Armed Conflicts in US History

By jkpw
  • King Philip's War

    King Philip's War
    War of angry Pokanoket Indians retaliating against New England colony and bloodiest most threatening Native American War there. Several colonist settlements were decimated by Indian alliance, but after Metacomet (King Phillip) died, the Indians broke apart and were punished. Last Indian threat in NE.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Rebellion of backcountry Virginian farmers against royal governor William Berkeley after a few raids on Indians. The farmers were discontent with the feeling that the wealthy elite coastal colonists were not protecting them and using them as a "human shield" against Indians. Jamestown was burned to the ground, but the rebellion scattered after Bacon died.
  • French Indian Wars

    French Indian Wars
    This war was between France and England during the mid 1700's the main theater of war was North America. Soon this war exploded globally and became the 7 Years War. The battles were fought along the frontiers between the Virginian Colony and Nova Scotia. George Washingon was dispatched to defend several forts in the Ohio River Valley. He did not succed as a Commander and was forced to surrender at Fort Necessity after an 11 Day Seige
  • The Battle for Quebec

    The Battle for Quebec
    After several defeats Great Britain sent William Pitt to North America to fight. The "organizer of Victory" along with his assistant James Wolfe they soon captured Montreal and Quebec from the French, officialy ending the war in North America
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    After colonists protested the Townshend taxes and Quarting Act England sent two regiments of soldiers to Boston. Many of the soldiers were drunks and profance characters. 60 colonists harassed an outpost of English soldiers with clubs and iceballs. One soldier was knocked out and the rest opened fire killing 11 colonists and wounding others
  • Revolutionary War (Part 1, general)

    Revolutionary War (Part 1, general)
    This was a war of American colonists against and overthrowing the British (over discontent over heavy taxation and stringent constraint). The first shots were fired at Lexington and Concord against the British with several killed. Militia armies / the Continental Army were the main forces of the U.S., who had the advantage over the British of fighting on home territory and better military leaders, though not of better supplies and soldiers. Americans declared their independence on 7/2/1776.
  • Revolutionary War (Part 2)

    Revolutionary War (Part 2)
    Major battles include:
    -Bunker Hill (British siege)
    -The Battle of Trenton (Washington's army raided the Hessian mercenaries on Chrismas, taking them by surprise and giving more morale and supplies to the draftees)
    -The Battle of Saratoga (Major defeat for the British with the American victory. French join Americans afterwards, strengthening their cause).
    -The Battle of Yorktown, last major battle where Cornwallis (Southern main leader) surrendered to Washington, leading to the Treaty of Paris.
  • Period: to

    Armed Conflicts

  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    An 15000-man army of angry farmers marched on Springfield Massachusetts against unfair policies of the elite class, showing the anger and resentment of backcountry lower class farmers against the coastal elite.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    Perhaps the worst War fought by America in our nation's history. Our military was ill-trained, ill-disciplined, and widley scattered across the country. Several of the generals were very old and lacked the fighting spirit. Instead of capturing Montreal in Canada the Americans decided to attack Detroit, Niagara and Lake Champlain. They failed. Wahington DC was burned in August 1814. Jackson defended New Orleans with 2000 men including free blacks.
  • The Texans and The Alamo

    The Texans  and The Alamo
    In 1836 Texas declared thier Independence from Meixco after Texans refused to cooporate with Santa Anna including the ban of slaves and further colonization by Americans. Santa Anna invaded Texas with 6,000 men. Santa Anna butchered 400 surrendered soldiers in Goliad and attacked the Alamo refuge for 13 Days. Losses included Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    After Mexico refuses U.S. offer of $25 million for its California territories, and after Mexican soldiers "shed American blood on American soil" (Polk; really in disputed Texas boundary between Nueces River and Rio Grande), U.S. declares war. Major military leaders of Zachary Taylor (Buena Vista), Winfield Scott (Vera Cruz, Chapultapec, navy route), and John Fremont (California). Huge success for U.S. with better weapons and passionate soldiers. 13000 U.S. casualties, 25000 Mexican.
  • Sack of Lawrence 1856

