery of the Book of Law in the Temple of Jerusalem

  • 621 BCE

    Josias begins his Reform

  • 621 BCE

    The Fall of Nineveh

    With the fall of Nineveh, the Median kingdom succeeded to all the old Assyrian providences in Iran. This includes the providences in which the Israelite captives from the northern kingdom had settled.
  • 612 BCE

    Nineveh Falls to the Medes and Babylonians

    In the resulting spoils, Assyria falls to the Medes; Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine to the Babylonians
  • 612 BCE

    Ninive Destroyed by the Medes and Chaldeans

  • 609 BCE

    Josias is Slain

    Josias is slain after intercepting Nechao as he advanced through Palestine.
  • Period: 609 BCE to 594 BCE

    Nechao, king of Egypt

  • 608 BCE

    Joachaz and Joachim ascend the Throne

    Joachaz is crowned king of Juda by the people and reigns for three months. Nechao deposes Joachaz and instead raises Joachim as a vassal of Egypt.
  • Period: 608 BCE to 598 BCE

    Joachim, king of Juda

  • Period: 606 BCE to 562 BCE

    Reign of Nabuchodonosor II, king of Babylon

  • 605 BCE

    Nechao advances against Babylon

    Nebuchadnezzar defeats him at Characamis on the Euphrates. Syria falls into the hands of the Babylonians.
  • 605 BCE

    First Babylonian Deportation

    Nebuchadnezzar besiges Jerusalem and carries off many captives, among them is Daniel, to Babylon. Joachim transfers his allegiance from Egypt to Babylon.
  • 605 BCE

    Babylon besieges Jerusalem

    King Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, besieges Jerusalem during the third year of the reign of Judean King Jehoiakim. Babylon wins, and Jehoiakim submitted to Babylon's rule. Evidence suggests that Babylon then marched on Jerusalem.
  • 604 BCE

    Nebuchadnezzar's Dream

    Nebuchadnezzar dream about a statue symbolizing the four kingdoms which will follow Babylon. Then how God's kingdom will triumph over all of them. No one other than Daniel is able to interpret it.
  • 600 BCE

    Joachim Revolts against Babylon

  • 598 BCE

    Joachin becomes King of Judah

  • 598 BCE

    Second Babylonian Deportation

    Nebuchadnezzar besiges Jerusalem, and the king along with about ten thousand citizens are deported to Babylon
  • Period: 597 BCE to 538 BCE

    Esechiel and Daniel prophesy during the captivity of the Jews in Babylon

  • Period: 593 BCE to 571 BCE

    Ezekiel's Prophetical Office

  • 589 BCE

    Sedecias revolts from Babylon

  • 588 BCE

    Nebuchadnezzar Sieges Jerusalem

  • 588 BCE

    King Vishaspa of Bactria is Converted

    Zarathustra, the prophet of the Persians, the first great religious founder-leader know to history outside of Israel, converts King Vishtaspa of Bactria to his new faith, Zoroastrianism.
  • 587 BCE

    Jerusalem Falls

  • 587 BCE

    Third Babylonian Deportation from Jerusalem

    Jerusalem is burnt and the Temple destroyed. Large numbers of people are carried off to Babylon.
  • 587 BCE

    End of the Kingdom of Juda

    Jerusalem is captured by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. All but the poorest people are deported to Babylon.
  • 586 BCE

    Sacking of Jerusalem

  • Period: 561 BCE to 538 BCE

    Third and Fourth Books of Kings Written

  • 552 BCE

    Daniel's Dreams

    Daniel has four visions about, going off the same theme as Nebuchadnezzar's dream.
  • 550 BCE

    Cyrus Revolts against Astyages

    Cyrus of Persia revolts against the Median king Astyagesn, and assumes power over all of his kingdom.
  • 550 BCE

    Vision of a Ram and a Goat

    Daniel has a vision about a ram and a goat. The ram symbolizes the Medo-Persian union, and the goat symbolizes Alexander the Great. This vision predicts the Greek conquest of Medo-Persia, and the events which happened after Alexander the Great's lifetime.
  • 547 BCE

    The Lydian Invasion

    Lydia attacks the Achaemenid Empire's city of Pteria in Cappadocia. Persia levels an army against them, and overthrows the Lyduan capital, Sardis.
  • 539 BCE

    Fall of Babylon

    Cyrus of Persia (or Darius the Mede, Gubaru -- governor of Babylon -- or Ugbary, the orchestrator of Persian Conquest) invades the city of Babylon after strategically diverting the river. King Belshazzar gives a feast, drinking from vessels stolen from Jerusalem, and a mysterious hand writes on the wall. Daniel interprets the writing, which says that Belshazzar's kingdom (Babylon) to Medes. That night Belshazzar is killed and the kingdom taken.
  • 537 BCE

    The Jews Return to Jerusalem

    Cyprus of Persia allows the Jews to return back to their homeland. More than 42,360 Jews returned to the Promised Land, carrying with them the spoils of war taken from the temple at the fall.
  • 537 BCE

