Uncle Tom’s CabinClassification: Book
Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe
Significance: Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the book in response to the horrible slave laws. The story is about Tom who gets treated like a son by his slave master for saving the slave master's daughter. However, the slave master died and Tom was sent back into slavery. He was killed when he refused to obey his master. The book helped the North learn about the way slaves were being treated and to think of the South as monsters.
Fort SumterClassification: Battle & Event
Location: Charleston Harbor South Carolina
Date: April 12, 1861
Significance: The battle of Fort Sumter started the Civil War. Fort Sumter was the location of where the first shots in the civil war were fired. The Confederates took over Fort Sumter after a bombardment with artillery weapon. There was 34-hour exchange of artillery fire from both sides. The Union surrendered Fort Sumter on April 13.
First Battle of Bull RunClassification: Battle
Date: July 21, 1861
Location: Prince William County, Virginia
Significance: The battle of Bull Run is one of the first battles that took place in the Civil War. There were about 35,000 Union soldiers and 20,000 Confederate soldiers in the battle. The Confederate soldiers won despite having almost half the number of the Union soldiers. After the battle, the Union realized that the war would not be as easy as they thought it would be.
Fort HenryClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: February 6, 1862
Location: Tennessee River
Significance: The Battle of Fort Henry was a major win for the Union in the Civil War. The Union won by bombarding the fort. In result, the Union got control of the Tennessee river, one of the two rivers the Confederates depended on for trading. During the battle, Confederate General Lloyd Tilghman secretly moved his army to Fort Donelson. The Union found out, and 10 days later, Fort Donelson was captured.
Battle of Fort DonelsonClassification: Battle/Location
Date: Feb 11, 1862
Location: Stewart County, TN
Significance: The Battle of Fort Donelson was one of the Union’s first wins in the Civil War. The Confederates suffered many more casualties(3500) than the Union did (2100). By winning the battle, the Union army held control of the Fort Donelson, far into the Southern territory. Also, the Union now held control of the Cumberland river which reduced the amount of supplies the South got from trading.
Battle of the IroncladsClassification: Battle/Location
Date: March 8, 1862
Location: Hampton Roads, VA
Significance: The battle of the Ironclads, was a battle fought by two ironclad ships. It was the first ever battle between two ironclad ships. The two ships were called the Monitor and the Merrimack. Both ships were covered with iron; the two ships fired cannonballs at each other, but neither could sink the other. The battle started a new way of fighting that involved ships, instead of the old fashion gun warfare.
ShilohClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: April 6, 1862
Location: Hardin County, TN
Significance: The battle was a important win for the Union. By winning the battle, they gained control of the Mississippi river; the river was a way for mid-western farmers to ship their goods to the eastern states. However, the war was also really costly. There were 23,000 casualties in the battle. The amount of combined casualties was far greater than the amount of casualties in any most of the other battle.
Seven Days BattleClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: June 25, 1862
Location: Henrico County, VA
Significance: The Seven Days Battle was a major win for the Confederates. The Confederates managed to push back the Army of the Potomac and stopped the Union Peninsula Campaign. There were 15,000 Union casualties and 19,000 Confederate casualties. Even though the Confederates had more casualties, the Confederates were relieved because they reclaimed the city of Richmond, the Confederate states’ capital.
Battle of Gaines' MillClassification: Battle/Location
Location: Hanover County, VA
Significance: The battle of Gaines’ Mill was one of the last major wins for the Confederates. During the battle, Union General George McClellan activated his Peninsula campaign to take control of the Confederate capital in Richmond. However, it failed as the Confederates were able to withstand the attack. The battle was also one of the most intense battles in the seven days war.
Second Battle of Bull RunClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: Aug 29, 1862
Location: Prince William County, VA
Significance: The Second Battle of Bull run was a major win for the Confederates. Both sides suffered many casualties, there were 13,824 Union casualties, and 8,353 Confederate casualties. The Union soldiers were able to withstand the attack for a while, but the Confederates breached it with good commanding and tactics. This battle led to Confederate General Robert E. Lee to invade the North.
