Animal Rights and Environmental Movement

  • England founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals(SPCA)

    In 1824 England founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). The law is to protect carriage horses from abuse.
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    animal rights and environmental social movements

  • 1866 Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA

    On April 4, 1866 Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA-American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in New York. He was given an official charter.
  • the first anti-cruelty

    On April 19, 1867 the first anti-cruelty law was passed and the organization could enforce the anti-cruelty law.
  • the first ambulance service

    In 1867 the first ambulance serviced injured horses. Bergh died in 1888 and by then 37 of 38 states were enforced by the ASPCA.
  • The American Humane Association

    1877 The American Humane Association was formed and on Sept. 17, 1892 a law was passed by The American Humane Association prohibiting abuse, neglect, cruelty to children and animals; the repetition of experiments on animals for the purpose of teaching or demonstrating well known accepted facts.
  • Water Pollution Control

    Congress the Federal Water Pollution Control Act that regulates water quality.
  • The National Conservancy

    The National Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization in the US that works to preserve all ‘animals, plants and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on earth by protecting the lands and water they need to survive’ (quote from http://www.nature.org/). .
  • The American Welfare Institute

    1951 The American Welfare Institute- dedicated to reduce animal suffering caused by people. In 1888 a drunk logger was kicking a bear cub to get it to perform tricks, people tried to stop him. He was arrested. Later that week the town leaders got together to form The Tacoma Humane Society. After several petitions they got their wish in 1950 to take over the city pound and moved to the building on Center St in Tacoma where it remains today. The Humane Society takes in strays to find homes.
  • Air Pollution Control Act

    Congress passes The Air Pollution Control Act The act puts regulation in the hands individual states and does not enforce at the federal level.
  • Silent Spring

    Rachel Carson’s book called Silent Spring was published in 1962 and drew attention to the impact of harmful chemicals on the natural environment. It argued unexamined pesticide use was harming and in some cases killing animals and humans.
  • Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act

    The Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act establishes automobile emission standards.
  • The Five Freedoms

    1965- The Five Freedoms are set of principals initially for farm animals to have enough room to stand, lie down, and groom themselves.
  • Endangered Species

    The first legislation regarding Endangered Species passes. This authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to list endangered domestic fish and wildlife and allotting $15 million a year in the protection of such species. The first list of Endangered Species, released in 1967, will included the American Bald Eagle.
  • Animal Welfare Act

    1966- Animal Welfare Act regulated the use of animals in labs (amended in 1970, 1976, 1985, 1990, 2002, and 2007)
  • Iconic image - "Earthrise"

    The astronauts of Apollo 8 take the first photograph of the Earth from space. The photograph, is entitled “Earthrise,” and becomes the iconic image of the environmental movement.
  • First Earth Day

    The first national Earth Day takes the form of a nationwide protest against environmental ignorance. An estimated 20 million people participate across the country, in what will ultimately be the largest demonstration ever in American history.
  • EPA established

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is established. The EPA will be responsible for the passing of environmental legislation, ecological programs, and research.
  • repeals the Metcalf Hatch Act

    1970 Successfully repeals the Metcalf Hatch Act which required municipal pounds to sell animals to research. Also Rhode Island and New Jersey law was signed prohibiting the seizure of pound animals for laboratory use.
  • Clean Water Act

    The Clean Water Act passes, the goal of the CWA is to eliminate toxic substances in water and to maintain surface water to a national standard of cleanliness.
  • Marine Mammal Protection Act

    • Marine Mammal Protection Act- Oct 21, 1972 was signed by President Nixon and went into effect on Dec 21. Was the first act of congress on an ecosystem approach to natural resource management and conservation. This act prohibits the “taking” of marine mammals from U.S. waters by hunting, capturing, killing, or harassment; also no import, export, or selling mammals or products within the U.S.
  • ratifies several national and international acts

    1972-1973 The U.S. passes and ratifies several national and international acts protecting species from extinction and endangerment .They were the Marine Mammal Protection Act, the Endangered Species Act, and Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES).
  • Citizens for Animal Protection (CAP)

    1972-Citizens for Animal Protection (CAP) formed. It provides shelter, rescue, and placing homeless animals. It also provides education to prevent cruelty. A non-kill shelter.
  • Peter Singer