    Daniel's Final Vision

    Daniel meets the angel Gabriel, who tells him about the next four kings of Persia, and how the last will make war on Greece. The angel talks about wars and marriages and treaties -- up to the rule of Antiochus. Gabriel then tells Daniel to write this down and hide it away.
  • 536 BCE

    Work on the Second Temple Comes to a Halt

  • 530 BCE

    Cyprus of Persia Dies

  • 521 BCE

    Darius Reunites Persia

  • 520 BCE

    Haggai's Sermon

    The prophet Haggai delivers a sermon at the ruins of Solon's Temple, spurring the people back into construction.
  • 515 BCE

    Temple is Rededicated

  • 513 BCE

    Persian Expedition against the Greeks

    King Darius leads a major expedition to secure the Straits -- the Hellespont and the Bosporus -- which established Persian rule in eastern Thrace and along to the Black Sea coast.
  • 509 BCE

    Expulsion of Tarquin Kings

  • 508 BCE

    Reform of Cleisthenes

  • 500 BCE

    Abdias Fortells the overthrow of Edom

  • 500 BCE

    Ionians Revolt against King Darius

    With support from Athens and Sparta, the Ionians in the coast of Asia Minor revolt against King Darius
  • 494 BCE

    End of Ionian Revolt

  • Period: 492 BCE to 449 BCE

    Greco-Persian Wars

    A series of wars between Greece and Persia, fought over the course of almost half a century. Fighting was the most intense during the two Persian invasions
  • 490 BCE

    Darius is Defeated at the Battle of Marathon

  • 490 BCE

    Persian Attempt to Defeat Athens

    Battle of Marathon
    Persia, wanting to punish Athens for aiding the Ionians, attacks Athens. Their leader, Mardinios, tried to storm the city, but the Athens with a charge, managed to defeat him. This made Mardinios want to defeat Athens with a larger expedition.
  • 486 BCE

    Death of Darius

    Darius is succeeded by his son Xerxes.
  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Salamis

    The Greeks, under the leadership of Themistocles, snatched victory from the Persians in a naval battle.
  • 479 BCE

    Battle of Thermopylae

    Xerxes is defeated at Salamis and Plataea
  • Period: 470 BCE to 460 BCE

    Malachias Prophesies in Jerusalem

  • 465 BCE

    King Artaxerxes is Assassinated

  • 445 BCE

    Arrival of Nehemiah

  • 438 BCE

    Completion of the Parthenon

    The Parthenon is completed under Pericles's leadership
  • 433 BCE

    Nehemiah Returns to Persia

  • Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE

    The Poleponnesian War

    A war fought between Sparta and Athens that shifted power from Athens to Sparta
  • Period: 430 BCE to 300 BCE

    Joel Prophesies

  • Period: 430 BCE to 300 BCE

    Composition of the books of Esdras and Nehemias, of Paralipomenon, Judith, and Esther

  • 428 BCE

    The City of Mytilene Escapes Death

    After commanding the city on Lesbos to death, the Athenian government revoked their order, and a messenger ship caught them just as the army pulled into the harbor.
  • 406 BCE

    Last Athenian Naval Victory

    The Athenian navy wins a victory at the Battle of the Arginusae Islands, which would be their last.
  • 404 BCE

    Peloponnesian War is Finished

    Sparta defeats Athens
  • 404 BCE

    The End of the Peloponnesian War

    Sparta wins an unconditional surrender from Athens.
  • 401 BCE

    Xenophon's Anabasis -- "March of the Ten Thousand"

    Cyrus the Younger organizes a revolt against his older brother Artaxerxes II. They won the battle of Cunaxa in Babylonia, but Cyrus died, leaving the Greeks stranded. Xenophon was put in charge. They marched 2,500 miles, and returned home virtually unscathed.
  • 399 BCE

    Execution of Socrates

  • 399 BCE

    Execution of Socrates

  • 390 BCE

    Gauls sack Rome

  • 359 BCE

    King Phillip of Macedon comes into Power

  • 358 BCE

    Artaxerxes III comes into power

  • 356 BCE

    Alexander the Great is Born

  • 342 BCE

    Alexander conquers Persia

  • 336 BCE

    Alexander becomes King of Macedonia

  • 334 BCE

    Alexander's First Battle with the Persians

    Alexander marches across to Asia, visits Troy, and met the Persians head on at the river Granicus.
  • Period: 332 BCE to 198 BCE

    The Septuagint is Translated

  • 331 BCE

    Alexander takes Babylon at the Battle of Gaugamela

  • 327 BCE

    Alexander the Great attempts to Invade India

    Alexander attempts to invade India, but is stopped by the unexpected use of elephants as war steeds.
  • 324 BCE

    Susa Weddings

    Alexander the Great and other Macedonian officers take on Persian wives as a way of integrating culture throughout the empire.
  • 323 BCE

    Alexander the Great Dies

  • 300 BCE

    Euclid's Elements is Written

  • 280 BCE

    King Phyrrus of Epirus fights against early Rome

    King Phyrrus of Epirus and his army of 2,500 men and 20 elephants attempts to invade a legion of barbarians bearing the Roman eagles. After the battle comes to a draw, Phyrus marches on Rome
  • 280 BCE

