Europe and Asia: The Beginnings of the Cold War

  • Iron Curtain

    The Iron Curtain was a boundary that separated Eastern Europe from the Satellite States. East of the Iron Curtain were countries connected or influenced by the Soviet Union. (E. Germany, Czechoslavakia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and Albania) It was a metal barrier that cut the continent in two. Winston Churchill first spoke of the Iron Curtain publicly in March 1946.
  • Satellite States

    The Satellite States were nations in Eastern Europe controlled by the USSR. Poland, Czechoslavakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania were forced into communist governments along with E. Germany. At the Potsdam Conference, Stalin promised to hold free elections for these countries but then turned around and made them communist governments.
  • Containment

    Containment was an idea introduced by George F. Kennan in the beginnings of the Cold War. It was used to stop communism from spreading using any means necessary. Containment was the focus of the Cold War era. It was initially begun to protect Western European countries from falling under Soviet communism.
  • Truman Doctrine

    President Truman introduced this doctrine on March 12, 1947. The doctrine stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent then from falling under Soviet communism. This was important because it became the basis of the American Cold War Policy.
  • Marshall Plan

    Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, introduced the Marshall Plan. The plan offered American financial aid for a program of European Economic Recovery. The plan was accepted by Great Britain but rejected by the Soviet Union. In a conference held in Paris in September 1947, 16 Western European nations agreed on the four year recovery plan.
  • Berlin Blockade

    The blockade was pdn the British, French and Americans decided to unify their zones in Berlin with their own currency. This angered Soviet leader, Stalin, and he retaliated by cutting rail traffic and electricity to the Western Zone. Stalin blocked Berlin from the rest of the nations. This hindered the shipment of food and supplies to the civilians of the Western Zone. The Blockade was lifted on May 12, 1949.
  • Berlin Airlift

    The Berlin Airlift was a result of the Soviet's blockade. The U.S. Airforce carried over two million tons of supplies in a total of 270,000 flights into the Western Zones. The airlifts ended when the Berlin Blockade was lifted on May 12, 1949. Berlin became a symbol of the U.S. resolve to stand up to the Soviet threat without being forced into a direct conflict.
  • NATO

    NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It is a military alliance created to prevent the spread of communism. It was signed on April 4, 1949. The treaty includes Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark and Iceland. These countries all agreed that if armed attack occurred, each of them would assist the member being attacked. This was to maintain security in the North Atlantic.
  • Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Pact was a treaty between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslavakia, E. Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union. It was a military treaty which bound these countries to come to the aid of each other should any of them fall victim to foreign aggression. The Pact was signed in Poland in 1955. It became a powerful political tool for the Soviet Union to hold over its allies heads.