Scientific revolution   thinkers

Great Thinkers Arise; Expansion of Thought

  • Jan 1, 1321

    Francesco Petrarch; Father of Humanism

    Francesco Petrarch; Father of Humanism
    Francesco Petrarch left his legal profession to pursue letters and poetry. His writings and influential literature paved the way for all Renaissance writers to think outside the boundaries that were set by society, aka the Church. While the exact dates of his writings are unknown it has been concluded that one of his writing Dante Alighieri was written from 1265-1321.
  • Oct 13, 1517

    Martin Luther; Grievances Against the Church

    Martin Luther was an ordained priest who saw the corruption of the Church as a reflection of the greed and envy for power that is tempting to all mankind. Luther called for a reformation of the Church. On October 31, 1517 Luther posted his ninety-five theses on what the Church needed to change on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg.
  • Jan 1, 1531

    Niccolo Machiavelli; “It is better for one to be feared than loved.”

    Niccolo Machiavelli was a student of the Roman Empire. He believed that Italy could return to the strength it once had in history. In 1513 Machiavelli wrote the Prince as a criticism against the despotic rule.
  • May 24, 1543

    Nicholas Copernicus Rejects an Earth- Centered Universe

    Nicholas Copernicus Rejects an Earth- Centered Universe
    A polish astronomer named Nicholas Copernicus advocated a sun- centered universe and not a earth-centered universe as was common knowledge. He was never charged for his heresy because he did not publish his works The Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies until he was on his death bed on May 24, 1543.
  • William Shakespeare; Drama and Entertainment

    William Shakespeare; Drama and Entertainment
    Shakespeare is considered one of the greatest play wrights in the English language. His ideas of Romanticism set high expectations for all playwrights who attempted to follow in his footsteps. In 1597 Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet and in 1603 Shakespeare wrote Hamlet as well as many other plays.
  • Period: to

    Expansion of New Science

    Towards the end of the 1600s and the beginning of the 1700s many people started to believe that new knowledge about nature and human kind could be obtain. Science was looked to as an outletand as a way to improve lives.
  • Francis Bacon; "Father" of Modern Science and Empiricism

    Francis Bacon became known as the most "modern" of Renaissance thinkers because he urged contemporaries to look to the future rather than the past. In 1605 Bacon published the Advancement of Learning, in 1620 he created the Novum Organum, and in 1627 he wrote the New Atlantis.
  • Galileo Galiei Conclusions with a Telescope

    Galileo Galileio, a remarkable astronomer, used evidence that he acquired with a telescope to prove Copernicus's theory correct. In 1610 he published the Starry Messenger and in 1613 Letters if Sunspots. This caused great controversy later for him when the Church asked him to take back his evidence and lie but he would not do so.
  • Galileo Galilei Arrested for Heresy

    Galileo was a brilliant math mathematician who defended Copernicus's theory of a sun- centered universe. At the time this was controversial with the Roman Catholic Church's teachings. In 1633 Galileo was arrested by the Church for his heresy.
  • Rene Descartes; Scientific Method

    Rene Descartes; Scientific Method
    Rene Descartes was a gifted mathematician who created the process known as the scientific method. He published his work called Meditations in 1641 in which he emphasizes deduction through rational thought.
  • Thomas Hobbes; Apologist for Absolute Government

    Thomas Hobbes; Apologist for Absolute Government
    Thomas Hobbes was an influential writer who had a dark view on human nature. In 1651 he published his work called Leviathan in which he defended a strong centralized political government. Thomas Hobbes believed people needed boundaries and so he writes "a war of every man against every man.'
  • Margaret Cavendish; Women Rise in Science

    Margaret Cavendish was one of the first women who contributed to the Scientific
    Revolution. She was a noble woman who had been privately tutored. In 1666 she wrote Observations Upon the Experimental Philosophy and in 1668 she wrote Grounds of Natural Philosophy.
  • Baruch Spinoza; New Science

    Baruch Spinoza was Jewish author who was influenced by “new science”. In one of his most famous writings the Ethnics Spinoza identifies God and nature. In another one of his writings Theologico- Political Treatise which he wrote in 1670 Spinoza anticipates the religious criticism that comes alone with the Enlightenment.
  • Issac Newton Discovers Laws of Gravity

    Issac Newton was a mathematical genius who created the laws of motion. These laws which Newton stated but did not explain are still used today. In 1687 Newton published the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
  • John Locke; Defends Liberty and Toleration

    John Locke; Defends Liberty and Toleration
    John Locke wrote two treaties in which he rejected arguments for absolute governments. These treaties were publish in 1690 but written years before. In 1689 Locke wrote Letter Concerning Toleration in which he advocated religious toleration among Christians.
  • John Locke; Psychology

    John Locke; Psychology
    John Locke determined a person’s mind as blank until experience took hold. In 1690, he wrote essay concerning Human Understanding which was later recognized as a major work for European History.
  • Maria Winkelmann; Discovery of a Comet

    Maria Winkelmann and her husband Gottfried Kirch were a team of astronomers. Maria discovered a comet in 1702 but she was not accredited with her discovery her husband was. In 1930 the discovery was finally acclaimed to her.
  • Montesquieu; Calling Towards Reform