    Achaean League is Established

  • 279 BCE

    Gauls Invade Greece

    Prompted by Alexander the Great's death, the Celts took the initiative to invade Greece
  • Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    The First Punic War

    The first of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage, culminating in Rome's victory.
  • Period: 229 BCE to 228 BCE

    First Illyrian War

  • Period: 219 BCE to 217 BCE

    Fourth Syrian War

  • Period: 218 BCE to 201 BCE

    The Second Punic War

  • 214 BCE

    The Romans Attempt to Seize Syracuse

    The Romans, hoping to regain their territory lost in the first Punic War and disperse anti-Roman tensions, attempt to storm Syracuse by water and land. They failed both times, due to the genius inventions of Archimedes, and instead, decided to lay a siege lasting until 212 BCE.
  • Period: 214 BCE to 205 BCE

    The First Macedonian War

    The first of four conflicts between the Roman Republic and Macedonia. These conflicts helped with Roman domination of the eastern Mediterranean area.
  • Period: 213 BCE to 212 BCE

    Siege of Syracuse

    After a defeat by the citizens of Syracuse, the Romans decide to lay siege to the city. This goes on for a year, before the Romans storm the gate during a festival to Artemis -- slaying Archimedes in the process.
  • 212 BCE

    The Battle of Terentum

    After an outrageous execution of their citizens, a small group of Tarentines form an anti-Roman conspiracy. With Hannibal's help, they infiltrate the city while everybody was stone-cold drunk, ridding it of Romans.
  • 211 BCE

    The Siege of Capua

    The city of Capua defects to the Carthaginians, so Rome lays siege to get it back. Hannibal, eager to reclaim his winter camp, heads to Rome as a tactical feint; his plans are foiled, as the Romans see through this feint and continue the siege on Capua. Eventually, the city falls and the Romans once again are their rulers.
  • 209 BCE

    Scipio takes New Carthage

    Put in charge of the Roman army in Spain, young Scipio crosses the Erbro to arrive at New Carthage, which he promptly takes.
  • 206 BCE

    Romans arrive in Spain

    The Romans conquer the Iberian Peninsula from the south. They fought the Iberians and defeated them at Alcalá del Rio.
  • 202 BCE

    Scipio defeats Hannibal

  • Period: 200 BCE to 196 BCE

    The Second Macedonian War

    Incited by the Roman Senate against Philip after he refused to guarantee no hostile moves against the state. Phillip's forces were beaten by the Romans and their Greek allies in Cynoscephalae. The peace terms included most of their navy, tribute, and loss of territory.
  • 198 BCE

    Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, defeats Ptolemy Epiphanes of Egypt and Obtains Palestine

  • 197 BCE

    Spain Divides into Two Provinces

    After conquering Spain, the Romans divide their territory into two parts: Hispania Citerior (Nearer Hispania) and Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania).
  • 180 BCE

    Ecclesiasticus written by Sirach

  • Period: 175 BCE to 164 BCE

    Reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria

  • Period: 171 BCE to 168 BCE

    The Third Macedonian War

    Philip's son, Perseus, began making alliances with various Greek city-states. Rome declared war, which ended when the Roman army defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna. Macedonian was broken up into four republics required to pay annual tribute to Rome.
  • 168 BCE

    Antiochus Epiphanes attempts to suppress the religion of the Jews

  • 167 BCE

    Rise of the Machabees

  • Period: 166 BCE to 135 BCE

    The Machabees Mathathiasm Judas, Jonathan, and Simon rule over the Jews

  • 160 BCE

    Antiochus defeats Egypt

  • Period: 149 BCE to 148 BCE

    The Fourth Macedonian War

    A pretended son of Perseus, Andriscus, tries to reestablish the Macedonian monarchy. The rebellion was qyashed, and Macedonia was made into the first province of the Roman Empire
  • Period: 135 BCE to 105 BCE

    John Hyrcanus, son of Simon, elected High Priest

  • Period: 134 BCE to 133 BCE

    Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus

  • 133 BCE

    Tiberius Gracchus is killed in Senate

  • 130 BCE

    Ecclesiasticus translated into Greek

  • Period: 124 BCE to 121 BCE

    Tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

  • 120 BCE

    Composition of the Second Book of Machabees

  • 120 BCE

    Composition of the Book of Wisdom (Greek)