    Peter Singer specializes in applies ethics. He revived utilitarian thinking- popularizing the concept of “speciesism” (to describe the practice of privileging humans over other animals). Singer said that “the greatest good of the greatest number” is the only measure of good or ethical behavior. He argues that there is no reason not to apply this to other animals. All animals should be treated equal.
  • DDT is banned

    DDT is banned in the United States. DDT is an insecticide that is toxic to many species.
  • • CITES-implemented through the ESA

    • CITES-implemented through the ESA. Started in 1940, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963. The act was agreed upon on March 3, 1973. CITES is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
  • Endangered Species Act

    Endangered Species Act of 1973(ESA)- Started on Oct. 15, 1966 then repealed on Dec. 5, 1969 and then amended and passed on Dec. 28, 1973. The act provided the conservation of ecosystems which threatened and endangered fish, wildlife, and plants.
  • Safe Drinking Water Act

    The EPA is now in charge with monitoring water quality standards with the Safe Drinking Water Act that covers all public water systems in the country.
  • Animal Liberation

    He wrote a book called Animal Liberation in 1975. The book is now regarded as the “bible” of the movement.
  • first campaign against animal experimentation

    • Henry Spira-Belgian American founded Working with Animal Rights International and organized his first campaign against animal experimentation at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Cats were being used for sex experiments and rabbits for cosmetic companies (Draize test put drops in their eyes to see if they are toxic and might make them blind). He went on to repeal the New York state’s pound seizure law.
  • Animal Liberation Front founded

  • President Carter announces his energy plan

    President Carter announces his energy plan that includes goals to lower energy demand, reduce gasoline consumption, and increase the use of solar energy.
  • Long-term research

    President Carter establishes the Department of Energy that takes accountability for long-term research and technological development, energy regulation, nuclear weapons, and energy data collection and analysis.
  • Animal Legal Defense Fund established

    • Animal Legal Defense Fund established by a lawyer named Tischler to protect the lives and interests of animals. The fund was founded by attorneys- shaping the field of animal law.
  • National Anti-Vivisection Society

    • National Anti-Vivisection Society (committed to advancing science so it doesn’t harm animals; founded in 1929) establishes World Lab Animal Day-April 24. This day has evolved into World Laboratory Animal Week that runs from April 20-28. The week is for protests, media events, etc.
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

    PETA is founded- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Advocated and educates on animal rights.
  • Farm Animal Rights Movement

    Farm Animal Rights Movement. The movement promoted veganism and end the use of animals for food.
  • The Case for Animal Rights

    • Tom Reagan wrote the book called The Case for Animal Rights. The book significantly influenced the modern animal movement. He argues that non-human animals are what he calls the “subjects of a life” just as humans are.
  • ASPCA called a boycott on Ringling Brothers

    ASPCA called a boycott on Ringling Brothers. They tried to pass goats off as living unicorns. They surgically implanted a horn in their forehead.
  • Fur Free Friday

    • Fur Free Friday is the day after Thanksgiving. Protest killing animals for their pelts on the biggest shopping day of the year.
  • Jennifer Graham

    Jennifer Graham, a high school student from California refused to dissect a frog. She made headlines and sued the school for not providing an alternative assignment. California Court stated that only frogs that die naturally can be used.
  • The movie Gorillas in the Mist

  • Avon stops testing

    Avon stops testing their products on animals and In Defense of Animals campaigns against Proctor and Gamble’s animal testing.
  • Revlon stops testing

    Revlon stops testing their products on animals.
  • Animal Enterprise Protection Act passed

    Animal Enterprise Protection Act passed. This act makes it a federal offense, punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment for up to one year if caused physical disruption to the functioning of an animal; up to 10 years to life for serious bodily injury or death of another person during the offense.
  • Great Ape Project

    Great Ape Project was created to grant rights to life, freedom, and non-torture to aped (chimps, gorillas, etc.)
  • Compassion Over Killing (COK)

    Compassion Over Killing (COK) - works to end animal abuse and their main focus are the animals used in agriculture.
  • Animal Welfare Act

    • Animal Welfare Act of 1999- It sets standards and responsibilities of people who keep animals.
  • U.S. bans horse slaughter

    • U.S. bans horse slaughter for human consumption. They are still sent to other countries though.