Art in Germany and Soviet Union timeline

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    Anna Akhmatova

    Born in 1889, passed away in 1966. Akhmatova was a very influential poet in the Soviet Union; she would often try to give a voice to the women of the Soviet Union, as well as portray the real life during that time. This was not received well by the regime.
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    Leni Riefenstahl

    Born in 1902, passed away in 2003. Apart from being a talented dancer, she was Hitler's favorite videographer. The latter defined her career and her life.
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    Hannah Arendt

    Born in 1906 and passed away in 1975. Reported for The New Yorker on the Eichmann trial in 1961, and wrote her book 'The Banality of Evil' in 1963.
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    Dmitri Nalbandyan

    Born in 1906, passed away in 1993. Nalbandyan once joked that his career stretches from Ilyich to Ilyich (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin until Leonid Ilyich Breznev). He was one of the most significant artists within Socialist Realism, and always adjusted his style to the leader at the time.
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    Russian Constructivism

    Russian Constructivism was originally meant for political messages and started during the Russian Revolution, but really took off afterwards. The colors used were often red and black, what we also still associate with Russia today. Additionally, the painted work was often geometrical, quite dramatic, and layered. Eventually, the movement started to make advertisements and posters, book covers, and interiors. T
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    Censorship in the Soviet Union

    One of the first decisions of the Bolsheviks when they got to power in 1917 was to limit free speech and implement censorship, regardless of the newly won freedom. The censorship varied under different leaders, but remained until Gorbachev introduced glasnost in the end of the 1980s. Glasnost was a policy of making the government more democratic and transparent.
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    Neue Sachlichkeit

    Neue Sachlichkeit can be translated to New Objectivity and emerged as an art style in Germany in the 1920s. It initially started as a challenge to Expressionism; instead of focusing on idealistic and romantic tendencies they laid focus on objectivity. They aimed to expose moral degradation in German society, and show the post-war period and mood in Germany after World War I ended. Portraits and self-portraits were common, and often depicted the role the person played in society.
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    Walter Gropius established a school devoted to all art branches in 1919 called Staatliches Bauhaus. This would eventually transition into an art movement; Bauhaus. The style of this art movement is modern with emphasis on function. Their artwork featured little decoration and rather just used true materials, and design with function in mind rather than beauty. The school lasted until 1932, but the movement is still relevant today.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany and the Allied Powers after the First World War. It contained the conditions for peace between Germany and the Allied Forces and was led by the UK, USA, and France. The Treaty stated that Germany had to accept the guilt for the start of the war, pay reparations of the damage, and there were rules set to limit Germany’s armed forces. This would eventually be connected to the start of the Great Depression.
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    Socialist Realism

    Socialist Realism began after the Russian Revolution in 1922 and lasted until the late 1980s and expressed the ideas of a Communist state. The movement took off under Stalin, but continued under other Soviet leaders. During the Industrial Revolution in Russia in the early 20th century, people worked under terrible conditions and many were illiterate. This allowed for Socialist Realism to become the major art form, and was used for political reasons and propaganda.
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    Stalin's five year plans

    With his five-year plans, Stalin initially set his goals for the economy of the Soviet Union from 1928 until 1932. The main goal of the plan was to industrialize the country. Secondly, Stalin aimed to collectivize agriculture and create collective state-owned farms instead of private farms. This plan was eventually followed by other five-year plans with different sets of goals until the end of the Soviet Union in 1991.
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    The Great Purge

    The Great Purge in the Soviet Union started with the murder of Sergej Kirov in 1934. Stalin used this as a reason to ‘clear out’ the Soviet party between 1936 and 1938. It was focused on breaking the boundaries of oppression and imprisoning and executing members of the communist party, Red army members, communist leaders. Any stain on your record, no matter how minor, could be fatal. The people who were arrested were called enemies of the people and were often charged with treason and espionage.
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    Vladimir Vysotsky

    Born in 1938, and passed away in 1980. Vysotsky was a very influential singer from the Soviet Union. Although his work was banned by the regime, he managed to inspire a lot of people. He is also known as the 'Bob Dylan of the USSR'.
  • NATO founded

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, was founded in 1949 by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations. The goal was to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.
  • Germany joins NATO

  • Warsaw Pact founded

    The Warsaw Pact was formed in 1955. It was a response to the decision by the United States and their western European allies to allow West Germany to join NATO. Just like NATO, it provided unified military ability and strengthened the hold of the USSR over the countries that participated in the pact.
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    The Berlin Wall

    During the Cold War, the Berlin Wall was built to separate the Western part of the city from the East. The Western part of Berlin became an island in East-Germany. It was not permitted to travel from East to West Berlin.
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    Created by Willi Brandt with the main purpose to reunite Germany again.
  • Kraftwerk

    German band, which started in 1970. They ended up being influential and revolutionary, paving the way for modern music genres to develop such as hip-hop, techno, and trance. They are still active today.
  • German Autumn

    In 1977 there was an event called the German Autumn. It was the height of left-wing terrorism in Germany and was led by a guerilla movement named RAF.