    Charles Louis de Secondat baron de Montesquieu was a lawyer and a member of provincial parlement. He saw the need for reform and spoke out. In 1721 he published The Persian Letters. He shrouded his opinion with light humor but in reality there was strict criticism of everyday life in Europe.
  • Francois-Marie Arouet; Voltaire

    Francois-Marie Arouet; Voltaire
    Voltaire was an excellent philosopher who wasn’t afraid to speak his mind and question authority. He offended the French monarch through his disrespectful plays and poetry in which he mocked the political system. Voltaire observed the British government with great envy and inspiration. He believed that France could achieve the same religious liberty if the corruption was put to a stop. In 1733, he published the Letters on the English in which he praised the English for their toleration.
  • Denis Diderot; Encyclopedia

    Denis Diderot created one of the greatest monuments in the Enlightenment period. In 1751 Denis Diderot released the first volume of the encyclopedia. The encyclopedia was completed in 1772.
  • Jean- Jacques Rousseau; Unfortunate Circumstances

    Jean- Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher who led a troubled life. He took a dim look on life. Rousseau blamed much of the evil in the world on the uneven distribution of property. In 1755 he expresses his view with the published work called Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.
  • Adam Smith; Economics

    Adam Smith; Economics
    Adam Smith was an economist who believed in economic liberty. In his widely known and greatly influential work Wealth of Nations which was written in 1776 he urged a mercantile system.
  • Immanuel Kant; Reason

    Immanuel Kant; Reason
    Immanuel Kant was a philosophical writer how had a major effect on the late eighteenth century. In 1781 Kant wrote The Critique of Pure Reason and in 1788 Kant wrote the Critique of Practical Reason.
  • Moses Mendelsohn;“Jewish Socrates”

    Moses Mendelsohn was a Jewish philosopher was known as the “Jewish Socrates”. Mendelsohn’s greatest literary work was Jerusalem which he wrote in 1783. In Jerusalem Mendelsohn argued for religious toleration and the acceptation of the Jewish community.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft; Women Suffrage

    Mary Wollstonecraft was an avid speaker for women’s rights. In 1792 she wrote the Vindication for the Rights of Women.
  • Thomas Malthus; Views on Population

    Thomas Malthus; Views on Population
    Thomas Malthus was a classic economist who took a pessimistic idea about the working class. Malthus believes that the working class could not be improved. In 1798 he published an Essay on the Principle of Population. This piece of writing haunted the world there after.
  • Friedrich Schlegel; Women's Rights

    Friedrich Schlegel spoke out for women. In 1799, he wrote a Romantic novel called Lucinde which attacked the common view of women. Schlegel thought that women were a lot more than domestic wives and lovers.
  • David Ricardo; 'Iron Law Wages'

    David Ricardo; 'Iron Law Wages'
    David Ricardo was an economist who sought to stabilize the economy. He tried to accomplish this through “Iron Law Wages”. In 1817 Ricardo published Principles of Political Economy. In this writing he tried to persuade his audience that an increase in wages would create an increase in population, which would ultimately deplete the food supply.
  • Lord Byron; Romantic Poet

    Lord Byron was disliked and distrusted by the other Romantic poets but that did not discourage him from expressing himself. He was seen a rebel against the natural Romantic Ideals. In 1819 Lord Byron wrote Don Juan which showed the beauty and cruelty of nature.
  • Auguste Comte; Positivism

    Auguste Comte was a disciple of human development through the sciences. From 1830-1842 Comet wrote The Positive Philosophy, where he wrote about the three stages of human thought.
  • Karl Marx; Calls for a Revolution

    Karl Marx paved the path for controversy among political parties and historians extending to today. In 1848 he published the Communist Manifesto which called for the working class to revolt against the government. Marx believed if this happened then everyone could have want they need and the boundaries of classes striving for wealth and power would no longer exist.
  • Jules Verne; Science Fiction

    Jules Verne is considered the Father of Science Fiction. His writings helped people escape their everyday lives and helped people to develop new technology. One of Verne’s stories was Five Weeks in a Balloon which was written in 1863.
  • Friedrich Nietzsche; Rationality

    Friedrich Nietzsche; Rationality
    Friedrich Nietzsche questioned rationality in the relation to human nature. In 1872 his most important work was written. The Birth of Tragedy urged the non-rational aspects of human nature.
  • H.G. Wells; Imagination

    H.G. Wells was a genius when it came to writing science fiction. His imagination took people to a whole other level. In 1895, Wells wrote The Time Machine which later became very popular throughout Europe.
  • Sigmund Freud; Psychology

    Sigmund Freud studied the development in human nature. In 1900 Sigmund Freud published the Interpretation of Dreams. He thought that one of the biggest developments for humans took place while they were sleeping. Their dreams were a way for people to release the emotions that they experience throughout the day.
  • Max Weber; Socialism

    Max Weber was a major theorist who took socialism to another level. Max Weber wrote a well known essay in 1905 called the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
  • Adolf Hitler; "My Stuggle"

    Adolf Hitler; "My Stuggle"
    Adolf Hitler was a German who is remembered as a political leader who did the impossible. In 1924 while Hitler was imprisoned he wrote a book called Mein Kampf, 'My Stuggle', which outlined his political view as well as his distain toward Jews.