  • 100 BCE

    Composition of the First Book of Macabees

  • Period: 96 BCE to 87 BCE

    Jewish Civil War

  • Period: 91 BCE to 88 BCE

    Social War

    Rome vs Italy
  • Period: 85 BCE to 82 BCE

    Sullan Civil War

  • Period: 81 BCE to 79 BCE

    Dictatorship of Sulla

  • Period: 74 BCE to 70 BCE

    First Mithridatic War

  • Period: 74 BCE to 70 BCE

    Third Mathridatic War

  • Period: 69 BCE to 66 BCE

    Fourth Mithridatic War

  • Period: 66 BCE to 63 BCE

    Pompey's Conquest of the East

  • 63 BCE

    Jerusalem is captured by Pompey

    Palestine becomes a part of the Roman province of Syria.
  • 63 BCE

    Consulship of Cero

  • 60 BCE

    Pompey captures Jerusalem

  • 60 BCE

    First Trimuvate

  • Period: 59 BCE to 51 BCE

    Caesar's Gallic Wars

  • 55 BCE

    Caesar Lands in Britain

  • Period: 50 BCE to 48 BCE

    Roman Civil War

  • Period: 47 BCE to 44 BCE

    Dictatorship of Caesar

  • 44 BCE

    Julius Caesar Becomes Dictator of Rome

  • 44 BCE

    Julius Caesar Is Assassinated

    Fearing his rise of power, some senators hatch a plot to murder Caesar inside the Senate.
  • Period: 44 BCE to 31 BCE

    Antony and Octavian

  • 43 BCE

    Octavian becomes Consul

    After the original consuls passed away, Octavian and his uncle Pedius marched to Rome to demand the consulship. The senate conceded and he became consul.
  • 43 BCE

    The Second Triumvirate

    Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus meet at Bononia and form the second triumvirate. There, they conspired to put to death three hundred senators and two hundred of the commercial class. Their wealth would transfer to the triumvirate.
  • 42 BCE

    The Battle of Philippi

    Octavian and Antony triumph over Cassius and Brutus, who committed suicide by the end of the battle.
  • 40 BCE

    The Pact of Brundisium

    After a series of events, which ended up pitting the two members of the Triumvirate against each other, Mark Antony and Octavian make peace. The alliance was sealed by Octavian's sister -- Octavia -- to Mark Antony
  • 40 BCE

    Herod becomes King of Judea

    The Parthians invade Palastine, and Herod fled to Rome. There, the Senate nominated him client king of Judea and outfitted him with an army.
  • 39 BCE

    First campaign against the Parthians

  • 38 BCE

    Second Campaign against the Parthians

  • 34 BCE

    Antony and Cleopatra Declare War on Octavian

  • 31 BCE

    Octavius Defeats Antony and Cleopatra at Actium

  • 27 BCE

    Augustus Caesar Becomes First Citizen

    Augustus Caesar (formerly Octavius) becomes first citizen.
  • Period: 19 BCE to 10

    The Construction of the Temple in Jerusalem

  • 7 BCE

    Zarchary's Vision in the Temple

  • 14

    Caesar Augustus Dies

    His stepson, Tiberius, is appointed his sucessor
  • 15

    St. Joseph Dies

    By tradition, this is the year which St. Joseph dies. Jesus would've been twenty. Jesus now took charge of Joseph's carpentry shop for about a decade.
  • 27

    Jesus Begins his Ministry

  • 29

    Crucifixion of our Lord

  • 43

    Roman Occupation of Britain Under Emperor Claudius

    This was the beginning of the Roman rule of Britain.
  • Period: 63 to 67

    St. Paul Possibly Visits Spain

    It's thought St. Paul visited Spain around this time, as his letter to the Romans says
  • 64

    Nero Persecutes the Christains

    To place the blame of the Great Fire of Rome away from him, Nero accuses the Christains of setting the fire. He ordered the arrest of certain Christains and tortured them, while implicating many others.
  • 70

    The Burning of Jerusalem

    During the first Roman-Jewish war, Nero lays seige to the city of Jerusalem. Upon breaching, he set fire to both the temple and the city
  • 122

    Hadrian's Wall is Built

    The Roman army builds Hadrian's wall during Emperor Hadrian's visit to Britain.
  • 123

    Hadrian's Wall is Completed in Britain

  • 144

    Establishment of the Gnostic Church

    Marcion of Sinope decides to found his own church, the first to break off in history. He founds Gnosticism
  • 177

    The Marytrs of Lyons

    At the peak of the Christain Persecution, many in Leon were tortured to death.
  • 192

    Emperor Commodus Dies

    The megolomaniac emperor is strangled to death in his bath, Three months later, his sucessor Pertinax was assasinated by his Prateorian Guard.
  • Period: 250 to 250

    Decius's Persecution of the Christains

    For the first time since Nero's and Domintian's persecutions of the Christians, an official edict was ordered to rid the Roman Empire of Christians. By March, the pope and many other bishops had been martyred. In the fall, however, Decius went to the Balkans, and the persecution ended. He died soon after
  • 258

    St. Lawrence's Martyrdom

    The Pope and his deacons, including Deacon Lawrence, were found in the catacombs. This was punishable by death. Lawrence was kept alive, in order to access the supposed Christian wealth, but when he revealed the treasure to be the poor and needy, he was condemned to death.
  • Period: 284 to 305

    Diocletian Divides Spain into Five Provinces

  • 313

    Constantine Issues Edict of Milan

  • 376

    The Visigoths settle in the Roman Empire

    The Visigoths settle in the Roman Empire as federati or allies. However, the officials of Roman Emperor Valens took advantage of them. The Visigoths rose up, routed the Imperial Army, and killed Valens. Emperor Theodosius then routed them, and the Visigoths returned to Thrace.
  • 378