    Sack of Lawrence 1856
    Part of "Bleeding Kansas" conflict in pre-Civil War tensions. Free / anti-slavery town of Lawrence sacked and burned down by pro-slaveryites.
  • Pottawatomie Massacre (Part of Bleeding Kansas)

    Pottawatomie Massacre (Part of Bleeding Kansas)
    John Brown kills pro-slavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek on a religious mission to destroy slavery (gruesome).
  • John Brown, Harper's Ferry Raid

    John Brown, Harper's Ferry Raid
    John Brown, after leaving Kansas, wants new freed slaves state in Canada and plans on raiding the armory at Harper's Ferry to get weapons and free all the slaves of the South starting at VA. Robert E. Lee goes to counter and capture him at the armory, 10 die and John Brown is hanged.
  • Civil War (General, Part 1)

    Civil War (General, Part 1)
    Southern states (e.g. AL, TX, VA, SC "Confederacy") secede with the Army of Northern Virginia (led by Robert E. Lee). Union begins with incompetent Union leaders for Army of Potomac (McClellan). Civil War started with shots by South on Fort Sumter. Battles take place mostly in Southeast (VA) and west (Kentucky, Tennessee). Union (Grant good leader) willing to take more casualties than South. Ends with South surrender at Appomattox Courthouse 4/9/1865.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    Colonel Chivington brutally killed four hundred Indians including women and children in Sand Creek, Colorado. Indian bodies were mutilated.
  • Civil War (Part 2) Ends

    Civil War (Part 2) Ends
    Important battles / strategies (e.g. Anaconda Plan) include:
    -Battle of Bull Run / Manassas VA (first real battle / Southern victory telling the Union that the Confederacy was serious)
    -Sept 1862 Battle Of Antietam (Bloodiest day, 10,000 die each side, North fends off South)
    -Sherman and Scorched Earth policy in GA
    -Battle of Gettysburg (1863 N victory, around turning point)
    -Battle of Vicksburg (1863 N victory, cut South off)
    -Battle of Petersburg (Jul. 1864- Apr. 1865, North final victory)
  • Indian Wars

    Indian Wars
    From 1868 to 1890 massacres and battles took place between the Plain Indians and the United State's Army. Key People: Colonel Chivington, General Sherman Sheridan, Captain William Fetterman, George Custer, Sioux Tribe, Sitting Bull, Nez Peirce, Geronimo
  • Fetterman Massacre

    Fetterman Massacre
    In December of 1866 a Sioux war party attempting to block the construction of the Bozeman Trail to the gold fields in Montana, ambushed and killed William Fetterman's command of 81 civilians and soldiers. One soldiers face was covered with 105 arrows.
  • Little Big Horn (Custer's Last Stand)

    Little Big Horn (Custer's Last Stand)
    In June of 1876 Colonel Custer and his 7th Cavalry attacked and encampment of Sioux Indians in Montana. Custer split his forces into three groups before the battle. Instead of sending a scout to gather intelligence about the Sioux encampment he attacked it head on with 264 soldiers. His entire regiment didn't stand a chance against the 2,500 Sioux warriors and he along with his regiment were decimated. This massacre could have been prevented if Custer gathered intelligence before the battle.
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877

    Great Railroad Strike of 1877
    Nationwide railroad strike ("Great Upheaval") started in Martinsburg WV. State and local militia as well as federal troops called in by Hayes were brought in to break it up. More than 100 died with hundreds more injured (one specific battle in strike: the Battle of the Viaduct)
  • President Garfield assassinated

    President Garfield assassinated
    On entering a railway station in Washington D.C., President James A. Garfield was shot by derranged office-seeking Stalwart Charles Guiteau, who was disappointed in not getting a civil service job after Garfield was inaugurated. Shortly after Garfield died after a mere 200 days into his presidency.
  • Skeleton Canyon

    Skeleton Canyon
    Geronimo and his Apache Indian Tribe surrender to American forces. The Apache men were soon reunited with the Apache women in Florida. In the end the Apache became successful farmers in Oklahoma
  • Haymarket Square Incident