Date: September 17, 1862
Location: Sharpsburg Maryland.
Significance: The battle was a major win for the Union. The battle successfully ended Confederate invasion of Maryland. The battle was Confederate General Robert E. Lee's best and farthest attempt in trying to invade the north. The battle is also known as the bloodiest single day in American history with 23,000 casualties. This battle resulted in President Abraham Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
Date: December 11, 1862
Location: Fredericksburg, Virginia
Significance: The battle of Fredericksburg was a major win for the Confederates and a defeat for the Union. Many Union soldiers have died in the battle and were forced to retreat and abandon Fredericksburg. The Union had more than twice the amount of casualties the Confederates had. This battle gave Confederates hope and faith in themselves again after their failure to take over Maryland.
Battle of Stones RiverClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: Dec 31, 1862
Location: Murfreesboro, TN
Significance: The Battle of Stones River was a tremendous win for the Union. There were 23,000 casualties in this battle making it one of the deadliest battles of the Civil War. The Confederates almost won the battle, but the Union soldiers held their positions and stopped the advance of the Confederates. After this battle, Union soldiers regained faith in themselves after losing the battle of Fredericksburg.
Date: April 30, 1863
Location: Spotsylvania County, Virginia
Significance: The battle of Chancellorsville was a major win for the Confederates; they bested the Union with a way smaller army. Confederate General Lee developed a great plan which involved half of his soldiers flanking and surprise attacking the Union soldiers. Also, during this battle, General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was severely injured by one of his own soldiers during a misfire.
VicksburgClassification: Siege/ Location
Date: May 18, 1863
Location: Warren County, MS
Significance: The siege of Vicksburg was a major win for the Union. The city of Vicksburg was a large major port located near the Mississippi river. By taking control of the town of Vicksburg, the North was able to prevent the South from receiving supplies from the West. Furthermore, by taking over Vicksburg, the North controlled the whole Mississippi river.
GettysburgClassification: Battle & Event
Date: July 1, 1863
Location: Gettysburg Pennsylvania.
Significance: The battle was a major win for the Union. On July 3rd, the Confederate tried to invade the North by hoping to charge and overtake the North. This attack, called the “Pickett’s Charge,” failed and cost the Confederates many deaths. Confederate General Robert E. Lee was forced to retreat with his army back to Virginia. This battle inspired Lincoln to give his famous “Gettysburg Address” speech.
Battle of ChickamaugaClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: Sep 18, 1863
Significance: The Battle of Chickamauga was a win for the Confederates; the battle resulted in both sides suffering many casualties. The Union had 16,170 casualties and the Confederates had 18,454 casualties. The win was important for the Confederates because by winning, they controlled Chattanooga now. Chattanooga was the center of a major railroad network.
Battle of Five ForksClassification: Battle/ Location
Date: April 1, 1865
Location: Five Forks, VA
Significance: The Battle of Five Forks was one of the last major battles in the Civil War. The Union won the battle with way less casualties. There were 830 Union casualties and 2,950 Confederate casualties. The battle is sometimes referred to as the “Waterloo of the Confederacy” because the Union troops overwhelmed the Confederacy quickly and efficiently. A week later, the war ended at the Appomattox Court House.
Date: April 8, 1865
Location: Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, VA
Significance: At the Appomattox Court House, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, ending the Civil War. The Confederates were able to keep all their belongings and horses. The Confederates were allowed to keep their horses because they could be used for planting; the Confederates went home and returned to their old lives and jobs.
Lincoln AssassinationClassification: Event
Location: Petersen House, Washington, D.C.
Significance: President Abraham Lincoln’s death was important because it resulted in racism, segregation, and slavery continuing. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished and put to an end. However, Lincoln was killed, and that gave hope back to the South. The South then took slaves in again and continued slavery. Lincoln’s Assassination showed that the South still believed in slavery and wanted it to continue.