Earth rise apollo 8

APES Environmental Timeline

By bentonj
  • 476

    Lead Poison Among Romans

    A by- produt of silver mining, the Romans extracted lead from galena ore, which was crushed and smelted.
    Most significant source was wine. To help reserve and sweeten it.
    (Fall of the roman empire)
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Easter Island Ecological Disaster

    Easter Island was home to a prosperous tribe who used the Easter Island palm. Unfortunately, it was harvested into extiction and the human population was decimated.
    Serves as a warning to us today of over-exploitation of resources and overpopulation.
  • Sep 6, 1500

    End of Norse Culture In Greenland

    Became effectively detatched, socially and economically, during WW2.
    For several hundred years the Vikings lived side by side with the Invit, who came to Greenland 4,500 years ago.
    A mini ice age may have caused the vikings to leave.
  • Thomas Malthus

    English scholar
    Known for theories on polpulation
    Wrote "Essay on the principle of population"
    Observed that population will eventually get checked by disease and famine
  • Henry Thoreau

    American author
    Wrote on natural history and philosophy
    Anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environ. history
    Wrote "Walden" - mans relationship with society
  • John Muir

    Scottish-born American naturalist
    Early advocate of preservationof wilderness in the U.S
    "Father of the National Parks"
    Formed The National Sierra Club
  • Theodore Rossevelt

    US President who created the U.S. Forest service which protects 193 million acres of forest. Roosevelt also worked to have over 70 nautral areas, including the grand canyon which were designated as national parks, national monuments, or wild life refuges. Provided much of the force of the early conservation movements in USA
  • First oil well drilled in the US

    Was drilled for the sould purpose of oil to use in oil lamps. Huge industry today but we must preserve it to benefit the enviorment.
  • Homestead Act

    Encouraged western migration government gave willing settlers free land to settle. Over 270 million acres were given away. One of the best migration acts.
  • Gifford Pinchot

    28th Governor of PN
    Republican and Progressive
    Known for reforming the management and development of forests in the US.
    1st chief of the US Forest Service
    Advocated the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal.
    Got in an arguement with Muir over the use of forest. Pinchot thought they should be used as resources.
  • Alice Hamilton

    She was the first female Harvard professor. A pioneering researcher and a leading occupational physician who made the industrail settings safer for workers.
  • Yellowstone National Park

    The first national park in the world. Designed to preserve the park in its natural state and protect endangered and threatened species. The settling, sellings, and use of the land was considered illegal.
  • Invention of Automobile

    Benz invented the first gas engined automobile. This production started the age of modern automobiles. This invention contributes to our global warmning problem because of all the gas now realeased into the air.
  • Aldo Leopold

    Wrote "A Sand County Almanac", an inmportant book in environmental movement.
    Emphasized biodiversity and ecology and modern evnironmental ethics.
    Worked in forest service and was a college professor.
  • National Sierra Club

    Oldest, largest, and most influential grassroots environmental organization in the US. Mission Statement: To explore, enjoy, and protect the wild places of the earth; To educate and enlist humanity to protect and restore the quality of the natural and human environment; and to use all lawful means to carry out these objectives.
  • Lacy Act

    The Lacy act protects wildlife, fish, and plants that are "Illegal"
    Elephants- For tusks
    Introduced by John Lacy and was first act regulating animal trade.
  • Death of the last Passenger Pigeon

    Went from being the most abundent bird in North America to being extinct in 100 years. Flocked in groups of a billion. Colonial hunters shot them for cheap food for the slaves and animals. Last pigeon was named "Martha."
  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act

    An international treaty to outlaw the capture, killing, and trading of migratory birds. There are over 800 different birds on the list. Hunting seasons were established, This was the first environmental law to protected animals. Pentalities of violation result in jail time and fines.
  • Invention & Use of PCBs

    • Polychlorinated biphenyls - A group of organic compounds with chlorines atoms
    • PCBs were widely used as insulators and coolants fluids in transformers, capacitors, and electric motors.
    • Known to have harmful effects on life
    • Very stable compounds and difficult to destroy
  • Dust Bowl Midwest 1929-1940