    Haymarket Square Incident
    A police force was called in to break up a rally of anarchists, the Knights of Labor, and socialists in Chicago IL when a bomb was anonymously thrown, leading to open gunfire from police. Eight policemen as well as several civilians were killed.
  • Battle of Bear Paw Mountain

    Battle of Bear Paw Mountain
    Cheif Joseph and his Nez Perice Indian tribe surrenderd to the military in October of 1887 after a 1,700 mile long journey battling the US Army from Oregon to Montana to rendezvoux with Sitting Bull and the Sioux Indians in Canada.
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    Wounded Knee Massacre
    American Soldiers fired upon a Sioux encampment killing an estimated 200 hundred men, women, children, and the elderly out of fear of the Ghost Dance. The Ghost Dance was a ritual that said that Indians would have revenge upon the whites. The Indians also believed that the Ghost Dance Shirts stopped bullets.
  • Queen Liliuokalani Overthrown by American Planters and U.S.

    Queen Liliuokalani Overthrown by American Planters and U.S.
    Committee of Safety encourages and gets U.S. Marines on their side with coup d'état, Queen relinquishes throne to U.S. military. (annexed 1898)
  • Pullman RR Strike

    Pullman RR Strike
    The American Railway Union led by Eugen Webs halted all trains of the Pullman Pallace Car Company leaving and entering Chicago because of layoffs and abuse of the workers by the company. Federal Troops were brought in because the mail could not be delivered.
  • Cuban armed Revolt (pre-Spanish Am War)

    Cuban armed Revolt (pre-Spanish Am War)
    Three pronged revolt by Cubans to raise nationalistic feeling, goes to guerilla warfare. Scorched earth policy of "insurrectos" to get U.S. involvement against Spain (butcher Weyler)
  • Sinking of the Maine (pre-Spanish Am War)

    Sinking of the Maine (pre-Spanish Am War)
    Maine explodes when on "friendly visit" to ensure American safety in Cuba. Blamed on Spanish land mine at the time, really boiler pot explosion
  • Sinking of the Maine

    The Maine myserously explodedin Havana Harbor. The sinking of the ship was actually caused by a boiler explosion but because of the influence of "yellow journalism" the American people wanted war with Spain.
  • Spanish American War

    Spanish American War
    "Splendid Little War," war declared on Spain. Armistice 8/12/1898 (short 4 month war) with great U.S. success.
  • Spanish American War

    Because of popular public support president McKinley. Congress aproved war on April 11, 1898. The United States Military was severley outmanned and outgunned compared to their Spanish opponents. Roosevel the assitant Secretary of the Navy ordered Dewey to capture the Philippines at Manilla Bay. Admiral Cervera was in command of Spanish forces and Roosevelt controlled the invading army of Cuba. San Juan Hill was a major battle.
  • U.S. invades Phillipines (Spanish Am War)

    U.S. invades Phillipines (Spanish Am War)
    Dewey descends upon Spanish rusty fleet in Manila, Phillipines; he wins without a death on U.S. side (Aug 18, 1898 Manila actually captured after delay with new U.S. troops)
  • El Caney and San Juan Hill (Span Am War)

    El Caney and San Juan Hill (Span Am War)
    Colonel Roosevelt leads Rough Riders to brisk fighting brisk fighting, heavy casualties but success
  • U.S. fleet destroys Spanish in Santiago, Cuba

    U.S. fleet destroys Spanish in Santiago, Cuba
    U.S. ships such as U.S.S. Oregon attack hopeless Cervera's weak fleet, demolish all ships (500 Spanish killed, 1 American killed)
  • U.S. Descent Upon Puerto Rico (Span Am War)

    U.S. Descent Upon Puerto Rico (Span Am War)
    Nelson Miles descends upon Cuba near end of war, Puerto Rico annexed later as success from war
  • Phillipine American War