    First Conflict between the Ostrogoths and Romans

    After being pushed westward by the Huns, the Ostrogoths and Visigoths entered the Roman Empire. The Ostrogoths had their first fight with the Romans, defeating them
  • 395

    Roman Empire is Divided

  • 396

    Visigoths Attack

    After Emperor Theodosius died, the Visgoths led by Alaric sacked Athens and then Rome. They then settled in Toulouse, France
  • 409

    The Suevi, Alans, and Vandals enter Spain

  • Period: 410 to 436

    Roman withdrawal from Britain

  • Period: 415 to 711

    The Visgoths rule Spain

  • 416

    Visigoths become allies with Rome; Beginning of Campaigns against Other Barbarian Tribes

  • 418

    Visigoths Settle in Gaul

    After the Visigoths fight the other barbarian tribes, earning the favor of Rome, they are allowed to settle in Gaul.
  • 429

    Vandals Conquer the Straights of Gibraltar

  • 430

    Augustine, bishop of Hippo, dies

  • 432

    St. Patrick Returns to Ireland

  • 456

    Visigoths return to Spain

    The Visigoths return to Spain under Roman authority to destroy the Suevi
  • 476

    End of Roman Empire in the West

  • 500

    The Kingdom of Toulouse reaches Full Power

  • 507

    Kingdom of Toulouse Falls

  • 534

    Byzantine Reconquest of the Straights of Gibraltar

  • Period: 568 to 586

    The Reign of King Leoviglid

  • Period: 570 to 572

    Conquest of Málaga, Medina, Sidonia, and Córdoba

    King Leovigild conquers Málaga, Medina, Sidonia, and Córdoba in order to unite Spain under his rule.
  • Period: 574 to 585

    Conquest of the Suevi

  • 581

    Visigoth Conquest of Basques

  • 594

    St. Augustine Sails to Britain

    St. Augustine begins his mission to unite the British Christianity and the body of the Church. He ultimately fails after a failure to compromise.
  • 624

    Swintila Becomes King of all of Spain

  • 625

    St. Paulinus comes to North Eastern England

    After King Edwin marries into the Kent royal family and agrees to be baptized, St. Paulinus begins missionary work in North Eastern England.
  • 632

    Muhammad Proclaims the Gospel

  • Oct 18, 632

    The Battle of Hatfield Chase

    The Mercians kill King Edwin, leading to the temporary collapse of Northumbria.
  • 664

    Synod of Whitby

    King Oswiu of Northumbria rules that his kingdom observe the customs of Rome rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona.
  • 668

    Theodore of Tarsus and Hadian of Carthage arrive at Canterbury

    In a second attempt to conform British Christianity, the Church sends Theodore of Tarsus and Hadian of Carthage to Canterbury. They manage to expand the Church in England.
  • Period: 672 to 680

    Reign of Wamba

  • Period: 711 to 1031

    Muslim Power in Spain

  • Period: 711 to 718

    The Umayyad Conquest of Hispania

    The initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania. The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the Umayyad Wilayah of Al-Andalus.
  • Apr 27, 711

    Tariq ibn Ziyad begins his expedition in Spain

  • Jul 19, 711

    The Battle of Guadalette

    The Battle of Guadalete was the first major battle of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Many members of the Visigothic nobility, opening the way for the capture of the Visigothic capital of Toledo.
  • 713

    The Muslims gain More Power

    Adb al-Aziz concludes an agreement with the Visigothic lord, Theodormir or Murcia, that allows him to have a bit of power within the district of Tudmir.
  • Jun 30, 713

    Surrender of the Visigoth Nobility

    Musa, governor of North Africa, seizes Mérida, where the Visigoth nobility had held out throughout the winter of 712
  • 722

    Founding of the Kingdom of Asturias

    The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian political entity after the Umyyad Conquest of Hispannia
  • Oct 10, 732

    The Battle of Tours

    Charles Martel and the Franks face off against the Umayyad Caliphate. This battle stops the Umayyad Caliphate from advancing any farther into the Pyrenees. This is the turning point for Christianity, as the Muslim faith would have continued into the rest of Europe.
  • 751

    Muslim Rule comes to an End in Northeastern Spain

  • 784

    Offa's Dyke is Completed

    Believed to be built by King Offa of the Mercians, the dyke was a probable display of power. It offers a view from Mercia into Wales.
  • 787

    Battle of Roncevaux

    Charlemagne decides to secure his hold on the Basque territory. He conquers the city of Pamplona and tore down its walls -- some sources suggesting that he razed it to the ground, along with other towns around it. There were accounts of the Franks' harsh treatment of the Basques during their occupation. As the Franks retreated across the Pyrenees back to Francia, the rearguard of Frankish lords was cut off and was wiped out.
  • 793