    Due to over production of crops in the Midwest and the failure to allow soil to replenish the soil began to dry. After drying it hardened into dirt and began to erode into dust. The soil was useless after the desturuction of many years.
  • Invention and Use of CFCs (chemicals)

    A family of chemicals (chlorofluorocarbons) widely used in industry because they were considered very cheap and safe.
    Used for refrigeration and an alternative for dangerous chemicals such as ammonia.
    In 1970's, it was discovered that hte CFC's were destroying the ozone layer around the Earth.
  • Invention and Use of DDT (Insecticide)

    A widely used pesticide that is very effective agaist insects; especially those causing Typhus and Malaria
    It presists in the environment for a long period of time and is difficult to get rid of.

    Also, the pesticide also harms useful organisms such as birds.
    Its killing of birds was the subject of "Silent Spring"
  • Civilian Conservation Corps

    Public work relief program.
    Roosevelt designed this program for providing jobs for unemployed. 2.5 million men participated. Most popular new deal program that raised awareness of conservation of resources.
  • Smog at Donora, PA

    Began on Ovtober 27th and Ended October 31st. Due to a collection of Zinc in the atomsphere Smog colletected. Killed 21 people and affected 14,000. Many people developed asthma.
  • Invention of Nuke Power Plant 1950

    While nuculear power had been around for many years the first nuculear power plant was not developed until the 1940's and wasnt built until the early 1950s. Nuculear power was popular and power plant development only grew. However, since 3 mile Island in Pennsylvania occured there has not been another nuculear power plant built.
  • The Nature Conservatory

    Try to find innovative ways to ensure that nature can continue to provide food, clean water, energy, and other services. Mission Statement: To preserve the plants, animals and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.
  • Mercury Poisoning in Minamata, Japan

    A town in Japan that was dramatically affected by Mercury poisoning by a local factory.

    • In 1956, strange neurological diseases were notices in the local populations; especially children and cats.
    • After several years, scientists discovered that it was caused by methylmercury being dumped into the local waters by the Chisso Minamata factory for >20 years.
    • The mercury accumulated in the seafood that was eaten by the local people.
    • 2,265 victims have been officially certified (1,784 of
  • Rachel Carson

    Wrote Silent Spring, sparking the enviormental cry throughout the 1960's
  • Clean Air Acts

    One of a number of peices of legislation relating to the reduction of airborne comtaminants, smog and air pollution in general. contributed to improvement in health and longer life spans. the enforcement of clean air standards and led to widespread atmospheric dispersion models like point source models in order to analyze air quality
  • Greenpeace

    A non-governmental organization with a goal to ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity. They fight to protect all living things, to stop Global Warming, and to eliminate Toxins. Originated in Canada and is now one of the best internationally known environmental group.
  • Torrey Canyon Incident

    First world's major oil spill by running into Pollard's Rock of the Seven Stones reef.
  • Paul R. Ehrlich

    Wrote Population Bomb, which innacurately predicted human starvation throughout the 1980's
  • Garrett Hardin

    merican Ecologist who brought attention to the issues of population growth arguing that (?) Starvation and social disorder will result unless population growth is curbed.
    He had a significant effect on bringing the issues of overpopulation and limited reasources on the earth.
    Wrote "The Tragedy of the Commons".
  • "Earthrise" Photo - Apollo 8

    • Earthrise is the name given to a photograph of the Earth taken by astronaut William Anders on 24 Dec 1968 during the Apollo 8 mission.
    • It has been called "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken."
    • Gave humans a better visual recognition of our place in the Universe and how fragile and unique the Earth is.

    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/moon/sfeature/sf_audio_pop_01b_qt.html
  • Santa Barbara Oil Spill

    3rd worst Oil Spill, to Exxon Valdez and Deepwater Horizon, worst of its time. Within 10 days 80-100,000 barrells of oil spillled into the channel. Led to EPA, NEPA, Clean Water Act and Cal Envi Quality Act.
  • Cuyahoga River Burns

    Cuyahoga River was filled with oil and debris and caught fire in Cleaveland, Ohio. This started the realization that a Clean Water Act was needed to prevent any more fires.
  • NEPA Act