    Phillipine American War
    Emilio Aguinaldo leads armed insurrection: U.S. effort more scandalous and bloodier than the "Splendid Little" Spanish Am. War. Continues in first years of 1900s. Includes Balangiga Massacre (of U.S troops) and Battle of Tirad Pass
  • Boxer Rebellion (China)

    Boxer Rebellion (China)
    Superpatriotic "Boxers" rebel against foreign spheres of influence. 200 whites murdered. Multinational contingent force of 18000 (Japan, Russia, British, French, German and American) troops quell rebellion
  • President McKinley assasinated

    President McKinley assasinated
    Killed by a derranged anarchist giving the presidency to TR
  • Panama revolution (helps Canal)

    Panama revolution (helps Canal)
    Bunau Varilla (person who wants to sell half-built Panama Canal area to U.S.) bands up discontented Panamanians with tiny "patriot army" and claims independence from Colombia to allow the canal to be built.
  • Russo-Japanese War

    Russo-Japanese War
    War (over China influence) whose end TR helped mediate with Portsmouth Treaty in his foreign policy.
  • Regime Change in Mexico

    Regime Change in Mexico
    Presiden Wilson did not aprove of Dictator Huerta controlling the government in Mexico. President Wilson allows arms and munitions to flow to Heurta's rivals Carranza and Villa. By doing so Wilson hoped they would overthrow Heurta. However when Heurta was overthrown and Carranza was now in power. Villa felt betrayed by the United States and went on bloody rampages across the border in Texas raiding border towns and killing Americans. Wilson dispatches Pershing to hunt and kill Villa.
  • Tampico Afair

    Tampico Afair
    In April of 1914 a smal party of American sailors was arrested. Mexicans relased sailors and apologized to American. This angers Wilson and before Congress can aprove he orders the American Navy to Sieze and Blockade The port of Vera Cruz
  • World War I

    World War I
    Black Hand radical Gavrilo Princip kills Archduke Ferdinand.
    Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia, Russia decalres war on Austria Hungary because they are allies, Germany then declares war on Russia because they are allies with Austria Hungary. Germany invades France through Beligum, therefore France and England declare war on Germany/Austria Hungary.
  • World War I Part 2

    World War I Part 2
    Allied Powers- France, England, Russia, Serbia, Japan and later Italy and America
    Central Powers- Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Austria-Hungary
    First War with Machine Guns, Tanks, Poison Gas, Airplanes, Giant Artillery Pieces, Submarines
    United States- Industrial Machine, Lent Loans/Supplies to Allies, Used Draft, Propoganda, Victory Gardens, War Bonds
    Better Understanding Trench Warfare See Attacked Link *WARNING* Mild Graphic Content http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3QJRM7tCI0
  • US Marines in Haiti

    US Marines in Haiti
    United States sent Marines to Haiti in 1915 to protect American economic interests. They remained there for nineteen years
  • Restricted Submarine Warfare

    Restricted Submarine Warfare
    Germany announces Submarine Warfare around England and France. Warned they try NOT TO sink neutral shipping but accidents would occur. Sunk about 90 ships in first year
  • Sinking of Lusitania

    Sinking of Lusitania
    German U-Boat sinks British passenger liner Luistania. 1,198 lives lost inlcuding 128 Americans. Germany justifies sinking by claiming that the boat was carrying war supplies from America to Great Britian. Sec of State Bryan resignes because of a possilbe out break of war
  • Arabic Sinking

    Arabic Sinking
    British Passenger ship sunk by U-Boats killing 2 Americans
  • Sussex Sinking

    Sussex Sinking
    French Passenger ship sunk by U-Boats. Final straw for American Wilson threats to break diplomatic relations with Germany if another sinking occurs. Germany agrees if Wilson convinces England to break thier "illegal blockade" of German ports. Wilson denies.
  • Unlimited Submarine Warfare

    Unlimited Submarine Warfare
    Germany announces unlimited submarine warfare meaning that German U-Boats will sink all shipping either from hostile or neutral nations. Wilson requests Congress to aprove arming American Mercahnt Ships, Congress denies. Wilson declares war April 2,1917
  • Zimmermann Telegram

