Civilizations Timeline Summative

  • 3200 BCE

    Invention of Writing

    The Sumerians invented a system of writing called cuneiform. A reed stylus was used to make wedge-shaped markings on clay tablets. Then the tablets were baked in the sun.
  • 3100 BCE

    Unification of Egyptian Kingdoms

    Unification of Egyptian Kingdoms
    Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt began as separate kingdoms. The rulers of Upper Egypt wore a tall white crown. The rulers of Lower Egypt wore a red crown. In 3100 BCE the king of Upper Egypt, Menes (Narmer) won a conflict and therefore united Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt as one kingdom. Rulers of the united kingdom wore a double crown to represent both regions. King Menes became the first pharaoh and founded the First Dynasty.
  • 3000 BCE

    First Mesopotamian Civlization

    The Sumerians developed the first Mesopotamian civilization. By 3000 BCE the Sumerians had built several city-states such as Ur and Uruk. These city-states were controlled by the surrounding countryside politically and economically. The Sumerians invented the arch and the dome. The temple was the most important building and the temple was built upon a ziggurat.
  • 3000 BCE

    Invention of the Wheel

    The invention of the wheel was a boost to trade. The wheel was also used by the Egyptians.
  • Period: 2649 BCE to 2152 BCE

    Old Kingdom

    Characteristics of the Old Kingdom include great wealth, monuments and the pyramids. The god of sun Ra was important.
  • Period: 2600 BCE to 2500 BCE

    Construction of Pyramids

    During the Old Kingdom many famous pyramids were built. Such as the Step Pyramid at Saqqara was was built for King Djoser which was his tomb. This pyramid was the first monumental stone building built. Great pyramids of the kings of the 4th dynasty are on a plateau of Giza which is high above Cairo. These pyramids are the pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), and the other pyramids were built for his two sons Chephren, and Mycerinus.
  • 2340 BCE

    Sumerian City-States Invaded

    Around 2340 BCE the Akkadians which were people living in the north invaded the Sumerian city-states. The Akkadians were led by Sargon and they conquered Sumer and established the world's first empire.
  • Period: 2181 BCE to 2055 BCE

    First Intermediate Period

    Towards the end of the 6th dynasty the climate of the Nile river caused Egypt to suffer from famines and therefore this was the ending of the old monarchy. After the death of Pepi ll who ruled for 94 years Egypt separated into two parts. The country entered a time called the First Intermediate Period.
  • Period: 2150 BCE to 1400 BCE

    The Epic of Gilgamesh

  • Period: 2040 BCE to 1640 BCE

    Middle Kingdom

    In the Middle Kingdom Nubian was the new ruler and he combined his religion with the old kingdom. There was already the god Amun that combined with Rah to create the god Amun Ra. During the Middle Kingdom they built temples for Amun-Ra. They prayed to him for things such as rain. Egypt was still somewhat isolated but there were close foreign invaders that came in during the Middle Kingdom. The pharaohs had short reigns and had little personal fame. Thus the authority of the throne weakened.
  • Period: 2000 BCE to 1459 BCE

    Minoan Civilization

  • 1792 BCE

    Babylonian Empire

    Hammurabi of Babylon overthrew the Akkadians and established a new empire. Hammurabi made the Code of Hammurabi. This is an important early system of law. The principle of retaliation is fundamental to Hammurabi's code. The laws were carved onto a stone and this showed that not even kings were above the law. Hammurabi's code showed the patriarchal nature of Mesopotamian society. As women had fewer privileges and rights than men.
  • 1754 BCE

    Code of Hammurabi

  • Period: 1700 BCE to 1550 BCE

    2nd Intermediate Period

    People from other countries settled into Egypt. Many of them were prisoners of war during the campaigns of the 12th dynasty pharaohs. The settlers gained power and established their base in the town of Avaris in the delta and seized control about 1670 BCE. This is when Egypt went into its 2nd Intermediate Period where Egypt was controlled by foreign rulers called Hyksos and later on Greeks.
  • Period: 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE

    Mycenaean Civilization

  • Period: 1550 BCE to 1070 BCE

    New Kingdom

    During the New Kingdom the three pharaohs were Hatshepsut and she was a female pharaoh. Women weren’t suppressed if a woman could rise to be a pharaoh. She expanded Egypt through trade. Another pharaoh is Akhenaten who tried to invent a new god called Aten and he tried to change the pillars of religion which Egypt was built on. He tried to make Egypt follow monotheism instead of polytheism. Tutankhaten was his son who went on to rule after his mother and sister.
  • 1250 BCE

    Hittite Empire

  • 1200 BCE

    The Exodus

    Jews lived peacefully in Egypt for some time before eventually they weren't liked anymore. When the Hyksos were expelled the Jewish people were enslaved in 1200 BCE. The Jews endured around 400 years of slavery before Moses led them out of Egypt and to freedom. They fled into the desserts of Sinai Peninsula.
  • Period: 1194 BCE to 1184 BCE

    Trojan War

  • Period: 1100 BCE to 800 BCE

    Greek Dark Ages

  • Period: 800 BCE to 700 BCE

    Formation of city-states

  • 753 BCE

    Founding of Rome

  • Period: 664 BCE to 332 BCE

    Late Dynastic Period

  • 650 BCE

    Assyrian Empire

  • 600 BCE


  • Period: 590 BCE to 529 BCE

    Founding of the Persian Empire (Cyrus the Great)

  • Period: 529 BCE to 522 BCE

    Cambyses II

  • Period: 522 BCE to 486 BCE

    Darius I

  • 509 BCE

    Transition to Republic

  • 507 BCE

    Birth of Democracy

  • 494 BCE

    Battle of Lade

  • 490 BCE

    Battle of Marathon

  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Thermopylae

  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Salamis

  • Period: 480 BCE to 404 BCE

    Greece Golden Age

  • 479 BCE

    Battle of Plataea

  • Period: 431 BCE to 405 BCE

    Peloponnesian War (Persian support)

  • 336 BCE

    Assassination of Phillip II

  • Period: 336 BCE to 323 BCE

    Conquests of Alexander the Great

  • 334 BCE

    Downfall Conquest by Alexander the Great

  • 332 BCE

    Alexander the Great Took Over Egypt

    In 332 BCE Alexander the Great took invaded Egypt with his mixed army of Macedonians and Greeks. The Egyptians didn't want to be under the oppressive Persian control anymore. Therefore the Egyptians welcomes Alexander and Alexander the Great took Egypt without a battle. The people of Egypt were ruled by Macedonians and administered in Greek. After Cleopatra Vll’s reign resulted in defeat by the forces of the Roman empire which was Augustus, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.
  • 323 BCE

    Division of Alexander’s Empire

  • Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE

    1st Punic War

  • Period: 218 BCE to 202 BCE

    2nd Punic War

  • Period: 149 BCE to 146 BCE

    3rd Punic War

  • 60 BCE

    1st Triumvirate

  • Period: 51 BCE to 30 BCE


  • 44 BCE

    Ides of March

  • Period: 32 BCE to 30 BCE

    2nd Triumvirate & Battle of Actium

  • 64

    Burning of Rome

  • Period: 240 to 280

    Sri Gupta

  • Period: 280 to 319


  • Period: 300 to 543

    Golden Age

  • Period: 320 to 335

    Chandragupta I

  • Period: 335 to 375


  • Period: 376 to 415

    Chandragupta II

  • Period: 415 to 455

    Kumaragupta I

  • Period: 455 to 467


  • 458

    Huns invasion

  • 550

    Decline of Buddhism and growth of Hinduism