    The overall USA enviromental law that created a national policy for the enhancement ot the enviroment and also established the presidents council quality.
    Created need for Environmental Impact statements.
  • Earth Day

    Created by Senator Nelson as a political endeavor. Earth Day raises awareness and appreciation for the Earth's environment. Helped launch the modern environmental movement, in addition to eco-friendly laws.
  • Founding of EPA

    • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
    • The agency has approximately 18,000 full-time employees.
    • In the midst of many current scientific and political controversies: air quality standards, global warming, greenhouse gases, fuel economy, mercury standards, etc.
  • Ramsar Convention

    International treaty to conserve wetalnds.
    Discussed the importance of wetlands and the rold they play. Stopped the encroachment on wetlands.
    Came into force on December 21, 1975
  • Clean Water Act

    Primary federal law governing water pollution. The act established goals of eliminating high amounts of toxic substances into water, began to eliminate water pollution by the 1980's, and making water cleanliness mandatory for water sports by 1983.
  • Love Canal, New York

    Neighborhood built on a toxic waste/ dump site. Construction of homes and schools led to exposure of chemicals and rainwater run off into water supply. Government provided federal emergency relief due to increased cancer and low white blood cells counts in people. Leads to CERCLA, or Superfund Act, holds polluters accountable for their damages
  • Francisco (Chico) Mendes

    Devoted much of life to help saving the Amazon rain forest from his fellow Brazilian rubber tappers,
    He also fought greatly for the rights of Brazilians.
    He had a significant impact on getting the world aware of the problems of deforestation of the amazon Rainforest & its critical funtion of stabilizing the world climate.
    Assassinated by people opposed to his efforts.
  • Accident at Three Mile Island

    A core melt down at a pressurized water reactor in Pennsylvania. There was a result of about 2.5 million curies of radioactive gases and 15 curies of iodine-131. This was a huge reaction, but there weren't any deaths.
  • Superfund Act

    • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA),
    • A federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances
    • Authorizes the EPA to force companies to clean up or prevent releases of hazardous substances
    • If not possible, EPA does so from a special fund paid for by taxes on companies.
  • DOW Chemical Accident in Bhopal, India

    • World’s worst industrial accident.
    • Occurred at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, India.
    • A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people while they slept.
    • The official immediate death toll was 2,259; 558,125 total injuries
    • Caused by poor management practices, poor maintenance and poor operating practices.
  • Audubon Society

    Conservation group that has a large emphasis on birds. Mission Statement: To conserve and restore natural ecosystems, focusing on birds, other wildlife, and their habitats for the benefit of humanity and the earth's biological diversity.
  • Accident at Chernobyl

    Worst nuclear accident in history.
    An explosion occured in Russia at a nuclear power plant that released a large amount of ratioactive waste into the air. The contamination has spread over Western Russia and Europe. The effects of the explosion officially killed 64 people and affecting tens of thousands of others. A large area aournd the plants is still radioactive.
    The former Soviet Union tried to keep it a secret, helping to lead to the political destruction of the USSR.
  • Mobro 4000

    Barge hauled 3,168 tons of trash back and forth from Islip, New York to Belize and back, searching for a place to dump trash, due to full landfills and concerns about the nature of the trash. Helped spark recycling with environmentalists due to shortage of landfill space and the problem of disposing of solid wastes
  • Montreal Protocol

    International treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances (CFCs) responsible for ozone depletion.
    because of this treaty, the ozone layer is said to recover by 2050.
    Considered to be a model of international environmental agreements
  • Exxon Valdez Accident

    Was worst oil spill in history.
    An oil tanker coming from Alaska headed for California struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil.
    Ecologically destroyed pristine Prince William Sound and much wildlife.
    Great outcry casued many changes in how oil is transported.
  • Earth Liberation Front

    The ELFs use economic sabotage and guerrilla warefare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the environment. They are radical examples of forecful environmentalists. Sometimes, they're called "eco-terrorists".
  • Kyoto Treaty

    a protocol to the united nations framework convention on climate change aimed at fighting global warming. under the protocol, 37 countries committed themselves toa reduction of four greenhouse gases. CO2 was a major problem because we were burning fossil fuels alot. It wasnt very successful