    Zimmermann Telegram
    Arthur Zimmermann, a German diplomat sends an offer to Mexico to ally with Germany and invade The United States from the south in exchange for lost territory lost. Land included Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
  • Communist Fear

    Communist Fear
    America dispatches 5,000 troops with 70,000 Japanese soldiers on an expedition in Siberia and Archangel (Northern Russia) American goals were to prevent Japan's control of Northern/Eastern Russia, rescue 45,000 marooned Czechoslovak troops, and to snatch military supplies from the Bolsheviks. Russia is angry at this "capitalistic" intervention
  • St. Mihiel

    St. Mihiel
    Nine American Divisions (243,000) men joined Four French Divisoin in pushing back the German offensive. Marked begining of the end for Germany
  • Meuse-Argonne Offensive

    Meuse-Argonne Offensive
    Sept. 26 through Nov. 11,1918 American general John Pershing launched an offensive with 1.2 millin American troops. Its goal was to sieze railroad lines providing supplies to the German soldiers on the Western Front. 120,000 American soldiers are killed and wounded.
  • Germany Surrenders

    Germany Surrenders
    At eleven o'clock, on the eleventh day, of the eleventh month in 1918 Germany Surrenders. Europe is destroyed economically, politically, and physcially after the horrors of World War One. Germany lost 1.6 million men, France 1.3 million men, and Russia 1.7 Million
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Red Scare crime

    Sacco and Vanzetti Red Scare crime
    Sacco and Vanzetti are accused of (and later convicted and electrecuted 1927) murder during the Red Scare era, though at the time on circumstantial evidence. They were accused of shooting and murdering a factory paymaster and his bodyguard while also stealing the pay of several hundred workers.
  • Red Scare bombing

    Red Scare bombing
    Hysteria broke out as an unexplained bomb exploded in Wall Street, killing 38 people, wounding hundreds of others, and bringing a surge of anxiety against communism.
  • Chicago (and big city) Gang warfare 1920s

    Chicago (and big city) Gang warfare 1920s
    2/14: Chicago massacre of 7 disarmed members of rivalling gang of Al Capone, a head gangster of booze and illegal alcohol.
    General gang warfare (with guns) between illegal booze distributors and bootleggers in 1920s, concentrated in Chicago and resulting in 500 deaths.
  • Bonus Army (BEF) driven out of Washington

    Bonus Army (BEF) driven out of Washington
    Following the "Bonus March" on Washington where WWI veterans wanted to claim their bonus for 1945 early, Hoover orders federal troops to "lightly" evacuate the veterans off the White House lawn. However, Douglas McArthur acted with greater force than intended, resulting in two veteran deaths, several injured veterans from the fire used to burn down their "Hooverville," and a killed baby from tear gas.
  • Bloody Thursday (West Coast Waterfront strike)

    Bloody Thursday (West Coast Waterfront strike)
    Paralyzing general strike (sailors, etc.) in San Francisco, only stopped when outraged citizens took up vigilante tactics and shot several strikers who refused compromises
  • Spanish Civil War 1936-1939

    Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
    Franco (Fascist rebels / government) take power in Spain and overthrows the Loyalist (left-leaning republic ) with the aid of Hitler and Mussolini (and partly the USSR). U.S. maintained official relations with Loyalist government but did not help with weapons / actual aid because of isolationist policies
  • Japanese Sinking of American ship Panay

    Japanese Sinking of American ship Panay
    Similar to Maine occurrence, Japanese aircraft shot down American ship in Chinese waters "Panay," killing 2 and wounding 30 others, though they made early apologies and indemnities to relieve America of immediate hostile relations.
  • World War II

    World War II
    Axis
    Italy- Mussolini
    Germany- Adolf Hitler
    Japan- Gernal Tojo/ Emperor Hirohito
    Allies-
    USA- Rossevelt/Truman (Eisenhower Supreme Allied Commander)
    England- Winston Churchell
    Soviet Untion- Josef Stalin
  • London Blitz