    Vikings attack Lindisfarne

    Denmark Vikings attack Lindisfarne, marking the beginning of the Viking Age in Britain.
  • Period: 793 to 1066

    The Viking Age in Brittain

  • 800

    King Charlemagne Crowned Roman Emperor

  • 825

    Wessex defeats Mercia

  • Period: 835 to 865

    South England Beseiged by Raids

  • Period: 850 to 859

    The Martyrdom of the Christians of Córdoba

    Forty-eight Christians were decapitated for announcing their apostasy publicly and blaspheming against the prophet Muhammad.
  • 865

    Ivan "the Boneless" Invades East Anglia

    Ivan the Boneless invades East Anglia and by 866 takes Northumbria.
  • 868

    Ivar the Boneless and the Nottingham Treaty

    Ivar negotiates the Treaty of Nottingham, which he soon breaks and kills King Edmund of East Anglia whose martyrdom earned him the title of Sain
  • 871

    Alfred the Great becomes King

  • 872

    Ivar the Boneless Dies

  • 878

    Battle of Edington

    Alfred defeats the Danes
  • 899

    Alfred the Great Dies

  • 917

    Edward becomes King of England South of the Humbar

  • Jan 16, 929

    Abd Al-Rahman III becomes the first Caliph in Córdoba.

  • Oct 15, 961

    Abd Al-Rahman III Dies

  • 976

    Caliphate succession in Córdoba Ends

  • 1013

    Sewyn, King of Denmark is Proclaimed King of England

  • 1027

    William the Bastard is Born

  • 1035

    Canute, King of England and Denmark Dies

  • 1035

    Division of the States of Castle

  • Apr 3, 1043

    Edward the Confessor Crowned King

  • Jan 5, 1065

    King Edward the Confessor Dies

  • 1066

    Harold Goodwinson is crowned King of England

  • 1066

    The Battle of Hastings

    A battle between the Norman-French under the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman Conquest of England
  • 1066

    Battle of Stamford Bridge

  • Dec 25, 1066

    William the Bastard becomes King

  • 1076

    Aragon and Navarre Union Dissolved

  • May 6, 1085

    Toledo falls to Leon and Castile

  • Sep 9, 1087

    William the Bastard Dies

  • Period: 1114 to 1115

    Ramon Berenguer and the Republic of Pisa attack Majorca and Ibiza

    The Count of Barcelona and the Republic of Pisa attack the Muslim islands of Majorca and Ibiza. Many Christian slaves were freed. Though the success was temporary, it stimulated trade.
  • Period: 1118 to 1118

    Crusade against Muslims in Zaragoza

  • 1147

    Almohads Destroy the Amoravid Emoire

  • Period: 1147 to 1150

    The Second Crusade

  • 1162

    Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

  • 1164

    Thomas Becket Exiled

  • 1170

    Thomas Becket returns to England

  • Dec 29, 1170

    Thomas Becket Killed

  • 1189

    Richard I Ascends the Throne

  • Jul 6, 1189

    King Henry II Dies

  • 1203

    John captures Arthur, Duke of Brittany

    In a botched attempt to capture Queen Eleanor, Arthur is captured by King John and is never heard from again. Most evidence points to John later killing him.
  • 1204

    France takes Normandy

    After coming to terms with the provinces he had raided, King Philip of France journeyed down to Normandy. There, he laid battle to the surrounding areas and took Normandy.
  • 1205

    Stephen Langton is Elected Archbishopric

    Setting aside the clergy and crown candidates for the position of Primate of England, Pope Innocent III elected Stephen Langton, a respected doctor and cardinal. This caused King John to begin a bloodless war against the Church, persecuting clergy and seizing Church lands.
  • 1209

    King John is Excommunicated

    As a result of his conflict with the Church, Pope Innocent III excommunicates John.
  • Jul 16, 1212

    Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa a.k.a the Battle of Al-ʿIqāb

    An important turning point in the Reconquista and the medieval history of Spain. The battle results quickened the Almohad decline both in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Maghreb.
  • 1213

    King John Repairs Relations with the Church

    Unable to continue fighting against the Church, King John submits and repents. In turn, the Church forgives him and declares him an ally.
  • Jun 15, 1215

    The Magna Carta

    Dissatisfied with the situation regarding King John and the power he held, the barons confronted King John. This led to the establishment of the Magna Carta.
  • Oct 28, 1216

    King Henry III Becomes King

    After King John perished, King Henry III, a boy of nine years old, became king. William the Marshall became the regent of the king.
  • 1218

    France leaves England

    After fighting Hubert de Burgh for a year, King Louis of France was forced to leave the country.
  • 1229

    Conquest of Majorca

  • 1236

    Reconquest of Cordoba

  • 1238

    Conquest of Valencia

  • 1248

    Conquest of Seville

  • 1259

    The Treaty of Paris

    A treaty between Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, which ended 100 years of conflicts between the Capetian and Plantagenet dynasties.
  • 1284

