Cold War

  • U.S and USSR have different policies, governments, and interests

    -Their foreign policies are different
    - U.S wants Germany united once more to be a trading partner
    - USSR wants Germany divided
    - USSR supports those who are Communist
    - U.S supports countries who are Capitalists
  • Iron Curtain

    Soviet Union builds a buffer zone
    -Soviet Union builds a buffer zone of countries as puppet states along its Eastern European border
    -A result after WWII Russia fears centuries of invasion
    -This division of Europe in the words of WInston Churchill of England as a division of Capitalist West and Communist East.
  • U.S. Containment, Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

    U.S. Containment
    -An attempt by President Truman to halt expansion of Communism
    -This included supporting weak countries that resisted Soviet expansion Truman Doctrine
    -President Truman asks Congress to give foreign aid to Greece and Turkey
    -Named after Truman’s support for countries that rejected Communism
    -This caused great controversy worldwide Marshall Plan
    -Proposed by U.S secretary George Marshall to give financial aid to countries devastated by WWII
    -Involved many countries, most
  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift

    Blockade
    -The Blockade happened as a result of the U.S, Britain, and France withdrew their forces from Western Germany to form a single nation in Western Germany
    -The Soviet Union responded to this union of Western Germany by holding West Berlin hostage
    -This blockade prevents water, traffic, and goods to come in to West Berlin Airlift
    -To break the blockade the Western powers Britain, France, and U.S sent supplies by air corridors well into East Germany towards West Berlin
    -Every plane wou
  • NATO

    -The Berlin blockade heightened Europe’s fears of Soviet aggression -Ten nations joined the U.S and Canada as NATO -Abbreviated for North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Mao Zedong and Communist control of China

    -Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists square off in a civil war after WWII -The Nationalist side was supported by U.S and the Communists side was supported by Soviet Union -Chinese peasants largely supported Mao for efforts of promoting literacy and more food production -Mao Zedong and the communists won the civil war by 1949
    -Nationalists fled to Taiwan
  • The arms race

    -Cold War threatened to heat up enough to destroy the world -U.S already had atomic bombs
    -The Soviet Union developed its own bombs as well -U.S President Truman was trying to develop a newer deadlier bomb than those dropped on Japan in WWII
  • Korean War

    -After the division of Korea along 38th parallel in 1945, Korea was divided amongst the Soviets in the north and the U.S in the south -The Soviet Union gambled that the West will not defend South Korea and then supplied North Korea with military equipment -South Korea asks the U.S and the U.N for assistance -When the U.N forces advance as far as the border of China, China felt threatened by this action and sent 300,000 troops into North Korea -By 1953 a ceasefire agreement between U.N and No
  • Warsaw Pact

    -Soviet Union perceived NATO as a threat and formed its own alliance
  • Cuban missile crisis

    -The failed Bay of Pigs invasion convinced Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that the U.S will not resist Soviet expansion in Latin America -In July 1962 the Soviet Union built 42 missile sites in Cuba in secret -When the missiles were discovered by an American spy plane John F. Kennedy declared missiles that close to the mainland was a threat to the U.S and demanded their removal -Instead of nuclear war and end of civilization the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles in return that the U
  • The Fall of the Berlin Wall

    -The GDR (German Democratic Republic(East Germany)) leader Erich Honecker allowed East Germans to go to Austria in the west
    -After thousands fled by this new escape route the GDR leader closed the border entirely -Massive demonstrations of East Germans demanded freedom to move around and free elections -Eventually, due to economic turmoil, internal and outside pressure, the GDR collapsed and Germany reunified
  • Fall of the Soviet Union

    -Many people were no longer satisfied with Soviet rule and wanted more freedom in society -Soviet leader Gorbachev realized the Soviet Union economy is failing and needs reform
    -This created a gradual democratization of the Soviet Union -His goal was to not rid of communism, but reform the government to a more efficient system -Problem though was, this would lead to the Soviet Union’s downfall