    London Blitz
    Germany's airforce bombs London and other English cities. England was bombed for 76 consecutive nights. England won. As a result Operation Sea Lion never went into effect, Operation Sea Lion was Germany's plan to invade England. The German leader was Hermman Goering
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa
    Hitler unleashes Blitzkrieg upon Russia. This invasion broke the Nazi-Soviet Alliance.
  • Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor (and other U.S. naval bases)

    Aerial attacks on Pearl Harbor (destroying many navy ships though aircraft carriers spared), Midway, Malaya, Guam, Wake, Philipines (land attack and slight takeover), Dutch West Indies. Very sudden and unexpected, though it rallies the nation together for war.
  • Battle of the Coral Sea

    Americans check Japanese sharply in important aircraft battle. U.S. carriers stop Japanese invasion of Australia.
  • Japan conquers Phillipines

    After being pushed back to Bataan, 20,000 Americans hold ground for 5 months before Japan forces their surrender (Douglas McArthur escapes early but vows return). Following this was the Bataan Death March, where the Japanese forced the surrendered Americans to a long painful 85-mile trek of cruelty. Manila is also taken.
  • Battle of Midway

    Turning point battle by Americans, led by U.S.'s Nimitz, defeating Japan's attempt to develop a stronghold to continue bombardment of Pearl Harbor, etc. Destroys 4 prominent Japanese carriers. Leads to Americans going on offensive in the Pacific.
  • Battle for Stalingrad

    Soviet General Zhukov defends Stalingrad during a bloody and deadly street to street siege from the German soldiers. This victory for the Russians is the turning point of the war as they drive back the German Armies Westward.
  • El Alamein

    El Alamein
    North African battle between Germany's Georg Stummie and the Allies General Montgomery
  • Operation Torch

    Operation Torch
    Combination of the American landings in Algers and Casablanca and the British 8th Amry surrounded and destroyed Germanys "Africa Corps" in Tusia
  • WWII Race riots

    WWII Race riots
    6/20: Detroit race riot between blacks and whites due to wartime tension.
    Los Angeles race riot, killing Mexicans (i.e. braceros) as well
  • "Island hoppping / Leapfrogging" early 1940s

    "Island hoppping / Leapfrogging" early 1940s
    U.S. strategy to get airstrips and bases to bomb Japan, gaining ground against them and inching closer. Leads to taking back of Guadalcanal Island in 1943, New Guinea in 1944, Attu and Kiska and other East Pacific Islands in 1943, and Marianas (Guam included) in 1944. Consistent Japan to U.S. death ratio of about 10:1.
  • Italian Campaign

    Italian Campaign
    Allied Armies land in Salerno, Italy and continue driving north towards Rome fight agaisnt bitter German resistance. In June of 1944 Rome is captured by the Americans
  • Tehran Conference

    Tehran Conference
    Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill (The Big Three) discussed an invasion of Western Europe
  • D-Day

    D-Day
    Allied Forces invade Normandy, France. American forces land at Omaha and Utah beach, while the English, French, and Canadians land at Gold, Juno, and Sword. Largest amphibious landing in World History. Allowed a beachead to be istablished to support the Allieds effort pushing East.
  • Operation Market Garden

    Operation Market Garden
    Allied Airborne soldiers dropped into Belgium to capture a series of bridges so the Allied Armor Divisions can invade Germany. Unfortuantly the operation was a failure because of unkown SS Panzer Divisions defending the bridges decimted the Airborne Divisions. General Montgomery was the Allied leader.
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf

    Battle of Leyte Gulf
    U.S. recaptures the Philipines with 250,000 troops led by McArthur, though with the difficulty of kamikaze bombardment by Japanese pilots. Battle by sea and by air (really 3 battles), all won by U.S.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    Last offensive conducted by Germany on the Western Front. Attacked through the Ardennes forrest to drive toward the port Antwerp, hoping to cripple the Allied supply chain and force them to surrender. This offensive was a failure because Hitler's forces could not capture Bastonge from the surrounded 101st Airborne Division and as a result of the delay the Allies had enough time to counter attack. Commanders:
    Allies- George Patton
    Nazi-Joachim Peiper (SS)
  • Dresden Bombing