    The Statute of Wales

  • 1330

    King Edward III of France becomes King of England

  • Period: 1337 to 1453

    The Hundred Year War

  • Oct 30, 1340

    The Battle of Salado

  • 1343

    Houses of Parliament Separated Into Lords and Commons

  • Period: 1346 to 1353

    The Black Death Sweeps Europe

  • 1381

    The Peasants Revolt

    With the worker shortage as a result of the Black Death, the English peasants revolt for better working conditions.
  • 1388

    The Merciless Parliament

  • Period: 1412 to May 30, 1431

    The Life of Joan of Arc

  • Oct 15, 1415

    The Battle of Agincourt

  • May 21, 1420

    The Treaty of Troyes

    The treaty established Henry V's rights to the French throne after the king's passing.
  • 1436

    Invention of the Printing Press

  • May 22, 1455

    The First Battle of Albans

    The first battle of the Wars of Roses. A Yorkist victory, with Richard, Duke of York, on the throne
  • Period: May 22, 1455 to Jun 16, 1487

    The Wars of Roses

    The series of civil wars between the House of Lancaster and York over the English throne. The wars resulted in the termination of the Lancaster dynasty, the York dynasty, and the rise of the Tudor dynasty.
  • Feb 17, 1461

    Second Battle of St. Albans

    Battle in the Wars of Roses. Lancaster victory
  • May 4, 1471

    Battle of Tewkesbury

    Battle in the Wars of Roses, Yorkist victory
  • Period: 1478 to

    Spanish Inquisition

  • 1485

    Rise of the Tudor Dynasty

    Houses of Lancaster and York were united, creating a new royal dynasty, the Tudors.
  • Period: Aug 3, 1492 to Mar 15, 1493

    Christopher Columbus's First Voyage

  • Period: 1493 to 1496

    Christopher Columbus's Second Voyage

  • Period: 1498 to 1500

    Christopher Columbus's Third Voyage

  • 1517

    Martin Luther writes the Ninety-five Theses

    The start of the Reformation. Biblical studies professor Martin Luther writes a document criticizing the selling of indulgences.
  • Period: 1517 to

    The Reformation

  • Period: 1518 to 1518

    The Diet of Augsburg

  • Period: 1519 to 1521

    Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire

  • Jun 28, 1519

    Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor

  • Period: Sep 20, 1519 to Sep 6, 1522

    Magellan Sails the World

    Ferdinand Magellan circumnavigates the globe, traveling from Spain, to Argentina, the Magellan Stait, to Guam, to the Philippines, and back to Spain.
  • Jun 15, 1520

    Exsurge Domine

    Pope Leo X issues a papal bull that states Luther has sixty days to recant his claims or be excommunicated.
  • Jan 3, 1521

    The Pope Excommunicates Luther

  • Apr 17, 1521

    Luther and the Diet of Worms

    Luther appears before Diet of worms, refusing to rescind his claims.
  • May 25, 1521

    Edict of Worms

    Charles V issues the Edict of Worms, which declares Luther a public outlaw and criminal. This makes it illegal to own Luther's books.
  • 1522

    Beginning of Reformation in Zurich

  • Period: 1524 to 1525

    The Peasants' War

    The biggest uprising in Western Europe before the French Revolution. It was caused by changes brought by the Reformation. As a result of the revolt, the peasants in western and southern Germany gained agrarian rights, and freedom from oppressive nobles and landlords.
  • Period: 1524 to 1525

    The German Peasants' War

    The biggest uprising in Western Europe before the French Revolution. It was caused by changes brought by the Reformation. As a result of the revolt, the peasants in western and southern Germany gained agrarian rights, and freedom from oppressive nobles and landlords.
  • Period: 1526 to 1530

    The War of the League of Cognac

    A war between the Hapsburg dominions of Charles V and the League of Cognac, an alliance between France, Pope Clement VII, Venice, England, Milan, and Florence.
  • May 6, 1527

    The Sack of Rome

    Mutinous Spanish soldiers sack Rome, as a result of being underpaid. The sack increased the animosity between the Catholics and Lutherans
  • Jun 29, 1529

    The Treaty of Barcelona

    A pact of alliance between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Clement VII, declaring their intent repel the Turkish advances.
  • Jan 25, 1533

    Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn Marry

  • Jul 11, 1533

    King Henry VIII Excommunicated

  • 1534

    Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church of England

  • Nov 3, 1534

    First Act of Supremacy

    First of the Acts which declared King Henry VIII the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
  • 1536

    The Pilgrimage of Grace

    A popular (peasant) revolt, which originated in Yorkshire then spread to various parts of Northern England, due to a protest against Henry VIII's split with the Catholic Church, the disbandment of various monasteries, and against Thomas Cromwell's policies.
  • May 29, 1536

    Death of Cardinal Beaton, the Last Scottish Cardinal Prior to the Reformation

    Cardinal Beaton was the main obstacle in King Henry VIII's Reformation of Scotland. His murder was a significant point in Protestantism north of the Border.
  • Period: Jul 23, 1537 to Oct 2, 1540

    The Third Ottoman-Venetian War

    A war between France and the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Empire and the Holy League. Resulted in an Ottoman victory.
  • 1541

    Calvin initiates the Reformation in Geneva

  • Nov 24, 1542

    Battle of Solway Moss

    Battle between Scotland and England, which resulted in an English victory. The news of the Scottish loss is rumored to have caused the Scottish king's death.
  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    The Council of Trent

    The 19th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church. It was prompted by the Protestant Reformation. The council issued condemnations of what it defined as heresies and clarifications on various parts of its doctrine.
  • Apr 14, 1547

    Battle of Mühlberg

    Battle between the Holy Roman Empire and the Schmalkaldic league, which ended the Schmalkaldic War. (Victors: Holy Roman Empire)
  • May 15, 1548

    Augsburg Interim Published

  • 1549

    Francis Xavier introduces Christianity in Japan

  • Oct 1, 1553

    Queen Mary I's Coronation

  • Oct 1, 1553

    Queen Mary I Crowned

  • 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    A treaty between Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League. It was the first permanent legal basis for the coexistence of Lutheranism and Catholicism.
  • 1556

    Charles V Abdicates Throne

  • 1558

    Second Act of Supremacy

    The second issuing of the Act of Supremacy, established by the first Parliament of Queen Elizabeth I. Declared her the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
  • 1558

    Act of Uniformity

    An Act of the Parliament of England established as a part of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement in England.
  • 1559

    John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland

  • 1559

    The French Confession of Faith

    Began as a statement of faith from the Reformed churches of France to John Calvin during a period of persecution. When persecution subsided, twenty delegates met secretly in Paris, where they produced a Constitution of Ecclesiastical Discipline and a Confession of Faith.
  • Jan 15, 1559

    Queen Elizabeth I Crowned

  • Period: Apr 2, 1562 to

    French Wars of Religion

    A period of civil war between French Catholics and Protestants. Between two million and four million people died from violence, famine, or diseases directly caused by the conflict. France remained a Catholic state.
  • Period: May 18, 1565 to Sep 11, 1565

    The Great Seige of Malta

    A seige that occurred when the Ottoman Emprie attempted to conquer the island of Malta, which was then held by the Knights Hospitaller. Christian victory.
  • Period: Aug 1, 1566 to

    Eighty Years War (Dutch Revolt)

    A conflict between rebels in the Hapsburg Netherlands and the Spanish government. Resulted in the creation of the Dutch colonial empire.
  • Jul 24, 1567

    Mary of Scots’ Forced Abdication

  • Period: May 18, 1568 to

    Mary of Scots Imprisioned in England

    After fleeing to England, Mary of Scots was escorted to Carlisle Castle, beginning her 19 year imprisonment in England, until she was executed in 1587
  • Oct 7, 1571

    Battle of Lepanto

    A naval battle between the Holy League (Catholic states) and the Ottoman Empire, fought in the Gulf of Partas. Last navel engagement in the Western World to be fought almost entirely with rowing vessels. This battle also marked the turning-point for Ottoman expansion into the Mediterranean, further defending Europe from imperial expansion. Christian victory.
  • Aug 23, 1572

    St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

    A targeted group of assasinations and mob violence directed against the Protestants (the Huguenots) during the French Wars of religion. Said to be instigated by Queen Catherine de Medici, the massacre began a few days after the marriage of the king’s sister Margaret to future Henry VI of France. After the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, the slaughter spread thoroughly the country. Number of death is estimated from 5000-30000.
  • 1582

    Gregorian Calendar Goes into Effect

  • Period: to

    The War of Three Henrys (The Eighth War of Religion)

    The eighth civil war of religion in France. Fought between Henry of Navarre, Henry III of France, and Henry of Guise, because of a succession crisis. Ended with Henry of Navarre outliving the others.
  • Mary, Queen of Scots, Executed

    Mary Queen of Scots is found guilty in conspiring in a plot for Queen Elizabeth's assassination.
  • The Enterprise of England

    A naval engagement between the Spanish Armada and the Anglo-Dutch, where Spain attempted to invade England to reinstate the Catholic religion, stop support for the Dutch Republic, and to stop Dutch&English privateers. Anglo-Dutch were the victors.
  • Period: to

    The Nine Years War (Tyrone's Rebellion)

    Fought between an Irish alliance against England, due to an ongoing Tudor colonization of Ireland. Resulted in an English victory.
  • King Phillip II of Spain Dies

  • Queen Elizabeth I Dies

  • The Gunpowder Plot

    An assassination attempt on James I by a group of English Catholics (led by Robert Catesby, aka Guy Fawkes).
  • America Officially Separates from England

  • The Constitutional Convention

  • The London Beer Flood

    An incident at Meux and Co. Horse Shoe Brewery, where a 22 ft tall wooden vat of porter burst. The resulting flood caused 8 deaths.
  • 13th Amendment (Abolition of Slavery)

  • The Great Molasses Flood

    A disaster in which a storage tank collapsed, sending 2.3 million gallons of molasses into the North End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It resulted in 21 deaths.
  • 19th Amendment (Woman's Suffrage)

  • Period: to

    Prohibition Era