    Dresden Bombing
    RAF and Allied Airforce bombed the industrial center of Germany, roughly 25,000 people died.
  • Battle Of Iwo Jima

    Battle Of Iwo Jima
    U.S. wins good small island base for bombers after one of the bloodiest and most intense battles of the Pacific war. 26,000 Allied Casualties and almost all Japanese killed (21,000). Symbolic flag raising moment
  • Tokyo Bomb Raid (WWII)

    Tokyo Bomb Raid (WWII)
    American raid on capital city Tokyo, 83,000 killed in massive attack comparable to casulaties of atomic bombs
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    U.S. succeeds to get Okinawa (small island off coast of Japan) in a 2-month, very bloody battle with 50,000 American casualties, 100,000 Japanese infantry casulaties and 100,000 Japanese civilian casualties.
  • Battle of Berlin

    Battle of Berlin
    Soviet troops invade Berlin. Germanys defense included Teenage boys and the elderly. Germany surrenders on May 7, 1945, May 8th is officialy V-E Day
  • "Little Boy" Atomic Bomb#1 dropped on Hiroshima

    "Little Boy" Atomic Bomb#1 dropped on Hiroshima
    From Manhattan project, huge atomic bomb is deployed onto Hiroshima (city of troops AND many civilians). 100,000 to 180,000 die, severely wounded or disappear. Many others die of radioactive contamination and cancer.
  • "Fat Man" Atomic Bomb#2 dropped on Nagasaki

    "Fat Man" Atomic Bomb#2 dropped on Nagasaki
    Devastating, though smaller than "Little Boy." 80,000 casualties, leads to Japan surrender and "V-J Day" 8/14/1945.
  • Greece & Turkey resisted Communist rebels

    Greece & Turkey resisted Communist rebels
    Greek Civil War resisted partisan forces of Communist Party of Greece and Turkey resisted Communists as well with help from the Truman Doctrine ($400 million given to them by U.S. to resist)
  • China falls to Mao Zedong and communism

    China falls to Mao Zedong and communism
    Mao Zedong takes over and knocks out Jiang Jieshi to Taiwan, winning China Civil War, and proclaims China a Communist nation ("People's Republic of China").
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    Communist North Korea invades across 38th parallel to South Korea. U.S. defends through UN with tanks in defense of South Korea with MacArthur as leader. They push North Korea forces from Pusan to Inchon, but China pushes them back to a stalemate at the 38th parallel- ends. Ends 1953 with armistice. 54000 Americans dead, millions of Asians dead, billions of U.S. dollars spent
  • CIA Covert Military coups

    CIA Covert Military coups
    U.S. (CIA, covertly) creates military coup in Iran, overthrowing ruler (Mosaddegh) and installing pro-American Shah Pahlavi. This is for U.S.'s own interests (anti-communist / nationalist) .
    Same thing in Guatemala with CIA overthrowing Jacobo Guzman, a liberal socialist and nationalist interfering with U.S. affairs.
  • Castle Bravo: U.S. H-bomb test Bikini Island

    Castle Bravo: U.S. H-bomb test Bikini Island
    Biggest bomb ever exploded by U.S. tested on Pacific Bikini Island, creating an explosion much greater than expected (contamination) and raising Cold War tensions
  • Dien Bien Phu and North Vietnam fall to Communists

    Dien Bien Phu and North Vietnam fall to Communists
    Guerilla warfare defeats the French in Indochina, proclaiming North Vietnam Communist.
  • Cold War: USSR suppresses Hungarian (anti-communist) Revolution

    Cold War: USSR suppresses Hungarian (anti-communist) Revolution
    USSR militarily suppresses spontaneous large-scale (capitalist) revolt against Hungarian's communist government and system, with no help from U.S. They stay Communist until Soviet bloc breaks
  • Britain France and Israel attack Egypt (Suez Crisis)

    Britain France and Israel attack Egypt (Suez Crisis)
    Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal (crucial oil route for Allied western powers) in response to U.S. withdrawing funds. Tripartite Aggression - Britain, France, Israel - all attack Egypt but withdraw when Moscow threatens troops and U.S. does not fund effort (shows U.S. caution with USSR)
  • 1958 Lebanon Crisis

    1958 Lebanon Crisis
    U.S. saves Lebanon from Soviets and Communist toppling when they call upon the Eisenhower Doctrine (thousands of U.S. troops inserted to help defend).
  • Castro and Communists takes over Cuba (Cuban Revolution)

    Castro and Communists takes over Cuba (Cuban Revolution)
    Fidel Castro takes over Cuba, using guerilla warfare and dethroning former pro-American dictator, Batista
  • U-2 spy plane incident

    U-2 spy plane incident
    U.S's U-2 spy plane (Gary Powers inside who confessed) was shot down by the USSR deep into Soviet territory, caught with a camera enclosing many USSR military secrets. Tensions rise especially with Eisenhower caught lying about it.
  • Bay of Pigs

    Bay of Pigs
    JFK used (~200) Cuban exiles to try to invade and overthrow Castro. However, it was a complete failure and was foiled when Castro found out about it beforehand and the military was prepared. All U.S.-supported invaders killed or captured.
  • Bombing 16th Street Baptist Church (Birmingham)

    Bombing 16th Street Baptist Church (Birmingham)
    Anti-civil rightists bomb local church where civil rights activists had been meeting, but end up killing 4 young black girls attending Sunday school. Bad image presented.
  • JFK assasinated by Oswald

    JFK assasinated by Oswald
    Lee Harvey Oswald snipes and murders JFK in Dallas Texas after 3 gunshots. Oswald himself is murdered by Jack Ruby 2 days later.
  • Lynchings of Freedom Summer

    Lynchings of Freedom Summer
    While American civil rights activists / college students went down to help register black and other voters in Mississippi, three civil rights workers (2 of whom were white) were lynched / killed by a mob that was tipped off by the police.
  • Vietnam War (Indochina) 1964-1975

    Vietnam War (Indochina) 1964-1975
    1963 coup organized by JFK to remove Ngo Din Diem (very corrupt).
    At the Gulf of Tonkin, North Vietnamese fought with "unprovoking" U.S. destroyers on the coast, sparking the war.
    Ho Chi Minh led the North Vietnamese, with the Communist war effort comprised mostly of guerillas in South Vietnam (Vietcong). Robert McNamara led U.S. forces (up to 500,000 there in duration of war). Saigon falls to Communism in 1975.
    *Ruins LBJ's second-half presidency. Very costly.
  • "Bloody Sunday" Selma Marches (Civil Rights Campaign)

    "Bloody Sunday" Selma Marches (Civil Rights Campaign)
    The first Civil Rights march in Selma, where protesters aiming to get to Montgomery were beaten by the police at the bridge and brutally injured. Similar treatment to other civil rights campaigns such as Birmingham 1963 with Bull Connor.
  • LA Watts Riot

    LA Watts Riot
    Six day race riot in LA in the summer of 1965 shortly following Voting Rights Act of 1965. Blacks erupt in rage in response to feeling of no opportunities and restraint for blacks. Police brutality also occurred here, with 34 killed and over 1000 injured.
  • Tet offensive

    Tet offensive
    There was a complete turn-around on "Tet" with North Vietnamese / Vietcong storming all major South Vietnam cities with full power, taking 3 months for Americans and South Vietnamese to get back.
    Shows "gradual escalation" LBJ policy wasn't working, and creates credibility gap. "Rolling thunder" bombing afterwards not quite effective either.
  • Stonewall Inn Riot

    Stonewall Inn Riot
    Police openly attack homosexuals (e.g. of Mattachine Society) in the NYC morning, though they fight back for one of the first times in U.S. history.
  • Kent State Massacre

    Kent State Massacre
    4 people were killed at said college, where National Guard opened fire on students and rioters (and passerbys) who were protesting the Vietnam War.
  • Gulf War

  • War on Terror (Afganistan/Pakistan)

  • Iraq Invasion